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Social exclusionor inclusion in aWeb 2.0 world Gráinne Conole,The Open University, UK DeHub conference, Sydney, 18th February 2011 http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/5040
Key questions How are new open, social and participatory media changing educational practice? What new digital literacies are needed? How are learner and teacher roles changing? How can we design learning interventions and environments to harness new media? What are the implications for formal and informal learning? What social exclusion issues arise and how can they be combated?
Outline• Web 2.0 characteristic• Positive and negative impacts in education• Social exclusion or inclusion?• Case studies• The changing nature of community
New media Key characteristics Peer critiquing Aggregation of resources Collaborative Communicative Personalisable Networked Open practices Interactive
Horizon report 2011• Abundance of resources challenging traditional educational roles• People expect to be able to work & learn anywhere, anytime• World of work increasingly collaborative• Technologies increasingly cloud based• Importance of digital literacies• New evaluation metrics for new scholarship and publishing
Conole and Alevizou, 2010 Effective use of new technologies requires a radical rethink of the core learning and teaching processes; a shift from design as an internalised, implicit and individually crafted process to one that is externalised andshareable with others. Change in practice may indeed involve the use of revised materials, new teaching strategies and beliefs - all in relation to educational innovation. Gill Clough Giota Alevizou
Change +ve impact -ve impact Access,Free tools, resources Role of institutions, personalisation, & services lack of control supports the long tail Technology as core Narrower, but Ubiquitous access tool deeper digital divide Multiple Increased peer, tutor Fragmentation, no communication & and expert dialogue central repositorydistribution channels Rich media New forms of sense- Lack of new digital representation making literacies Increased variety of User-generated knowledge, learner Quality assurance content control
New digital literacies (Jenkins et al., 2008) Play Visualisation Performance Negotiation Appropriation Simulation Multi-tasking Networking Distributed cognitionTransmedia navigation Collective intelligence Judgment
In or out?• Voluntary exclusion - freedom of choice not to participate• Involuntary exclusion - lack of access or expertise to participate
Social exclusionSocial exclusion is amultidimensional process ofprogressive social rupture,detaching groups andindividuals from socialrelations and institutions andpreventing them from fullparticipation in the normal,normatively prescribedactivities of the society in Includes lack of access to:which they live Earnings Education Technology Community Basic human rights
Social exclusionProcess whereby individuals are pushed tothe edge of society and prevented fromparticipating fully by virtue of their povertyor lack of competences and lifelong learningopportunities or by discrimination http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC53578_TN.pdf
Social inclusionProcess that ensures that those at risk ofpoverty and social exclusion gain theopportunities and resources to participatefully in the economic, social and cultural life http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC53578_TN.pdf
Web 2.0• Preventing digital exclusion• Exploit new technologies for better inclusion
Your signature counts Social justice Educational for all Combating poverty Amnesty International video via Pambos Vrasidas http://www.google.com.au/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=amensty +international+your+signature +counts&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&redir_esc=&ei=I5dYTbPoK4OucI6n7 ZwM Education for a better quality of life but is education for all?
IPTS case studies Case study Description Notschool Online school for drop outs www.notschool.net Constructivist pedagogy, peer buddy system Assistive technology wiki Supports knowledge creation around assistive abilitynet.wetpaint.com ‘Routes of desire’ pedagogy model Mundi de Estrellas Aimed at young people in hospital, shared stories www.juntadeandalucia.es ALPEUNED Students with disabilities at the Open University in adenu.ia.uned.es/alpe/ Spain Conecta Joven eSkills for at risk and excluded groups www.conectajoven.org MOSEP Self-esteemed through e-Portfolios, learning www.mosep.org companions Schome Park Gifted kids and those with autism, in SecondLife, www.schome.ac.uk open pedagogy based on collaboration BREAKOUT Offending and drug prevention, a life-swapping modelwww.breakoutproject.odl.org http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC53578_TN.pd
Open Educational Resources Part of the broader OER movement Move beyond the creation of OER to articulation of practices and community Focus on better design and useOlnet: an evidence-based approach with support for thecommunity and a fellowship schemeOPAL: articulation of dimensions of OER practices andassociated guidelines for learners, teachers, managers andpolicy makers
Combating social exclusion Open and free Education for all Easily accessible Means of transferring practice It’s also a philosophy...
Sharing and discussing practice http://cloudworks.ac.uk
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of clouds
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of cloudsActivity stream:Latest activities on aCloudscape or people
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of cloudsActivity stream:Latest activities on aCloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things you like
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of cloudsActivity stream:Latest activities on aCloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things you likeFollow:Cloudscapes, Cloudsor people
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of cloudsActivity stream:Latest activities on aCloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things you likeFollow: RSS feeds:Cloudscapes, Clouds For Cloudscapes, Cloudsor people & people
Quick language guideCloud:Anything to do withlearning and teaching Cloudscape: A collection of cloudsActivity stream:Latest activities on aCloudscape or people Favourites: Vote for things you likeFollow: RSS feeds: Attend:Cloudscapes, Clouds For Cloudscapes, Clouds Conferences &or people & people workshops
Types of activityEvents Virtual reading circles
Types of activity Events Virtual reading circlesOpen reviews
Types of activity Events Virtual reading circlesOpen reviews
Combating exclusion• Completely open• Easy to use• Crosses boundaries• Access to new knowledge and expertise• Aggregation of resources• Sharing ideas and practice• Facilitates the development of networks
A focus on community New open, social and participatory media enable new means of communication, collaboration, sharing and co-construction of knowledge Want to focus on the nature of community in these new online spaces What is it and how can it be fostered, supported?
