Renewable Hydrogen Energy Storage


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Description of intermittant renewable energy systems with energy storage. Hydrogen utility power for remote applications.

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Renewable Hydrogen Energy Storage

  1. 1. Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems for Remote Northern Communities Hydrogen Millennium 10th Canadian Hydrogen Conference May 28 - 31, 2000 Glenn D. Rambach
  2. 2. Integrated Hydrogen Utility Systems Hydrogen as a utility energy storage medium.   To buffer the intermittency and phase differences of renewables an loads.  Where current electricity values are high (premium power).  Niche applications in isolated locations.  Permits full autonomy from a fossil fuel supply infrastructure.  Provides utility AND transportation functions Storage function of hydrogen systems is more complex than either  battery storage systems or fossil fueled fuel cell systems.  Batteries have one power/energy element.  Fossil fuel cell system have two power elements and a simple energy element.  Four separate power or energy elements permit optimization in H2 system. The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system  are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote applications. Models are yet to be developed for optimization of design and control of a  hydrogen system.
  3. 3. Energy Demographics Country Population Per capita energy use (millions) (Bbls oil(equiv.)/year/person) USA 270 23.6 (5.7 x W.A.) (4.5%) China 1200 0.79 0.79 (0.19 x W.A.) (37%) India 1000 Indonesia 202 World 6000 4.12 (W.A.) Two billion people on earth do not have electricity.
  4. 4. The relationship between renewable energy sources and fuel cells is generally through hydrogen The primary fuel for a fuel cell is hydrogen Hydrogen can be produced from: Gasoline Diesel fuel Nonrenewable Propane Coal Wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal electricity Renewable Biomass Municipal solid waste and LFG Natural gas, Methanol, Ethanol Either In isolated communities, the most likely indigenous resource that can produce local-energy-economy quantities of hydrogen are: Wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal electricity Diesel, propane may have a delivery infrastructure Natural gas may be locally available or deliverable as LNG
  5. 5. Fuel Cell Utility Power Systems Configuration options Reformer Liquid and purifier fossil fuel Local grid - OR - Fuel cell Hydrogen PEM Electrical SOFC Delivered power PAFC Hydrogen MCFC AFC Remote load Hydrogen - OR - Storage Intermittent Electrolyzer renewable electricity
  6. 6. Source, process, storage and load options Customer • Community • Mine • Military post • Autonomous device Nature •__________ • Wind • Sunlight • Water flow Energy Storage • Hydrogen-fuel cell • Hydrogen-ICE gen • Halogen fuel cell Power Production • Zn-Air fuel cell • Wind turbine • Zn-FeCN fuel cell • m Hydro Power logic • Solar PV • Flywheel controller • Low-q water turbine • Compressed air • Pumped hydro • Battery • Grid
  7. 7. Design criteria for remote hydrogen fuel cell utility power system Intermittent, renewable source PRen = f(Pload-peak, hf/c, hEH2, hComp, Electrolyzer CFRen, P(t)Ren, CostRen ) Power logic PEH2 = f(Pload-peak, PRen) controller PEH2-out = f(CostEH2 , TypeEH2) CostPLC = f(PThru-peak) Nature Compressor (if needed) Fuel cell   QC = f(QEH2) Pf/c = f(Pload-peak, PC-out = f(Ps) Eelec. Stor) PC-in = f(PEH2-Out) Intermittent load P(t)load = f(COE(t), User) Cogenerated heat Es = f(Qmax, Pload-avg) Hydrogen storage DEs = f(hf/c, vehicles) HC = f(hf/c, DCf/c) Customer Ps = f(Costvessel, site space)
  8. 8. Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell isolated power system Cogen heat
  9. 9. Relationship of load, capacity factor, efficiencies to the power of renewable and electrolyzer (1 - CfR) PlAV PE = PR = Cf h h h R E FC C PE = Electrolyzer rated power PR = Renewable peak capacity PlAV = Average load power Cf = Capacity factor h = Efficiency (<1) FC = Fuel cell system C = Compressor
  10. 10. Effects of renewable capacity factor, electrolyzer efficiency and fuel cell system efficiency on renewable power and electrolyzer power needed Load average is 100kW hE = Electrolyzer efficiency hE hFC = Fuel cell power system efficiency .65 hFC .70 .75 .40 .40 .70 .40 .70 .54 .75 .55 .55
  11. 11. Effects of renewable capacity factor and turn-around efficiency on renewable power and electrolyzer power needed Load average is 100kW hTurn-around .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .60 .70
  12. 12. DRI residential scale, renewable hydrogen, fuel cell test facility and refuel station Wind turbines Computer 1.5 kW each Controlled Load Energy storage 0 - 5kW components Computer and Power Logic Electricity Controller Hydrogen Electrolyzer Fuel cell 5 kW 2 kW PEM Hydrogen Hydrogen Storage Dispensing 150 psi Solar arrays and trackers 1.0 kW each
