Why is online piracy ethically different from
theft?
A vignette experiment.
Wojciech Hardy, Michał Krawczyk, Joanna Tyrowi...
Introduction: If you download you’re a thief!
2
Introduction: If you download you’re a thief!
„When you go online and download songs without permission, you
are stealing....
Introduction: If you download you’re a thief!
„When you go online and download songs without permission, you
are stealing....
Introduction: If you download you’re a thief!
„When you go online and download songs without permission, you
are stealing....
And the views of the society?
3
And the views of the society?
3
Source: http://piracy.americanassembly.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/AA-Research-Note-Inf...
And the views of the society?
Definitely not the same percentage of people that steal from shops
(at least I hope so ).
S...
Common reasons for piracy:
4
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Common reasons for piracy:
4
 There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]
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Common reasons for piracy:
4
 There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]
 Why not copy if there’s no available alte...
Common reasons for piracy:
4
 There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]
 Why not copy if there’s no available alte...
Common reasons for piracy:
4
 There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]
 Why not copy if there’s no available alte...
Common reasons for piracy:
4
 There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]
 Why not copy if there’s no available alte...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
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To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
To address the question:
5
What is the difference that makes the difference?
 We tell hypothetical stories about one John...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
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
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
Let’s take a few things into account first
6
Vignette experiments
 Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, eva...
7
Let’s take a few things into account first
How are pirates different?
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7
Let’s take a few things into account first
How are pirates different?
Higher preference for risky behaviour
[20]
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
...
7
Let’s take a few things into account first
How are pirates different?
Higher preference for risky behaviour
[20]
Less ...
7
Let’s take a few things into account first
How are pirates different?
Higher preference for risky behaviour
[20]
Less ...
7
Let’s take a few things into account first
How are pirates different?
Higher preference for risky behaviour
[20]
Less ...
7
Let’s take a few things into account first
How are pirates different?
Higher preference for risky behaviour
[20]
Less ...
8
The questionnaire
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8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
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8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.




...
8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.
 Two stu...
8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.
 Two stu...
8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.
 Two stu...
8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.
 Two stu...
8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.
 Two stu...
8
The questionnaire
 Rewards offered as an encouragement.
 18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.
 Two stu...
9
Story examples
 A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after
using Johnny's computer. While closin...
9
Story examples
 A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after
using Johnny's computer. While closin...
9
Story examples
 A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after
using Johnny's computer. While closin...
9
Story examples
 A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after
using Johnny's computer. While closin...
Sample – Study 1
10
 Students of the University of Warsaw (around 50% Economics)
 Young age (~24)
 Balanced gender (~60...
Sample – Study 1
10
The Survey Bay[24]:
Responders’ age
 Students of the University of Warsaw (around 50% Economics)
 Yo...
11
Sample – Study 2
Second:
Followers of Facebook profiles of organizations promoting
legal acquisition of culture (note ...
12
Methodology
To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions:
Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε
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
...
12
Methodology
To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions:
Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε
 1) ...
12
Methodology
To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions:
Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε
 1) ...
12
Methodology
To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions:
Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε
 1) ...
12
Methodology
To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions:
Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε
 1) ...
Results: The treatments
13Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
Results: The groups (downloaders)
14Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
Results: The groups (downloaders)
14Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
Results: The groups (downloaders)
14Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
Results: The groups (uploaders)
15Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
Results: The groups (uploaders)
15Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
16
Conclusions
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16
Conclusions
The importance of dimensions:
 Physicality (Most important)
 Loss
 Protection
 Peer
 Sharing
 Altern...
16
Conclusions
The importance of dimensions:
 Physicality (Most important)
 Loss
 Protection
 Peer
 Sharing
 Altern...
16
Conclusions
The importance of dimensions:
 Physicality (Most important)
 Loss
 Protection
 Peer
 Sharing
 Altern...
16
Conclusions
The importance of dimensions:
 Physicality (Most important)
 Loss
 Protection
 Peer
 Sharing
 Altern...
17
Not fully explored data
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17
Not fully explored data
Gender
Age
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Not fully explored data
Gender
Age
Uploading for friends
Downloading from authorized sources
Downloading from unau...
