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24-3 Feature Investigation SlideShow

24-3 Feature Investigation SlideShow






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    24-3 Feature Investigation SlideShow 24-3 Feature Investigation SlideShow Presentation Transcript

    • The Basics
      • Cichlids, Pundamilia pundamilia vs. Pundamilia nyererei , and Courtship
    • Cichlids
      • Fish from the Cichlidae family
      • Large diverse family
        • Ex. Can be from 1 in to 3 ft long
      • Between 1,300 and 3,000 species
        • New species are discovered annually
      • One of the largest vertebrate families
      • Found in Lake Malawi, Lake Victoria, and Lake Tanganyika with the most diversity
        • More than 1,800 species found
    • P. Pundamilia and P. nyererei
      • Part of the Cichlid family
      • Belong to the same genus but are of different species
      • In certain locations the two species will not interbreed and act as two different biological species
      • In other locations the two species readily interbreed and produce fertile offspring
      • Interbreeding: mating between animals of different species that results in fertile offspring
      • Both live are in Lake Victoria
      • P. pundamilia
        • Grayish on the top and sides
        • Dorsal fin is metallic blue and red
      • P. nyererei
        • Red-orange on the top
        • Yellow on the sides
      • Both are black underneath and have black vertical stripes on their sides
      • An orange monochromatic light can hide their differences in color
      • P. pundamilia
      • P. nyererei
    • P. Pundamilia (top) and P. nyererei (bottom) under the orange monochromatic light
    • Courtship
      • The male swims towards the female
      • The male shows the side of his body to the female (lateral display)
      • When interested, the female will swim towards the male and the male will quiver
    • The Experiment
      • Introduction, Hypothesis, Materials, Procedure, Results, and Conclusion
    • Introduction
      • The researchers were Ole Seehausen and Jacques van Alphen
      • Wanted to know the effects of male coloration in a female’s choice in a mate
    • Hypothesis
      • Female African cichlids choose mates based on the coloration of males
    • Materials
      • Four Pundamilia pundamilia male
      • Four Pundamilia nyererei male
      • Four Pundamilia pundamilia female
      • Four Pundamilia nyererei female
      • One fish tank
      • Two small glass enclosures
      • Orange monochromatic light
    • Procedure
      • Put one female into the large tank and one male into each of the small enclosures within the large tank
        • The Combinations
          • P. pundamilia female with P. pundamilia male and P. nyererei male
          • P. nyererei female with P. pundamilia male and P. nyererei male
      • Observe which male the female is drawn to under normal light compared to orange monochromatic light
    • The experiment under normal light conditions
    • The experiment under the orange monochromatic light
    • Results
      • Under normal light, females preferred males of their own species
        • P. pundamilia females with P. pundamilia males
        • P. nyererei females with P. nyererei males
      • Under orange monochromatic light, the preference that females exhibited under normal light disappeared
      • The results show diversifying selection
        • A type of natural selection that is in favor of the survival of multiple genotypes that would create multiple phenotypes
    • Conclusion
      • Similar light conditions in their native habitats may be the reason why sometimes they interbreed and sometimes they do not
      • This type of sexual selection could divide a large population into smaller populations
      • The separate populations could eventually become distinct species