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  • 1. What Causes Emotional and Motivated Behavior? An Introduction to Brain and Behavior Third Edition CHAPTER 12 PowerPoints prepared by: Paul Smaldino, UC Davis, Department of Psychology Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw
  • 2. What Causes Emotional and Motivated Behavior? <ul><li>Identifying the Causes of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Biology, Evolution, and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Regulatory Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Nonregulatory Behavior </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 3. Identifying the Causes of Behavior <ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive interpretation of subjective feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior that seems purposeful and goal directed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuroanatomy of Emotion and Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limbic System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Lobes </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 4. Identifying the Causes of Behavior Behavior for Brain Maintenance <ul><li>Sensory Deprivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental setup in which a subject is allowed only restricted sensory input; subjects generally have a low tolerance for deprivation and may even display hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hebb and Heron (1950s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After about 4 to 8 hours, subjects became quite distressed; few subjects lasted more than 24 hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain has an inherent need for stimulation; one reason that we engage in behavior is to stimulate the brain </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 5. Identifying the Causes of Behavior Drives and Behavior <ul><li>Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical state of arousal that motivates an organism to engage in a particular behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drive theories of motivation assume the brain is storing energy for behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Flush” model: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once a behavior is started, it will continue until all the energy in its reservoir is gone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are separate stores of energy for different behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 6. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 7. Identifying the Causes of Behavior Neural Circuits and Behavior <ul><li>Researchers have not been able to link drives and brain activity </li></ul><ul><li>What researchers have found, however, is that behavioral change correlates with changes in hormones and cellular activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A man’s frequency of copulation is correlated with his levels of male hormones, called androgens (male hormones related to level of sexual interest) </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 8. Identifying the Causes of Behavior The Nature of Behavior: Why Cats Kill Birds <ul><li>Why do cats kill birds even though they may be well-fed? </li></ul><ul><li>One reason is that, to secure survival, the activity of circuits such as the prey-killing circuit have become rewarding in some way: they make the cat “feel good” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that the cat will not go hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Killing behavior in cats is innate, not learned </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 9. Biology, Evolution, and Environment Evolutionary Influences on Behavior <ul><li>Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetical mechanism that detects specific sensory stimuli and directs an organism to take a particular action </li></ul><ul><li>The brain must have a set of norms against which it can match stimuli so as to trigger an appropriate response </li></ul><ul><li>Although IRMs are prewired into the brain, they can be modified with experience </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 10. Biology, Evolution, and Environment Evolutionary Influences on Behavior <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline that seeks to apply principles of natural selection to understand the causes of human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors exist because the neural circuits producing them have been favored through natural selection </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 11. Biology, Evolution, and Environment The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors for Smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory epithelium contains receptor cells and support cells; receptor cells send cilia into the olfactory mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airborne chemicals dissolve in the olfactory mucosa and interact with the cilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of metabotropic receptors leads to the opening of sodium channels and subsequent change in membrane potential </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 12. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 13. Biology, Evolution, and Environment The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory Pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory cells project to the olfactory bulb, ending in tufts of dendrites called glomeruli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the olfactory bulbs, synapses are formed with mitral cells , which then project to several areas of the forebrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, and the orbitofrontal cortex </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 14. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 15. Biology, Evolution, and Environment The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory Olfactory System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odorant biochemical released by one animal that acts as a chemosignal and can affect the physiology or behavior of another animal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomeronasal Organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special olfactory receptor, made up of small group of receptors that are connected by a duct to the nasal passage and detect pheromones; projects to the amygdala and hypothalamus </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 16. Biology, Evolution, and Environment The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Human Olfactory Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Lundstrom and colleagues (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain analyzes common odors and body odors differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body odors activate structures also activated by visually emotional stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelling a stranger’s odor activates structures also activated by fearful visual stimuli </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 17. Biology, Evolution, and Environment The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Gustation </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors for Taste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste receptors are found within taste buds located throughout the mouth and nasopharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five different taste-receptor types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet , sour , salty , bitter , and umami </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gustatory stimuli interact with microvilli , located on the tips of receptors, to open ion channels and alter the membrane potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste buds connect to cranial nerves 7 (facial), 9 (glossopharyngeal) and 10 (vagus) </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 18. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 19. Biology, Evolution, and Environment The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Gustation </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves 7, 9, and 10 form the main gustatory, the solitary tract, from which two paths emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Splits at the thalamus and projects to the primary somatosensory cortex and the gustatory cortex of the insula (which then projects to the orbital cortex) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of flavor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and amygdala </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 20. