Early Reading Skills


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Early Reading Skills

  1. 1. Early Reading Skills: Teaching Phonemic Awareness Brandy Clarke CBC 2002
  2. 2. The Need for Early Reading Interventions <ul><li>Poor reading ability correlates with long-term negative outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is the cornerstone of academic success. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with poor reading skills in the beginning are likely to have poor skills in the future. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning in Steps <ul><li>Research has demonstrated a need for children to learn to recognize words with speed and accuracy to read with fluency and comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Progression of learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the concept of words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetic Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is Phonemic Awareness? <ul><li>Phonemic awareness is an understanding that speech is composed of individual sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of the hierarchy of reading skills developed in early reading. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a unitary skill, but is comprised of various components. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Five levels of Phonemic Awareness (Adams,1990). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation of sound in spoken language (recitation of nursery rhymes). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to compare and contrast sounds in words by grouping words with similar or dissimilar sounds (beginning, middle, and end of words). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to blend and split syllables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic segmentation or the ability to isolate individual sounds in syllables. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to manipulate phonemes by omitting and deleting phonemes to make new words. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why is it important? <ul><li>It is necessary in learning to read and spell the English language because English is alphabetic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds correlate with letters to make words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research has demonstrated a strong link between phonemic awareness and beginning reading. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why Phonemic Awareness over Whole-language? <ul><li>The Whole-language approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on teaching reading by immersing students in literature while providing minimal direct skill instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides students with ample opportunities to read and write and provides guidance as needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students learn to read through whole-word recognition which creates a guessing game when presented with new words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students taught with phonics instruction read 54% of new words correctly, students with whole-language read 3%. </li></ul><ul><li>However, balance is necessary. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What skills are taught? <ul><li>Early Reading Skills (Good III, Simmons & Smith, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area 1: Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of correlation of sounds to words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area 2: Alphabetic Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link between a letter and a sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area 3: Phonological Recoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of relationship between phonemes and letters to recognize printed words, then read and spell them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area 4: Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehending what is read </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How to assess skills <ul><li>Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), University of Oregon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic: continuing evaluation of skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicators: representative and correlated with important skill areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive: future reading performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional: related to reading aquisition </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>DIBELS Assessments: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target age range: Preschool – Second grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset Recognition Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late preschool through winter of kindergarten </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for monitoring progress of older children with low phonological awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter Naming Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fall of kindergarten through fall of first grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for monitoring progress of older children with low skills in letter naming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>DIBELS Assessments cont.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoneme Segmentation Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter of kindergarten through fall of first grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for monitoring progress of older children with low phonological awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsense Word Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fall of first grade through summer of first grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for monitoring progress of older children with low skills in letter-sound correspondence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How to teach Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>5 Features of effective interventions (Good III et.al., 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide instruction at the phoneme level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffold tasks and examples. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model skills prior to practice and provide opportunities for students to produce isolated sounds orally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide systematic and strategic instruction for identifying sounds in words, blending and segmenting, and culminate with integration of phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondence instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use concrete materials to represent sounds . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Modeling activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching vs. practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The importance of scope and sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger units before smaller units (words before syllables) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous before stop sounds (cont.: f, l, m, n, stop: b, c, d, g) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer sounds before more sounds (VC or CV before CVC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory blending before segmenting (e.g. foooot-baaaall vs. mmm-aaaaa-t) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending and segmenting before manipulation (e.g. removing sounds to make new words) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral before written language </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Phonemic Teaching Methods <ul><li>Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum .(Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, & Beeler, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of language games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play regularly (15-20 min) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go in order of sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use both segmenting (analysis) and blending (synthesis) activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child should feel as though s/he is playing while learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently pronounce words slowly and clearly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Language Games: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening game: Listening to Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhyming: Poetry, Songs, and Jingles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words and Sentences: Introducing the Idea of sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of Syllables: Clapping Names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial and Final Sounds: Guess Who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemes: Two-Sound Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing Letters and Spellings: Guess Who: Introducing Sounds and Letters </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Reading Intervention Program <ul><li>Reading Recovery Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Help struggling students catch up to peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a lot of teacher monitoring (1:1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily sessions last 30-40 minutes per session and run 10-20 weeks </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Reading Recovery Program Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading left to right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a return sweep rather than a slow return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring whether story makes sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for cues from context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rereading when unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-correction </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Important Resources <ul><li>http://dibels.uoregon.edu/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides explanation of DIBELS research and application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://reading.uroegon.edu/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Ideas in Beginning Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.nifl.gov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute for Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Reading Panel Update </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Application for CBC <ul><li>It is important to understand what is needed to promote early reading skills so that problems can be identified and treated before negative trajectory is established. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment techniques allow for problem areas to be targeted and monitored throughout interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching techniques can be used across settings to facilitate partnerships in learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Consultants can provide consultees with further resources to provide guidance throughout reading development. </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams, M.J., Foorman, B.R., Lundberg, I, & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A classroom curriculum. Baltimore, MD : Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. </li></ul><ul><li>Good III, R. H. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with CBM. Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development. Eugene, OR. </li></ul><ul><li>Good III, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Smith, S. B. (1998). Effective academic intervention in the United States: Evaluating and enhancing the acquistion of early reading skills. School Psychology Review. Vol 27, No. 1, pp 45-56 . </li></ul>
  21. 21. References cont. <ul><li>Grossen, B. & Carnine, D. (1991). Strategies for maximizing reading success in the regular classroom. In Stoner, G., Shinn, M. R., & Walker, H. M. (Eds) Interventions for achievement and behavior problems . Silver Spring, MD: NASP </li></ul><ul><li>Pressley, M. (1998). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Snider, V. E. (1995). A primer on phonemic awareness: What is it, why it’s important, and how to teach it. School Psychology Review , Vol. 24, No. 3, 443-455. </li></ul>