Vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta in limba engleza Direct and indirect (reported) speech Vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta in engleza Sunt 2 moduri in care putem reda ceea ce o persoana a spus: modul direct (vorbirea directa) si modul indirect (vorbirea indirecta). In direct speech, we repeat the original speaker’s exact words: - vorbirea directa He said, "I have lost my umbrella." (El spuse: “Mi-am pierdut umbrela”.) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (" ... "). Direct speech is found in conversations in books, in plays and in quotations. In indirect speech, we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words: He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. (El spuse că şi-a pierdut umbrella.) - vorbirea indirecta There is no comma after say in indirect speech. That can usually be omitted after say and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, although direct speech is sometimes used for a more dramatic effect. When we turn direct speech into indirect (reported) speech, some changes are usually necessary. • TENSE CHANGES 1. Indirect Speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense: He sais that …. (El a spus că….) - vorbirea indirecta = reporting a conversation that is still going on = reading a letter and reporting what it sais = reading instructions and reporting them = reporting a statement that someone makes very often: Tom sais that he’ ll never get married. 2. Indirect Speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense: - vorbirea indirecta Direct speech - vorbirea directa Indirect speech - vorbirea indirectaSimple Present - Vorbirea directa Simple past - Vorbirea indirecta"I never eat meat" he explained. = He explained that he never ate meat.(“Eu niciodată nu mănânc carne” explică el). (El explică faptul că nu mânca niciodată carne.)Present Continuous - Vorbirea directa Past Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta‘"I’ m waiting for Ann" he said. = He said (that) he was waiting for Ann.(“O aştept pe Ana” spuse el). (Spuse că o aştepta pe Ann).
Present Perfect - Vorbirea directa Past Perfect - Vorbirea indirecta‘"I have found a flat" she said. = She said (that) she had found a flat.(“Am găsit un apartament” spuse ea). (Ea spuse că îşi găsise un apartament).Present Perfect Continuous - Vorbirea Past Perfect Continuous - Vorbirea indirectadirecta = He said (that)he had been waiting for ages.He said "I’ ve been waiting for ages". (El spuse că aşteptase o groază de timp).(El spuse: “Am aşteptat o groază de timp.”)Simple Past - Vorbirea directa Past Perfect - Vorbirea indirecta‘"I took it home with me" she said. = She said she had taken it home with her.(“L-am luat acasă cu mine” spuse ea.) (Ea spuse că îl luase acasă cu ea.)Future - Vorbirea directa Conditional - Vorbirea indirectaHe said, ‘"I shall/will be in Rome on = he said he would be in Rome on Monday.Monday". (El spuse că va fi în Roma luni.)(El spuse: “Voi fi în Roma luni.”)Future Continuous - Vorbirea directa = Conditional Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta"I will/shall be using the car on the 1st " she She said she’d be using the car on the 1st.said. (Ea spuse că va folosi maşina pe data de 1).(“Voi folosi maşina pe data de 1” spuse ea)Conditional - Vorbirea directa Conditional - Vorbirea indirectaI said, ‘"I would/should like to see it" . I said I would/should like to see it.(Eu am spus: “Aş vrea să o văd.”) (Eu am spus că aş vrea să o văd.) Direct speech - vorbirea directa Indirect speech - vorbirea indirecta 3. Note on I/we shall/should I/ we shall normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech: "I shall be 21 tomorrow" said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day. (“Voi împlini 21 ani mâine”. Spuse Bill. = Bill spuse că va împlini 21 ani în ziua următoare.) But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker, I/we shall can become either I/we should or I/we would. • PAST TENSES SOMETIMES REMAIN UNCHANGED 1. In spoken English, past tenses usually remain unchanged. He said, "Ann arrived on Monday". = He said Ann (had) arrived on Monday. (El spuse: “Ann a ajuns luni.” = El spuse că Ann ajunsese (a ajuns) luni.) He said, "When I saw them they were playing tennis" . = He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis. (El spuse: "Când i-am văzut eu, jucau tenis.” = El spuse că atunci când i-a văzut, jucau tenis.) 2. A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged: She said, "I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road". = She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road. (Ea spuse: “M-am hotărât să nu cumpăr casa pentru că era pe strada principală.” = Ea spuse că s-a hotărât să nu cumpere casa pentru că era pe strada principală).