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 21. Biology, Evolution, and Environment Environmental Influences on Behavior <ul><li>B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested a strong role of learning in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior that it follows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience shapes behavior by pairing stimuli and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many complex behaviors are learned, and learning takes place in a brain that has been selected for evolutionary adaptations </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 22. Biology, Evolution, and Environment Environmental Influences on Behavior <ul><li>Learned Taste Aversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired association between a specific taste or odor and illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to an aversion to foods having that taste or odor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Garcia (1966) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coyotes were killing sheep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisoned a sheep carcass, made coyotes ill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most coyotes learned never to eat sheep again </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 23. Biology, Evolution, and Environment Environmental Influences on Behavior <ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predisposition to respond to certain stimuli differently than other stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain is prewired to make certain types of associations but not others </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 24. Biology, Evolution, and Environment Inferring Purpose in Behavior: To Know a Fly <ul><li>When studying the causes of behavior, one must be careful not to infer purpose from an organism’s actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not assume that behavior is intentional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although a fly may look as if it is behaving with “purpose in mind,” its behaviors are controlled by a series of very simple mechanisms that are not even remotely related to our concept of thought </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 25. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior <ul><li>Critical Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and associated pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends information to other brainstem circuits to produce behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic Mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process that maintains critical body functions within a narrow, fixed range </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12 Both project to the hypothalamus
  • 26. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 27. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior Regulatory and Nonregulatory Behavior <ul><li>Regulatory Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior motivated to meet the survival needs of the animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, which involve the hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal body temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eating and drinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salt consumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste elimination </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 28. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 29. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior Regulatory and Nonregulatory Behavior <ul><li>Nonregulatory Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior unnecessary to meet the basic survival needs of the animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not controlled by homeostatic mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most involve the frontal lobes more than the hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongly influenced by external stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior, parental behavior, aggression, food preference, curiosity, and reading </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 30. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Regulatory Function of the Hypothalamic Circuit <ul><li>Involvement in Hormone Secretions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A principal function is to control the pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine gland attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its secretions control the activities of many other endocrine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known to be associated with biological rhythms </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 31. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 32. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Regulatory Function of the Hypothalamic Circuit <ul><li>Involvement in Hormone Secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Three regions of the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Region </li></ul><ul><li>Medial Region </li></ul><ul><li>Paraventricular Region </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 33. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Regulatory Function of the Hypothalamic Circuit <ul><li>Involvement in Hormone Secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains nuclei and nerve tracts that connect the lower brainstem to the forebrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tract that connects structures in the brainstem with various parts of the limbic system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the activating projections form the brainstem to the basal ganglia and frontal cortex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine-containing fibers are involved in reward and therefore contribute to many motivated behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 34. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 35. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Regulatory Function of the Hypothalamic Circuit <ul><li>Involvement in Hormone Secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural tissue; continuation of the hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior Pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glandular tissue; synthesizes various hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Releasing Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptides that are released by the hypothalamus and act to increase or decrease the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 36. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 37. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Regulatory Function of the Hypothalamic Circuit <ul><li>Factors involved in controlling hypothalamic hormone-related activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback Loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control the amount of hormone that is released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other brain regions (e.g., limbic system and frontal lobes) influence hormone release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience can alter the structure and function of hypothalamic neurons </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 38. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 39. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Regulatory Function of the Hypothalamic Circuit <ul><li>Involvement in Generating Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical stimulation of different nuclei in the hypothalamus will produce goal-directed behaviors, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating and drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predatory or attack behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive behavior </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12 Indistinguishable from normally occurring behaviors