17
Not fully explored data
Gender
Age
Uploading for friends
Downloading from authorized sources
Downloading from unau...
17
Not fully explored data
Gender
Age
Uploading for friends
Downloading from authorized sources
Downloading from unau...
18
Bibliography
[1] RIAA, Frequently Asked Questions, archived version from 2011:
http://web.archive.org/web/2011012318093...
19
Bibliography - continued
[7] Wilson, M., 2013. Piracy isn't theft, but its eects are wide and far-reaching. Accessed
20...
20
Bibliography - continued
[13] Abbey, A., 2002. Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college
students....
21
Bibliography - continued
[19] Altschuller, S., Benbunan-Fich, R., 2009. Is music downloading the new
prohibition? what ...
Thank you for your attention!
More info: grape.uw.edu.pl/ipiracy/research-seminar
Author: Wojciech Hardy
e-mail: whardy@wn...
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Why is online piracy ethically different from theft? A vignette experiment.

  1. 1. Why is online piracy ethically different from theft? A vignette experiment. Wojciech Hardy, Michał Krawczyk, Joanna Tyrowicz Group for Research in APplied Economics
  2. 2. Introduction: If you download you’re a thief! 2
  3. 3. Introduction: If you download you’re a thief! „When you go online and download songs without permission, you are stealing. The illegal downloading of music is just as wrong as shoplifting from a local convenience store (…)” ---RIAA, Official stance on piracy (until 2011) [1] 2
  4. 4. Introduction: If you download you’re a thief! „When you go online and download songs without permission, you are stealing. The illegal downloading of music is just as wrong as shoplifting from a local convenience store (…)” ---RIAA, Official stance on piracy (until 2011) [1] 2 „Piracy is theft, and pirates are thieves, plain and simple. Downloading a movie off of the Internet is the same as taking a DVD off a store shelf without paying for it.” ---MPAA, What is Internet piracy? (until 2010) [2]
  5. 5. Introduction: If you download you’re a thief! „When you go online and download songs without permission, you are stealing. The illegal downloading of music is just as wrong as shoplifting from a local convenience store (…)” ---RIAA, Official stance on piracy (until 2011) [1] 2 „It's as if we were advising people on how to steal from supermarkets (...) Everything's alright in the legal terms, but, without any doubts, this IS stealing from artists and - I repeat - is causing harm to culture.” --- Bogusław Pluta, director of ZPAV (2012) [3] „Piracy is theft, and pirates are thieves, plain and simple. Downloading a movie off of the Internet is the same as taking a DVD off a store shelf without paying for it.” ---MPAA, What is Internet piracy? (until 2010) [2]
  6. 6. And the views of the society? 3
  7. 7. And the views of the society? 3 Source: http://piracy.americanassembly.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/AA-Research-Note-Infringement-and- Enforcement-November-2011.pdf
  8. 8. And the views of the society? Definitely not the same percentage of people that steal from shops (at least I hope so ). So what is it that actually makes the difference? 3 Source: http://piracy.americanassembly.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/AA-Research-Note-Infringement-and- Enforcement-November-2011.pdf
  9. 9. Common reasons for piracy: 4     
  10. 10. Common reasons for piracy: 4  There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]    
  11. 11. Common reasons for piracy: 4  There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]  Why not copy if there’s no available alternative. [6]   
  12. 12. Common reasons for piracy: 4  There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]  Why not copy if there’s no available alternative. [6]  They are just some big capitalist companies, who won’t receive my few dollars.[6] [7]  
  13. 13. Common reasons for piracy: 4  There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]  Why not copy if there’s no available alternative. [6]  They are just some big capitalist companies, who won’t receive my few dollars.[6] [7]  It requires no effort at all to make a copy. [8] [9] 
  14. 14. Common reasons for piracy: 4  There is no loss if you copy something. [4] [5]  Why not copy if there’s no available alternative. [6]  They are just some big capitalist companies, who won’t receive my few dollars.[6] [7]  It requires no effort at all to make a copy. [8] [9]  It’s much easier when you don’t have to look the victim in the eye. [10]
  15. 15. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?           