The nature of community Complex, distributed, loose communities are emerging Facilitated through different but connected social networking tools such as facebook, Twitter, Ning Users create their own Personal Digital Environment Mix of synchronous and asynchronous tools Boundary crossing via the power of retweeting
So what is a community?[Community does not] imply necessarily co-presence, a well-deﬁned identiﬁable group, or socially visible boundaries. Itdoes imply participation in an activity system about whichparticipants share understandings concerning what they aredoing and what that means in their lives and for theircommunitiesLave and Wenger, 1991Virtual communities are social aggregations that emergefrom the Net when enough people carry on those publicdiscussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, toform webs of personal relationships in cyberspace.Rheingold, 1993
Community as a process Constantly evolving and changing Shifting groups and depths of relationships Dynamic, evolving and potentially transformative Both directed and serendipitous interactions
Community indicatorsParticipation CohesionSustained over time Support & toleranceCommitment from core group Turn taking & responseEmerging roles & hierarchy Humour and playfulnessIdentity Creative capabilityGroup self-awareness Igniting sense of purposeShared language & vocab Multiple points of viewSense of community expressed, contradicted or challenged Creation of knowledge links & patterns Galley et al., 2010
Participation Three types of hierarchical roles Veterans: support and encourage groups and newbies Trendsetters: make a difference Posters: need to be incentivised to turn from lurkers to active contributors
Cohesion Through support, tolerance, reciprocity and trust Language and tone are critical factors in the development of an online community Emotional and peer support
IdentityCentral to the notion ofcommunity are issues ofmembership and exclusion.Some people are in, others areout. Communities range frombeing open to anyone whoshares particular ideas orinterests to communitiesaccessible only to those whomeet certain criteria ofgeography, ethnicity, gender,etc
Framework for sociality System needs to accommodate both evolution of practices and inclusion of newcomers Both individual and group identity are important People more likely to use systems that resemble their daily routines, languages and practices Metaphors that mimic real life practices are likely to be more successful Bouman et al., 2007
Creative capability Importance of conﬂict, disagreement and negotiation in the process of collaborative knowledge creation and developing understanding Social discord as a catalyst for knowledge construction and expansive learning
Can Web 2.0 support social inclusion? Rich multimedia representation of content Multiple communication channels Accessible anywhere, anytime Abundance of free tools and resources
Can Web 2.0 support social inclusion? Rich multimedia representation of content Multiple communication channels Accessible anywhere, anytime Abundance of free tools and resources Digital divide narrower but deeper Increasingly complex landscape New digital literacy skills needed Access issues
Implications• New digital literacies needed• Changing roles of teachers and learners• New institutional roles and structures• Balance of institutional vs. free systems
Recommendations For learners Provide support to development of new digital literacies Facilitate more learner-centred approaches Encourage communication and collaboration Shift from a focus on content to activities For teachers New approaches to design, support and assessment Adopting more explicit and reflexive teaching practices Technology immersion – learning through the technologies Encourage a networked educational community of teachers and learners
Recommendations For institutions Strategies/policies that reflect the changing context of learning Resources and support to facilitate the shift in practice needed Strong leadership with an understanding of the issues Re-visioning structures and infrastructures PD/incentives for teaching staff to implement Nationally Free educational resources - Open Educational Resources Promote case studies of good practice Appropriate strategies and policies and funding Professional networks and communities Ongoing horizon scanning of technology trajectories -
Reﬂections Open, participatory and social media enable new forms of communication and collaboration Communities in these spaces are complex and distributed Teachers and learners need to develop new digital literacy skills to harness their potential We need to rethink the design of learning interventions, support and assessment Sites like Cloudworks can provide a mechanisms for teachers to share and discuss learning and teaching ideas We are seeing a blurring of boundaries: teachers/learners, teaching/learning, content/activities and real/virtual spaces
References Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (submitted), Community Indicators: A framework for building and evaluating community activity on Cloudworks, Interactive Learning Environments. Conole, G, and Alevizou, P. (2010), A literature review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education, HE Academy commissioned report, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/ EvidenceNet/Conole_Alevizou_2010.pdf Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (2010), Case study: Using Cloudworks for an Open Literature Review, An HE Academy commissioned report. Alevizou, P., Conole, G. and Galley, R. (2010), Using Cloudworks to support OER activities, An HE Academy commissioned report. Conole, G., Galley, R. and Culver, J. (2010), Frameworks for understanding the nature of interactions, networking and community in a social networking site for academic practice, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Conole, G. and Culver, J. (2010) The design of Cloudworks: applying social networking practice to foster the exchange of learning and teaching ideas and designs Computers and Education, 54(3): 679 - 692. Conole and Culver (2009), Cloudworks: social networking for learning design, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), pp. 763–782, http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet25/conole.html.
Images Web2.0 city - http://www.flickr.com/photos/4everyoung/313308360/ Digital divide - http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrysti/2337913120/ One world-oneweb http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/2731067095/ Network http://www.flickr.com/photos/seeminglee/2053060997/ Logos http://www.flickr.com/photos/mandymaarten/503716476/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/tristaemlet/4089225446/