  • 40. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 41. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Organizing Function of the Limbic Circuit <ul><li>The primitive limbic cortex comprises: </li></ul><ul><li>Cingulate gyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampal formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctive three-layered subcortical structure of the limbic system lying in the medial temporal region of the temporal lobe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a role in species-specific behaviors, memory, and spatial navigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to the effects of stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parahippocampal cortex </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 42. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 43. Organization of the Limbic Circuit Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 44. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12 Organization of the Limbic Circuit
  • 45. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Organizing Function of the Limbic Circuit <ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almond-shaped collection of nuclei located within the limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a role in emotional and species-specific behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives input from all sensory systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many neurons respond to more than one sensory modality (multimodal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends projections primarily to the hypothalamus and brainstem </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 46. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Executive Function of the Frontal Lobes <ul><li>The Frontal Lobe Has Three Main Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls fine movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Premotor Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of appropriate movement sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in specifying the goals toward which movement should be made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsolateral and inferior regions </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 47. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 48. Neuroanatomy of Motivated Behavior The Executive Function of the Frontal Lobes <ul><li>Prefrontal Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives connections from the amygdala, the dorsomedial thalamus, the posterior parietal (sensory association) cortex, and the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dopaminergic input influences how prefrontal neurons react to stimuli, especially emotionally arousing stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior region projects to the amygdala and the hypothalamus: Influences autonomic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsolateral region projects to the posterior parietal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the basal ganglia, and the premotor cortex: Influences movement and memory </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 49. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 50. Stimulating Emotion Explanations for Emotion <ul><li>Three Components of Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Response (e.g., increased heart rate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and associated structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjective Feelings (e.g., fear) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala and parts of frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitions (e.g., thoughts about the experience) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 51. Stimulating Emotion Explanations for Emotion <ul><li>James-Lange View of Emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological changes produced by the autonomic nervous system come first, and the brain interprets these changes as an emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence: Intensity of emotions in individuals with spinal cord damage depends upon the level at which the spinal cord is severed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posits that “marker” signals arising from emotions and feelings act to guide behavior and decision making, usually an unconscious process </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 52. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 53. Stimulating Emotion The Amygdala and Emotional Behavior <ul><li>Involved in species-specific behaviors and emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Influences autonomic and hormonal responses via connections with the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Influences conscious awareness of the consequences of events and objects via connections with the prefrontal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Kl ü ver-Bucy Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral syndrome, characterized especially by hypersexuality, that results from bilateral injury to the temporal lobe </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 54. Stimulating Emotion The Amygdala and Emotional Behavior <ul><li>Kl ü ver-Bucy Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms in monkeys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tameness and loss of fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate dietary behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatly increased autoerotic, homosexual, and heterosexual activity with inappropriate object choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to attend to and react to every visual stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to examine all objects by mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual agnosia (inability to recognize objects) </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 55. Stimulating Emotion The Prefrontal Cortex and Emotional Behavior <ul><li>Damage to the prefrontal cortex has severe effects on social and emotional behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to experience and express their own emotions and to recognize the emotional expression of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathy and loss of initiative or drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to plan and organize, leading to poor decision-making </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 56. Stimulating Emotion Emotional Disorders <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the cause is unknown, there is a genetic component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological abnormality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 70% of depressed people respond to antidepressants, many of which increase synaptic levels of noradrenaline and serotonin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limbic and prefrontal regions may be involved </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 57. Stimulating Emotion Emotional Disorders <ul><li>Generalized Anxiety Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistently high levels of anxiety often accompanied by maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety; thought to be caused by chronic stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phobia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly defined dreaded object or greatly feared situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panic Disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent attacks of intense terror that come on without warning and without apparent relation to external circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common treatment are the benzodiazepines, which augment GABA’s inhibitory effect </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 58. Control of Regulatory Behavior Controlling Eating <ul><li>Eating disorders entail being either overweight or underweight </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive accumulation of body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggerated concern with being overweight that leads to inadequate food intake and often excessive exercising; can lead to severe weight loss and even starvation </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 59. Control of Regulatory Behavior Controlling Eating <ul><li>The Digestive System </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth, stomach, intestine, gall bladder, pancreas, and anus </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of nutrients are extracted, each of which is a specialized form of energy reserve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids (fats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids (building blocks of proteins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose (sugar) </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 60. