Common constructions of social groupsPresentation Transcript
Common Constructions of Social Groups
Familiar Constructions of Gender
Common Media and Cultural Represenations of Women
women being more emotional than men, or men having better spatial awareness.
aggressive males and passive females.
Professional women are often shown to be more concerned/preoccupied with their appearance than their career performance.
Perceived as better than men on issues involving children and education, while men led on foreign policy.
Portrayed on television as passive, being dominated by men, governed by emotion, overly emotional or dependent.
Women are also depict as less intelligent then men and generally weaker.
Marital and family oriented.
3 main categories in which women are shown in advertising: Domestic , Sex Object , Beauty
Women in power are commonly perceived as manipulative- ‘the nasty corporate climber’
Common Media and Cultural Representations of Masculinity
Masculinity tends to be associated with such traits as rationality, efficiency, competition, individualism and ruthlessness.]
The male hero tends to be physically strong, aggressive, assertive, takes the initiative, is independent, competitive and ambitious.
TV and film heroes represent goodness, power, control, confidence, competence and success. Men tend to be shown as more dominant, more violent and more powerful than women.
Men on TV are more likely to disparage women than vice versa. They drive, drink and smoke more, do athletic things, and make more plans.
Male characters are more often associated with the public sphere of work, rather than the private sphere of the home, and issues and problems related to work are more significant than personal issues
Non-white male characters are more likely to experience personal problems and are more likely to use physical aggression or violence to solve those problems.
Males are more committed to their careers than females
Construction of Gender
Men should not be serious or emotional.”
“ He must avoid being soft; and he must be aggressive”
“ Men and boys should always be in control, and that talking about one’s feelings is a sign of weakness.”
“ A real man must be economically powerful and socially successful.”
“ Men range from slightly inept to completely hopeless when it comes to parenting their children or dealing with domestic (or workplace) issues.”
Real men don’t cry
Women are too emotional & soft to be leaders
Men take charge, women take care
The femme fatale, the supermom, the sex kitten, the nasty corporate climber .
Common Representation of Race
typical stereotype of an Asian woman = doctors or accountants ﾉ not artists".
stereotypes of black men being lazy, promiscuous, bad fathers and obsessed with rap".
black women were obsessed with how much money a man earned and were "strait-laced" compared to white women when it came to sex.
Asian people are perceived as invaders or karate experts.
Hispanic people as comics, banditos or gang members.
Native Americans as savages, victims, cowards or medicine men
People from Middle East are seen as terrorists or oil sheiks. In video games - 79 per cent of African-American males were shown as verbally and physically aggressive, compared to 57 per cent of white males.
“ On TV, black people are depicted as poor nearly twice as often as their true incidence.”
“ Black people tend to be stereotyped as criminal”
“ Black people are stereotyped as late arrivers.”
“ White people can’t dance.”
“ “ Asian people own corner shops in England.”
“ Asian people are often given arranged marriages”
Usually linked to black men
Living in slums
Need help from community
Posh/ well spoken
Newsagents- small businesses – entrepreneur
Extremely smart people
Men are threats to white women
Disrespectful towards women
Common Representation of Race
All youths believe that the police have it in for them
Pensioners stereotyped as being grumpy
negative stereotypes as hoodie wearing criminals
Pensioners and the elderly:
The elderly are stereotyped as being old, frail and lonely
They are not wanted and a burden to their family
Young people are portrayed by the media as alcoholics and drug abusers, criminals, bludgers, lazy, complaining and aggressive
The image of old people as childlike has been with us for a long time. there was a high level of agreement that old people are unproductive, have to go to bed early, need a nap every day, are in the "happiest" period of their lives, cannot manage their own affairs, and are in their second childhood.
Pensioners are fed up with being stereotyped on television as grumpy Victor Meldrews or sweet little old ladies, according to a study.
"We don't suddenly find that all we want to watch is Songs of Praise.
A common misconception for parents is that every middle school kid of this generation is conceited, gossip-ridden, hormone-raging and naive. This is a stereotype. The irony of labeling children with stereotypes is not just hypocritical, but a huge overgeneralization.
Common Representation of Age
Many gay-themed movies have made their way into the lime-light and gay characters are popping up in dozens of mainstream movies e.g. Brokeback Mountain
Many people believe that being gay or bisexual is just a phase
Gay Men Are Only Concerned With Sex
“ Many media outlets portray gay men as overly effeminate”
“ The belief that all gay men desire to be women or are feminine.”
“ Gay loved ones are condemned to a life alone without children”
“ Mothers in retrospect regret being too close to their sons, thinking that is what "made" them gay.”
“ Drifting from one sexual liason to another, they end up old and alone.”
“ Gay people are flamboyant characters.”
Represented as often feared, pitied or being the subject of laughter
The idea is that its just a phrase.
Gay men are only concerned with sex
Gay men do professions like fashions, material design and hair styling
Gay women do jobs such as sports and military.
Lesbians commonly represented as pursuing heterosexual women.
Gya men and women are often depicted as suffering family rejection
Common Representation of Sexuality
“ invisible minority”
Perhaps the most common stereotype of persons with disabilities is the victim ,
character who is presented as a helpless object of pity or sympathy
The flip side of the victim stereotype is the hero - the character who proves her worth by overcoming her disability
The third common stereotype is the villain
Throughout history physical disabilities have been used to suggest evil or depravity, such as the image of pirates as having missing hands, eyes and legs.
Have to try to become over their disability
Lack of autonomy – font have a lot of freedom
The disabled person as pitiable or pathetic
An object of curiosity or violence Sinister or evil
The super cripple
His/her own worst enemy
As a burden
Being unable to participate in daily life
Common Representation of Disability
“ Scots have a deadpan style of humor.”
“ The Scots have become wary of expecting much.”
“ At weddings, at parties, at major soccer games - Scots will dance, sing, kiss, embrace, cheer and let themselves go.”
“ Irish people tend to have quick tempers.”
“ They are all alcoholics, they are all Catholic, they all belong to the IRA, they all sing limericks, they all wear green clothes and talk about fairies.”
What Southerners think of Northerners and the North: old-fashioned, boring, miserable, sexually-repressed, racist, depressed, silent, always whining, lazy, drunk, aggressive/violent, it's always raining, awful beer What Northerners think of Southerners and the South: loud, flashy, brash, cocky, arrogant, talk too much, effeminate men, can't handle their beer, rich, posh, too influenced by other Europeans/French/Continental, faddy, too expensive, awful beer What Southerners think of themselves and the South: happy, confident, go-getting, hard-working, progressive, open, broad-minded, ambitious, clever, sunny, cultured, where everything 'is', What Northerners think of themselves and the North: honest, hard-working, romantic about the past, genuine, 'real' men/women, tough, humorous, had-it-tough, stoical, friendly, kind, practical, innovative
Common Representation of Region
‘ Homer Simpson’, lazy and childish.
Seeking fame on reality shows such as Big Brother
Underclass (sometimes associated with the label ‘chavs’)
White youth, come from bad areas, bad education, involved in crime and drugs
Appearing on Jeremy Kyle, scrounging on the system
working-class women were stereotyped by the media as "slags", single mothers or no-hopers. Such negative images were then often adopted by the real world.
(Working-class women resent stereotyping 6 February 1998 Alison Utley)
Upper-class: Typically represented as being white and being bigotry