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24-3 Feature Investigation
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24-3 Feature Investigation



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  • 1.  
  • 2. The Basics
    • Cichlids, Pundamilia pundamilia vs. Pundamilia nyererei , and Courtship
  • 3. Cichlids
    • Fish from the Cichlidae family
    • Large diverse family
      • Ex. Can be from 1 in to 3 ft long
    • Between 1,300 and 3,000 species
      • New species are discovered annually
    • One of the largest vertebrate families
    • Found in Lake Malawi, Lake Victoria, and Lake Tanganyika with the most diversity
      • More than 1,800 species found
  • 4. P. Pundamilia and P. nyererei
    • Part of the Cichlid family
    • Belong to the same genus but are of different species
    • In certain locations the two species will not interbreed and act as two different biological species
    • In other locations the two species readily interbreed and produce fertile offspring
    • Interbreeding: mating between animals of different species that results in fertile offspring
    • Both live are in Lake Victoria
    • P. pundamilia
      • Grayish on the top and sides
      • Dorsal fin is metallic blue and red
    • P. nyererei
      • Red-orange on the top
      • Yellow on the sides
    • Both are black underneath and have black vertical stripes on their sides
    • An orange monochromatic light can hide their differences in color
  • 5.
    • P. pundamilia
    • P. nyererei
  • 6. P. Pundamilia (top) and P. nyererei (bottom) under the orange monochromatic light
  • 7. Courtship
    • The male swims towards the female
    • The male shows the side of his body to the female (lateral display)
    • When interested, the female will swim towards the male and the male will quiver
  • 8. The Experiment
    • Introduction, Hypothesis, Materials, Procedure, Results, and Conclusion
  • 9. Introduction
    • The researchers were Ole Seehausen and Jacques van Alphen
    • Wanted to know the effects of male coloration in a female‚Äôs choice in a mate
  • 10. Hypothesis
    • Female African cichlids choose mates based on the coloration of males
  • 11. Materials
    • Four Pundamilia pundamilia male
    • Four Pundamilia nyererei male
    • Four Pundamilia pundamilia female
    • Four Pundamilia nyererei female
    • One fish tank
    • Two small glass enclosures
    • Orange monochromatic light
  • 12. Procedure
    • Put one female into the large tank and one male into each of the small enclosures within the large tank
      • The Combinations
        • P. pundamilia female with P. pundamilia male and P. nyererei male
        • P. nyererei female with P. pundamilia male and P. nyererei male
    • Observe which male the female is drawn to under normal light compared to orange monochromatic light
  • 13. The experiment under normal light conditions
  • 14. The experiment under the orange monochromatic light
  • 15. Results
    • Under normal light, females preferred males of their own species
      • P. pundamilia females with P. pundamilia males
      • P. nyererei females with P. nyererei males
    • Under orange monochromatic light, the preference that females exhibited under normal light disappeared
    • The results show diversifying selection
      • A type of natural selection that is in favor of the survival of multiple genotypes that would create multiple phenotypes
  • 16.  
  • 17. Conclusion
    • Similar light conditions in their native habitats may be the reason why sometimes they interbreed and sometimes they do not
    • This type of sexual selection could divide a large population into smaller populations
    • The separate populations could eventually become distinct species