• SUBJUNCTIVES IN INDIRECT SPEECH - vorbirea indirecta1. Unreal past tenses after wish, would rather/sooner and it is time do not change: "It’ s time we began planning our holidays" he said. = He said that it was time they beganplanning their holidays. (“Este timpul să începem să ne planificăm concediul”. Spuse el. = El spuse că era timpulsă înceapă să îşi planifice concediul.)2. I/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged. You had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive. "You’d better not drink the water" she said = She advised us not to drink water. (“Mai bine nu ai bea apă.” Spuse ea. = Ne sugeră să nu bem apă.)3. Conditional sentences remain unchanged. "If my children were older, I would emigrate" he said. = He said that if his children wereolder, he would emigrate. (“Dacă ar fi mai mari copiii mei, aş emigra”. Spuse el. = el spuse că dacă ar fi mai maricopiii lui, ar emigra.) • MIGHT, OUGHT TO, SHOULD, WOULD, USED TO IN INDIRECT STATEMENTS1. Might remains unchanged except when it is used as a request form: He said, "Ann might ring today." = He said that Ann might ring that day. (El spuse: “S-ar putea să sune Ann astăzi.” = El spuse că s-ar putea să sune Ann în aceazi.)2. Ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged: "They ought to widen this road" I said. = I said that they ought to widen this road. (“Ar trebui să lărgească strada.” Spuse el. = El spuse că ar trebui să lărgească strada.)3. Would in statements does not change. "I’d be very grateful if you’d keep me informed" he said. = He asked me to keep himinformed. (“Aş fi foarte recunoscător dacă m-ai ţine la curent.”Spuse el = El mă rugă să îl ţin lacurrent.)4. Used to does not change. "I know the place well because I used to live here" he explained. = He explained that heknew the place well because he used to live there. (“Cunosc bine locul pentru că am stat acolo.” Explică el. = El explică faptul că ştia loculpentru că a stat acolo.) • PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE IN INDIRECT SPEECH Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person,except when the speaker is reporting his own words: I said, "I like my new house" = I said that I liked my new house. (Am spus: “Îmi place casa mea nouă.” = El a spus că îi plăcea casa lui nouă.) This used in time expressions usually becomes that. This, these used as pronouns canbecome it, they/them.
He said, "We will discuss them tomorrow". = He said that they will discuss it (the matter) the next day. (El a spus: “Vom discuta (problema) mâine.” = El a spus că vor discuta (problema) yiua următoare.) • EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE IN INDIRECT SPEECHDirect speech - vorbirea directa Indirect speech - vorbire indirecta Today That day Yesterday The day before The day before yesterday Two days before Tomorrow The next day/ the following day The day after tomorrow In two days’ time Next week/ year etc. The following week/ year etc. Last week/ year etc. The previous week/ year etc. A year ago A year before/ the previous yearDirect speech - vorbirea directa Indirect speech - vorbire indirecta • SAY AND TELL 1. Say and tell with direct speech Say can introduce a statement or follow it, while tell requires the person addressed. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible, when say follows the statement, but inversion with tell is not possible. "I’m leaving at once" Tom said. (“Plec odată.” A spus Tom) - vorbirea directa "I’m leaving at once" Tom told me. (“Plec odată.” Mi-a spus Tom) - vorbirea directa 2. Say and tell with indirect speech Indirect statements are normally introduced by say, or tell + object. Say + to + object is also possible, but much less usual than tell + object. Articolul a fost preluat de la pagina: http://www.academia-de-engleza.ro/Gramatica-limbii-engleze/Vorbirea-directa-si- vorbirea-indirecta-in-limba-engleza.html Mai multe articole despre gramatica limbii engleze veti gasi la http://www.academia-de-engleza.ro/Gramatica-limbii-engleze/Gramatica-engleza.html