Faith Based Practices in Psychotherapy - Historical Overview


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A brief, historical overview of faith based practices in psychotherapy/counseling.

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Faith Based Practices in Psychotherapy - Historical Overview

  1. 1. Grant Heller
  2. 2. Faith-Based Practices Historical Overview – Grant Heller <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The deeper one’s thought penetrates in the field of psychotherapy, the closer one comes to the realm of theology…the fundamental questions with which psychotherapy ends can only be answered with theology” (Rollo May, 1967, p. 218). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious faith enters into treatment in different ways (Shafranske, 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>92% of the U.S. population is affiliated with religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>96% profess a belief in God or a universal spirit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Defining Terms <ul><li>Psychotherapy (Shafranske, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality (Kurtz, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiating between spiritual and religious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different approaches of science and religion (Kurtz, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Scientific approach” of psychotherapy vs. religious or spiritual insight </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ancient History <ul><li>Earliest forms of psychotherapy likely came from philosophy rather than medicine (Kurtz, 1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Greeks (Zeno, Epictetus, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spiritual systems often contain psychological components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example, The Dhammapada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Term “psychologia” coined in 1524 (Vande Kemp, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion/spirituality and psychology had much overlap until the end of the 19 th century </li></ul>
  5. 5. Modern History Publications since 1900 (Nielson & Dowd, 2006)
  6. 6. Modern History Publications since 1900 (Nielson & Dowd, 2006)
  7. 7. Freud & Jung Diverging Viewpoints <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Future of an Illusion (1927) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concluded that religion is an illusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clark University Lecture - 1909 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative views of religion countered by Jung et al. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion important in the process of individuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion as the outward expression of inner spiritual self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributed to the integration of faith and therapy </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Psychology of Religion (Richards & Bergin, 1999) <ul><li>William James </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on personal psychology of religion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gordon Allport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Individual and His Religion (1950) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers a developmental perspective of religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 characteristics of religious maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul Pruyser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends on work of James and Allport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes forms of neurotic religion </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Contemporary Humanistic Traditions (Richards & Bergin, 1999) <ul><li>Erich Fromm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious need for a frame of orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self actualization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viktor Frankl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transpersonal Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of scientific methods to spiritual experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanlisav Grof, Ken Wilber, et al. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Human Development & Spiritual Dimensions (Richards & Bergin, 1999) <ul><li>James Fowler: Faith development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0: prefaith (ages 1-3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1: Intuitive-projective faith (ages 3-7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2: Mythic-literal faith (ages 7-puberty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3: Synthetic-conventional faith (puberty-adulthood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4: Individuative-reflective faith (emerging in young adulthood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5: Conjunctive faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6: Universalizing faith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical Implications </li></ul>
  11. 11. Human Development cont. <ul><li>Ken Wilber (1995) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre/trans fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-rational/trans-personal stages of development can often look like Pre-rational/pre-personal stages, and vice versa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Freud & Jung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freud: all religious experience is infantile </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jung: all religious experience is mystical and highly developed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be result of failed integration of lower into higher levels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Recent Developments <ul><li>DSM-IV-TR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1994: Code V62.89: Religious or Spiritual Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of faith in more modern, cognitive & behavioral systems of therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational Emotive Therapy (REBT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marsha Linehan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zen concept of mindfulness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. References <ul><li>American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth ed.). Washington, DC: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dowd, E. T., & Nielsen, S. L. (2006) Religion for psychotherapists: The psychologies in religion verses the psychology of religion. In E. T. Dowd, & S. L. Nielson (Eds.), The psychologies of religion: Working with the religious client (pp 1-17). New York: Springer Publishing Company. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Kelly, E. W. (1995). Spirituality in counseling and psychotherapy . Aleandria, VA: American Counseling Association. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Kurtz, E. (1999). The historical context. In W. R. Miller (Ed) Integrating spirituality into treatment: Resources for practitioners (pp. 19-46). Washington, DC: APA. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mascaro, J. (Trans.) (1973). The Dhammapada . New York: Penguin. </li></ul><ul><li>May, R. (1967). The art of counseling. New York: Abingdon Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Richards, P. S., & Bergin, A. E. (1999). Handbook of psychotherapy and religious diversity. Washington, DC: APA. </li></ul><ul><li>Shafranske, E.P. (ed). (1996). Religion and the clinical practice of psychology. Washington, DC: APA </li></ul><ul><li>Vande Kemp, H. (1996) Historical perspective: religion and clinical psychology in America. In E.P. Shafranske (ed.) Religion and clinical practice of psychology . Washington, DC: APA. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilber, K. (1995). Sex, ecology, spirituality: The spirit of evolution. Boston, MA: Shambala. </li></ul>