  16. 16. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.          
  17. 17. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.         
  18. 18. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:        
  19. 19. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss       
  20. 20. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality      
  21. 21. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality  Alternative     
  22. 22. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality  Alternative  Peer    
  23. 23. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality  Alternative  Peer  Sharing   
  24. 24. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality  Alternative  Peer  Sharing  Protection  
  25. 25. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality  Alternative  Peer  Sharing  Protection  Responders are asked to rate the stories. 
  26. 26. To address the question: 5 What is the difference that makes the difference?  We tell hypothetical stories about one Johnny, who committed various, questionable acts to acquire a TV series.  The stories’ design is based on six dimensions that cover important factors raised in the debate around piracy.  These are:  Loss  Physicality  Alternative  Peer  Sharing  Protection  Responders are asked to rate the stories.  Additional questions on personal behaviour and demographics.
  27. 27. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments        
  28. 28. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]       
  29. 29. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]  Very popular when analyzing controversial choices, like: violence in patient-doctor relationship [12] , alcohol related sexual abuse [13] , classroom cheating [14] , or types of theft [15] ).      
  30. 30. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]  Very popular when analyzing controversial choices, like: violence in patient-doctor relationship [12] , alcohol related sexual abuse [13] , classroom cheating [14] , or types of theft [15] ).  Types of theft – Green (2012) [15] .     
  31. 31. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]  Very popular when analyzing controversial choices, like: violence in patient-doctor relationship [12] , alcohol related sexual abuse [13] , classroom cheating [14] , or types of theft [15] ).  Types of theft – Green (2012) [15] .  Sometimes on piracy, but mostly software and not culture [16] [17] . On cultural goods piracy   
  32. 32. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]  Very popular when analyzing controversial choices, like: violence in patient-doctor relationship [12] , alcohol related sexual abuse [13] , classroom cheating [14] , or types of theft [15] ).  Types of theft – Green (2012) [15] .  Sometimes on piracy, but mostly software and not culture [16] [17] . On cultural goods piracy  Music piracy vs shoplifting (difference explained by law deterrence) [18] .  
  33. 33. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]  Very popular when analyzing controversial choices, like: violence in patient-doctor relationship [12] , alcohol related sexual abuse [13] , classroom cheating [14] , or types of theft [15] ).  Types of theft – Green (2012) [15] .  Sometimes on piracy, but mostly software and not culture [16] [17] . On cultural goods piracy  Music piracy vs shoplifting (difference explained by law deterrence) [18] .  Acquisition of a `test preparation tool’ (physicality and exclusion) [15] . 
  34. 34. Let’s take a few things into account first 6 Vignette experiments  Hypothetical situations that the responders judge, evaluate, etc. [11]  Very popular when analyzing controversial choices, like: violence in patient-doctor relationship [12] , alcohol related sexual abuse [13] , classroom cheating [14] , or types of theft [15] ).  Types of theft – Green (2012) [15] .  Sometimes on piracy, but mostly software and not culture [16] [17] . On cultural goods piracy  Music piracy vs shoplifting (difference explained by law deterrence) [18] .  Acquisition of a `test preparation tool’ (physicality and exclusion) [15] .  `Sharing’ (e.g. at a party) is more acceptable than downloading [19] .
  35. 35. 7 Let’s take a few things into account first How are pirates different?      
  36. 36. 7 Let’s take a few things into account first How are pirates different? Higher preference for risky behaviour [20]     
  37. 37. 7 Let’s take a few things into account first How are pirates different? Higher preference for risky behaviour [20] Less respect for the rules [20]    
  38. 38. 7 Let’s take a few things into account first How are pirates different? Higher preference for risky behaviour [20] Less respect for the rules [20] BUT: willingness to pirate is unrelated to willingness to shoplifting [21]   
  39. 39. 7 Let’s take a few things into account first How are pirates different? Higher preference for risky behaviour [20] Less respect for the rules [20] BUT: willingness to pirate is unrelated to willingness to shoplifting [21] Individual judgement is often harsher than perceived social norms.  Although the latter may influence the former. 