  13. 13. Components of DRI renewable hydrogen, fuel cell test facility Two 1.5 kW Wind Turbines Two 1 kW Solar Arrays 2 kW PEM Fuel Cell Hydrogen Generator Hydrogen Storage Tank Hydrogen Refueling Planned Hydrogen Station Fuel Cell Vehicle
  14. 14. Renewable Hydrogen Energy Research System at DRI
  15. 15. Kotzebue, Alaska wind turbine site 650 kW of wind power in 10 wind turbines Kivalina Kotzebue Wales Deering Nome Fairbanks Anchorage Juneau Seward St. Paul St. George
  16. 16. Kotzebue, AK wind turbine site Wind Turbine Power AOC 15/50 Wind Turbines Control Building KOTZ Radio Transmitter Tundra
  17. 17. Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell power for KOTZ Radio Transmitter 11-MW Diesel Village of Kotzebue, AK Power Plant Conceptual design done as part of a system study for USDOE on hydrogen for Three energy storage of intermittent, miles renewable power in isolated areas. Excess Excess Wind Wind Power Power Power Grid Project addition Wind Switch Power Out Condenser Fuel cell system Propane-to- and inverter hydrogen Water recycling reformer Hydrogen storage Propane 100% penetration wind turbine modifications 650 kW AOC 10 wind turbine array
  18. 18. Wind, hydrogen, fuel cell power for village loads Fuel cell system Switch and inverter Out 11-MW Diesel Village of Kotzebue Power Plant Three miles Three miles Hydrogen transmission line 250-psig, 1/2” Dia. Proportional Power Water storage 650 kW AOC 10 wind turbine array
  19. 19. Evolution of system capital costs for different loads Evolution of system capital costs for different loads 50 45 40 35 System $/Wp KOTZ Radio transmitter 30 Kivalina Village 25 St. George Island 20 Kotzebue Village 15 10 5 0 Today Near-term Far-term Time frame
  20. 20. Summary Integrated hydrogen utility systems are an ultimate goal for future power  systems.  The inclusion of transportation fuel in remote locations adds significant value.  Other storage systems include pumped hydro and batteries. Wind power, micro-hydroelectric and low-q water current are promising power  input stream sources for northern communities. The technologies necessary for an integrated renewable hydrogen power system  are available, and close to the costs needed for full economic use in remote applications.  Cost is a greater challenge than technological development at this point. New system models are key enablers to permitting development of the market  for integrated hydrogen systems
  21. 21. How do we implement hydrogen in the near term? • Implement: To render commercially practical. To get into the mainstream of society. To transition from exclusively publicly funded research to successful private enterprise. • Test out implementation ideas for hydrogen with people who want to make money in the commercial marketplace, not the research marketplace. • With what we now know, can we think of a way to convince financing sources to invest in selling any niche product? • Niche is where it’s at! • How much of this is an individual activity? How much is a group (NHA?) activity? • Niche markets. (High value, small production runs) • Past the “valley of death” for new technologies, from early adopters to small, sustained commercial support. Implement hydrogen? Find the beginning. Start there.
  22. 22. Carbon management CO2 sequestration: • Sequester CO2 from the atmosphere in the form of biomass. (50 - 500 million years ago) • Convert biomass into chemically and physically stable form of sequestered carbon. • Maintain chemically and physically stable form of carbon (coal and oil) for 10s to 100s of millions of years. CO2 recovery: • Recover sequestered carbon and call it hydrocarbon fuel. • Convert it into energy and the original CO2 to power a few 10’s of decades of humanity. CO2 resequestration: • Collect CO2 from power systems. • Reinsert into oceans, earth, aquifers, only a physical process away from the environment. • Since any CO2 resequestered remains as CO2 forever, the resequestering needs to last longer than the sequestering of nuclear waste.
  23. 23. Ponderous points to ponder • An automobile engine is made in the U.S. every 2.1 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. (15 million/year) • The U.S. pays $1 billion a week to import foreign oil. (more than 1/3 of trade deficit) • The U.S. spends over $50 billion a year to defend our oil interests in the Persian Gulf, not counting periodic conflicts. (over 65¢/gallon) • Health care costs in the U.S. related to fossil fuel combustion are in excess of $50 billion a year. (over 65¢/gallon) • 2 billion people (1/3 of the world population) have yet to benefit from utility electricity. •The US and the world are beginning to become customer bases for new energy technologies. Who will be the purveyors?