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 61. Control of Regulatory Behavior Controlling Eating <ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Aphagia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to eat; may be due to an unwillingness to eat or to motor difficulties, especially with swallowing; observed following lesions to the lateral hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperphagia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorder in which an animal overeats, leading to significant weight gain; observed following lesions to the ventromedial hypothalamus or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 62. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 63. Control of Regulatory Behavior Controlling Eating <ul><li>Cognitive Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects to the hypothalamus; damage alters food preferences and abolishes taste-aversion learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior Prefrontal Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives input from the olfactory bulb; damage may result in decreased eating because of diminished sensory responses to food odor and perhaps taste </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 64. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 65. Control of Regulatory Behavior Controlling Drinking <ul><li>Two Kinds of Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Osmotic Thirst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from an increased concentration of chemicals, known as solutes , in body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drink water to restore ideal solute concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypovolumic Thirst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by a loss of overall fluid volume from the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drink fluids, other than water, to restore nutrients </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 66. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior Effects of Sex Hormones on the Brain <ul><li>Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Dimorphism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential development of brain areas in the two sexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by gonadal hormones (testosterone, estradiol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estradiol masculinizes the male brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha fetoprotein prevents estrogen from entering neurons </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 67. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior Effects of Sex Hormones on the Brain <ul><li>Activating Effects of Sex Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Adult female sexual behavior varies across the estrous cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High estrogen levels are associated with sexual receptivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rats: high estrogen is also associated with more dendritic spines on neurons in the hippocampus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In adult males, testosterone levels influence the motivation to seek sexual behavior and the production of copulatory behavior </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 68. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 69. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior The Hypothalamus, the Amygdala, and Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Ventromedial Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls female mating posture (lordosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preoptic Area of the Medial Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls copulatory behavior in males, but not sexual motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amygdala: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls sexual motivation in males and possibly in females, as well (outside of their estrous cycle) </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 70. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity, and Brain Organization <ul><li>Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s sexual attraction either to the opposite sex or to the same sex or to both sexes </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Identity </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s feeling either male or female </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 71. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity, and Brain Organization <ul><li>Sex-Related Differences in Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared with heterosexual females, in heterosexual males, the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preoptic area contains twice as many neurons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is 2.5 times larger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INAH3 region is 2 times larger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suprachiasmic nucleus contains twice as many neurons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus of homosexual males differs from those in both males and females, suggesting a “third sex” with respect to hypothalamic structure </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 72. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity, and Brain Organization <ul><li>Genetic Basis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamer and colleagues (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a sample of 114 homosexual males, there was a higher-than-average incidence of male homosexuality on the maternal side of the men’s families but not on the paternal side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential involvement of the X chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, genes specify proteins, not sexual behavior </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 73. Control of Nonregulatory Behavior Cognitive Influences on Sexual Behavior <ul><li>In addition to the amygdala and hypothalamus, the cortex must also have a role in controlling sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><li>However, the role of the cortex in sexual behavior is poorly understood </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the frontal lobes can result in a loss of inhibition about sexual behavior or a loss of libido (sexual interest) </li></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 74. Reward <ul><li>Reward may be a mechanism that evolved to help increase the adaptive fitness both of the entire species and of individual members of a species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain contact with some stimuli but not others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Olds and Milner (1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rats will press a bar to self-administer electrical stimulation to specific sites in the brain (intracranial self-stimulation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral hypothalamus and medial forebrain bundle are especially effective (part of mesolimbic dopamine system) </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 75. Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 76. Reward <ul><li>Evidence that mesolimbic system is involved in reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dopamine is released during intracranial self-stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs that enhance dopamine release increase self-stimulation, whereas drugs that decrease dopamine decrease self-stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of dopamine increase when animals engage in behaviors such as feeding and sexual activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly addictive drugs such as nicotine and cocaine increase the level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens </li></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12
  • 77. Reward <ul><li>Reward has two independent processes: wanting (incentive) and liking (evaluation of pleasure) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, wanting and liking occur together but this is not always the case </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson and Berridge (2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanting and liking have separable neural systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanting: Involves dopamine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liking: Involves opioid and benzodiazepine-GABA systems </li></ul></ul></ul>Kolb &amp; Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 12

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