  40. 40. 7 Let’s take a few things into account first How are pirates different? Higher preference for risky behaviour [20] Less respect for the rules [20] BUT: willingness to pirate is unrelated to willingness to shoplifting [21] Individual judgement is often harsher than perceived social norms.  Although the latter may influence the former. Is piracy considered an ethical problem? [22]
  41. 41. 8 The questionnaire         
  42. 42. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.        
  43. 43. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.       
  44. 44. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.  Two studies.      
  45. 45. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.  Two studies. Treatments:     
  46. 46. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.  Two studies. Treatments:  Treatment I: Ethical Judgement (EJ)    
  47. 47. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.  Two studies. Treatments:  Treatment I: Ethical Judgement (EJ)  Treatment II: Social Norms (SN)   
  48. 48. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.  Two studies. Treatments:  Treatment I: Ethical Judgement (EJ)  Treatment II: Social Norms (SN)  Treatment III: Incentivized Social Norms (ISN) [23]  
  49. 49. 8 The questionnaire  Rewards offered as an encouragement.  18 stories that were built upon the six dimensions.  Two studies. Treatments:  Treatment I: Ethical Judgement (EJ)  Treatment II: Social Norms (SN)  Treatment III: Incentivized Social Norms (ISN) [23]  Rating scale: 1 – Totaly unacceptable; 4 – Fully acceptable.  Note that there is no interpretable middle.
  50. 50. 9 Story examples  A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after using Johnny's computer. While closing the web browser, Johnny spotted that the mail currently displayed on his screen contained a one-use only access code for a payable site with TV series in High Denition. Johnny quickly copied the code, and after returning home used it on a season of a popular TV series.   
  51. 51. 9 Story examples  A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after using Johnny's computer. While closing the web browser, Johnny spotted that the mail currently displayed on his screen contained a one-use only access code for a payable site with TV series in High Denition. Johnny quickly copied the code, and after returning home used it on a season of a popular TV series.  Not physical; Loss; Peer; No alternative; No sharing; Protection  
  52. 52. 9 Story examples  A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after using Johnny's computer. While closing the web browser, Johnny spotted that the mail currently displayed on his screen contained a one-use only access code for a payable site with TV series in High Denition. Johnny quickly copied the code, and after returning home used it on a season of a popular TV series.  Not physical; Loss; Peer; No alternative; No sharing; Protection  A new season of a popular, high budget, American TV series is available in kiosks as an add-on for a magazine priced 7.99 PLN. However, Johnny downloaded the series from another source, for free. 
  53. 53. 9 Story examples  A friend of Johnny's forgot to log out from his e-mail box, after using Johnny's computer. While closing the web browser, Johnny spotted that the mail currently displayed on his screen contained a one-use only access code for a payable site with TV series in High Denition. Johnny quickly copied the code, and after returning home used it on a season of a popular TV series.  Not physical; Loss; Peer; No alternative; No sharing; Protection  A new season of a popular, high budget, American TV series is available in kiosks as an add-on for a magazine priced 7.99 PLN. However, Johnny downloaded the series from another source, for free.  Not physical; No loss; Not a peer; Alternative; No sharing; No protection.
  54. 54. Sample – Study 1 10  Students of the University of Warsaw (around 50% Economics)  Young age (~24)  Balanced gender (~60% female)  N=338
  55. 55. Sample – Study 1 10 The Survey Bay[24]: Responders’ age  Students of the University of Warsaw (around 50% Economics)  Young age (~24)  Balanced gender (~60% female)  N=338
  56. 56. 11 Sample – Study 2 Second: Followers of Facebook profiles of organizations promoting legal acquisition of culture (note what’s legal in Poland). Slightly older than Study I (~28) Mostly female (~68%) N=129
  57. 57. 12 Methodology To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions: Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε        
  58. 58. 12 Methodology To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions: Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε  1) The baseline regression and robustness.  Robust to duration of the answers and controversial questions.  Therefore, I do not report this in this presentation.     
  59. 59. 12 Methodology To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions: Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε  1) The baseline regression and robustness.  Robust to duration of the answers and controversial questions.  Therefore, I do not report this in this presentation.  2) Regressions by treatment groups. Is there a difference?    
  60. 60. 12 Methodology To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions: Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε  1) The baseline regression and robustness.  Robust to duration of the answers and controversial questions.  Therefore, I do not report this in this presentation.  2) Regressions by treatment groups. Is there a difference?  3) Internet-user groups. Does the judgement differ if you’re a (non)downloader? Do the dimension coefficients?   
  61. 61. 12 Methodology To tackle the question, we estimate ordered logit regressions: Answer = β1Dimensions + β2Controls + ε  1) The baseline regression and robustness.  Robust to duration of the answers and controversial questions.  Therefore, I do not report this in this presentation.  2) Regressions by treatment groups. Is there a difference?  3) Internet-user groups. Does the judgement differ if you’re a (non)downloader? Do the dimension coefficients?  4) Regressions with interactions.  Physical*Protection (DRM), Sharing*Peer (Promotion), Peer*Loss (Major/Minor)  Insignificant and therefore not reported.
  62. 62. Results: The treatments 13Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  63. 63. Results: The groups (downloaders) 14Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  64. 64. Results: The groups (downloaders) 14Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  65. 65. Results: The groups (downloaders) 14Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  66. 66. Results: The groups (uploaders) 15Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  67. 67. Results: The groups (uploaders) 15Note: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  68. 68. 16 Conclusions           
  69. 69. 16 Conclusions The importance of dimensions:  Physicality (Most important)  Loss  Protection  Peer  Sharing  Alternative (Insignificant)    
  70. 70. 16 Conclusions The importance of dimensions:  Physicality (Most important)  Loss  Protection  Peer  Sharing  Alternative (Insignificant) Individual opinion is harsher than perceived social norms.  Incentives do not change the results (much).  
  71. 71. 16 Conclusions The importance of dimensions:  Physicality (Most important)  Loss  Protection  Peer  Sharing  Alternative (Insignificant) Individual opinion is harsher than perceived social norms.  Incentives do not change the results (much). More frequent downloaders are possibly more conscious of the dimensions, and are more sensitive to some of them. This may reflect higher knowledge of the subject. 
  72. 72. 16 Conclusions The importance of dimensions:  Physicality (Most important)  Loss  Protection  Peer  Sharing  Alternative (Insignificant) Individual opinion is harsher than perceived social norms.  Incentives do not change the results (much). More frequent downloaders are possibly more conscious of the dimensions, and are more sensitive to some of them. This may reflect higher knowledge of the subject. Policies should be focused on particular aspects of piracy.
  73. 73. 17 Not fully explored data            
  74. 74. 17 Not fully explored data Gender Age          
  75. 75. 17 Not fully explored data Gender Age Uploading for friends Downloading from authorized sources Downloading from unauthorized (with or without payment)       
  76. 76. 17 Not fully explored data Gender Age Uploading for friends Downloading from authorized sources Downloading from unauthorized (with or without payment) (Only study 1) types of studies      
  77. 77. 17 Not fully explored data Gender Age Uploading for friends Downloading from authorized sources Downloading from unauthorized (with or without payment) (Only study 1) types of studies (Only study 2) information on Facebook `likes’ of:  Unauthorized streaming services  Authorized streaming services  Institutions (Only study 2) Level of education (no variation in study 1) (Only study 2) Labour market status
  78. 78. 18 Bibliography [1] RIAA, Frequently Asked Questions, archived version from 2011: http://web.archive.org/web/20110123180931/http://www.riaa.com/faq.php [2] MPAA, What is Internet Piracy?, archived version from 2010: http://web.archive.org/web/20100327204736/http://www.mpaa.org/piracy_internet.asp [3] Jacek Kowalski (2012), ZPAV ostro o kampanii społecznej `Prawo kultury’: To zachęcanie do złodziejstwa, accessed on 28-03-2014 at http://m.wyborcza.pl/wyborcza/1,105226,13112726,ZPAV_ostro_o_kampanii_spolecznej_ _Prawo_kultury__.html [4] Larsson, S., 2011. Piracy is not theft: Problems of a nonsense metaphor. Accessed 2014- 03-04. URL https://torrentfreak.com/piracy-is-not-theft-111104/ [5] Persson, M., 2011. Minecraft creator says `no such thing as a lost sale'. Accessed 2014- 03-04. URL http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20110303/02203613336/minecraft-creator- says-no-such-thing-as-lost-sale.shtml [6] Hart, R., 2012. Top 10 reasons people use to justify pirating digital content (and why they're wrong). Accessed 2014-03-04. URL http://litreactor.com/columns/top-10-reasons- people-use-to-justify-pirating-digital-content-and-why-theyre-wrong
  79. 79. 19 Bibliography - continued [7] Wilson, M., 2013. Piracy isn't theft, but its eects are wide and far-reaching. Accessed 2014-03-04. URL http://betanews.com/2013/09/16/piracy-isnt-theft-but-its-effects-are- wide-and-far-reaching/ [8] Tassi, P., 2012. You will never kill piracy, and piracy will never kill you. Accessed 2014- 03-04. URL http://www.forbes.com/sites/insertcoin/2012/02/03/you-will-never-kill-piracy- and-piracy-will-never-kill-you/2/ [9] James, G., 2013. Why piracy is never okay. Accessed 2014-03-04. URL http://amazingstoriesmag.com/2013/02/why-piracy-is-never-okay/ [10] Goessl, L., 2007. Music piracy is downloading music ethical { no. Accessed 2014-03-04. URL http://www.entertainmentscene360.com/index.php/music-piracy-is-downloading- music-ethical-no-18-44608/ [11] Schoenberg, N. E., Ravdal, H., 2000. Using vignettes in awareness and attitudinal research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 3 (1), 63{74. [12] Steinert, T., Lepping, P., 2009. Legal provisions and practice in the management of violent patients. a case vignette study in 16 european countries. European Psychiatry 24 (2), 135{141.
  80. 80. 20 Bibliography - continued [13] Abbey, A., 2002. Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (14), 118. [14] Rettinger, D. A., Jordan, A. E., Peschiera, F., 2004. Evaluating the motivation of other students to cheat: A vignette experiment. Research in Higher Education 45 (8), 873{890. [15] Green, S. P., 2012. Thirteen Ways to Steal a Bicycle: Theft Law in the Information Age. Harvard University Press. [16] Lin, T.-C., Hsu, M. H., Kuo, F.-Y., Sun, P.-C., 1999. An intention model-based study of software piracy. In: System Sciences, 1999. HICSS-32. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on. IEEE, pp. 8{pp. [17] Higgins, G. E., Wilson, A. L., Fell, B. D., 2005. An application of deterrence theory to software piracy. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture 12 (3), 166{184. [18] Wingrove, T., Korpas, A. L., Weisz, V., 2011. Why were millions of people not obeying the law? Motivational influences on non-compliance with the law in the case of music piracy. Psychology, crime & law 17 (3), 261{276.
  81. 81. 21 Bibliography - continued [19] Altschuller, S., Benbunan-Fich, R., 2009. Is music downloading the new prohibition? what students reveal through an ethical dilemma. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1), 49{56. [20] Robertson, K., McNeill, L., Green, J., Roberts, C., 2012. Illegal downloading, ethical concern, and illegal behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 108 (2), 215{227. [21] Hill, C. W., 2007. Digital piracy: Causes, consequences, and strategic responses. Asia Pacic Journal of Management 24 (1), 9{25. [22] Bateman, C. R., Valentine, S., Rittenburg, T., 2013. Ethical decision making in a peer-to-peer filesharing situation: The role of moral absolutes and social consensus. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2), 229{240. [23] Krupka, E. L., Weber, R. A., 2013. Identifying social norms using coordination games: Why does dictator game sharing vary? Journal of the European Economic Association 11 (3), 495{524. [24] The Survey Bay: www.thesurveybay.com; accessed on 28-03-2014.
  82. 82. Thank you for your attention! More info: grape.uw.edu.pl/ipiracy/research-seminar Author: Wojciech Hardy e-mail: whardy@wne.uw.edu.pl More about our research on: http://grape.uw.edu.pl/ipiracy facebook.com/ipiracy Twitter: @GrapeUW

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