Embracing change, where might daring to think differently take us? Gráinne Conole, Open University, UK The Blended Learning Event Massey University, 10 th - 14 th December 2009 More info, slides and references: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/
Recent key reports and research
Convergence of technology and pedagogy?
Paradoxes created by ‘digital’ and educational dilemmas
The gap between the promise and the reality
Daring to think differently
Designing for learning
Representing and guiding design
Discussing and sharing
Drawing on related research
A framework for intervention
The learner voice
The landscape of the web 2.0 world…. Exploring new digital territories
The broader context
Technologies: changing, evolving… Ubiquitous & networked Context and location aware Mobile technologies Cloud computing
On the horizon: Learning in the Cloud Sclater, N. (2009) Clouds are a large pool of easily usable and accessible virtualized resources (such as hardware, development platforms and/or services). These resources can be dynamically re-configured to adjust to a variable load (scale), allowing also for an optimum resource utilization. This pool of resources is typically exploited by a pay-per-use model in which guarantees are offered by the Infrastructure Provider by means of customized SLAs.
Redefining content Content, tools & designs free New tools for sense-making & dialogue Barriers to sharing & reuse
Education for free: CCK08 & discourse ltc.umanitoba.ca/blogs/futurecourse/
Did we change the world? No. Not yet. But we (and I mean all course participants, not just Stephen and I) managed to explore what is possible online. People self-organized in their preferred spaces. They etched away at the hallowed plaque of “what it means to be an expert”. They learned in transparent environments, and in the process, became teachers to others. Those that observed (or lurked as is the more common term), hopefully found value in the course as well. Perhaps life circumstances, personal schedule, motivation for participating, confidence, familiarity with the online environment, or numerous other factors, impacted their ability to contribute. While we can’t “measure them” the way I’ve tried to do with blog and moodle participants, their continued subscription to The Daily and the comments encountered in F2F conferences suggest they also found some value in the course.
The learner voice
Task orientated, experiential, cummulative
Attitudes and approaches
group orientated, experiential, able to multi-task, just in time mindset, comfortable with multiple representations
Disconnect between student & institutional approaches
Caution re: net gen claims, importance of taking account of student differences
Do seem to be age related changes taking place and these are strongly linked to social networking and the use of a range of new
Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Mary Thorpe, JISC LEX projects, Sharpe and Beetham (forthcoming)
Personalised and mobile
Individualised Personal Learning Environment
Synchronised information across devices
Location and context aware
Have we crossed a threshold?
The i-phone as truly transformative
… .but what’s next?
New learning spaces
Combining the affordances of new technologies with good pedagogy
Taking account of context, location and time
SKG: Learning Spaces project, Australia
Inspire by Pea &Wallis, 2008 We can now interact at a distance, accessing complex & useful resources in ways unimaginable in early eras What’s the next stage of the co-evolution? Phases of development Tool-user co-evolution 1 2 3 b a c + Internet Mobile devices TV Radio Smart tools Phone
Web 2.0 practices
Location aware technologies
Adaptation & customisation
Second life/ immersive worlds
“ Expert badges” , World of warcraft
User- generated content
Blogging, peer critiquing
From individual to social
Contextualised and situated learning
Open Educational Resources
Paradoxes created by the digital Expansive knowledge domain Hierarchy & control less meaningful Increasingly complex digital landscape Content distributed, everything is miscellaneous Collective intelligence Free content & tools, open APIs and mash ups Death of expertise / everyone an expert Multiple pathways / lost in cyberspace Beyond ‘digital space’/ New metaphors Multiple (co-)locations / loss of content integrity Social collective/digital individualism Issues re: ownership , value, business models
Educational dilemmas Expansive knowledge domain Hierarchy & control less meaningful Increasingly complex digital landscape Content distributed, everything is miscellaneous Collective intelligence Free content & tools, open APIs and mash ups Challenges the role of the teacher Need for new learner pathways Widening skills gap between ‘tech savy’/others Need to rethink the design process Potential for new forms of learning Lack of uptake
Jenkins twelve skills for participatory culture
Play – experimentation/problem solving
Performance – alternative identities
Simulation – construct models of real-world processes
Appropriation – sample and remix of media content
Multitasking – scanning and then focusing on salient details
Distributed cognition – interaction to expand mental capacities
Collective intelligence - to pool knowledge with others
Judgment – evaluation reliability of different information
Transmedia navigation – follow the flow of stories across modalities
Networking – search for, synthesize and dissemination information
Negotiation – travel diverse communities, multiple perspectives
Visualisation – different data representations for ideas, patterns, trends
Digital literacies Seely Brown Jenkins Lea and Goodfellow Lankshear
The gap between promise & reality
“ I haven’t got time ”
“ My research is more important”
“ What’s in it for me ?”
“ Where is my reward ?”
“ I don’t have the skills to do this”
“ I don’t believe in this, it won’t work”
Common resistance strategies:
I’ll say yes (and do nothing )
Undermine the initiative
Undermine the person involved
Do it badly
Classic mistakes :
Emphasis on the technologies , not the people and processes
Funding for technology developments but not use and support
Free resources Little reuse Array of technologies Not fully exploited
Daring to think differently
Can we develop new technology-enabled approaches to support ‘core’ learning and teaching?
Meso: A ‘block of learning’ (mapping outcomes to assessment/activities etc.)
Macro: Whole course level (Course map and Pedagogy profile)
Micro: Task swim line
Roles – student, tutor, etc.
Tasks – read, discuss, etc.
Tools and resources
Makes design explicit
Maps out design
Sharable with others
Good at activity level
Visual maps with icons + connections
The method is an important as the tool
Multiple layers, maps within maps
Drag and drop different file formats (images, videos etc.)
In-situ design help
Meso: Outcomes map
Can map learning outcomes to activities, assessment or content
Can use connections to describe
Makes design explicit
Highlights any gaps
Gives an overview of the block
Concept mapping tool
Concepts with links
Links called propositions
Can add resources to concepts
Can export in a variety of formats
Macro: Course map & Pedagogy profile
Gives an ‘at a glance’ view
Based on 5 mains aspects of a course
Can differentiate ‘real’ & digital
Maps to types of activities the students do
Can look at different timeframes
Profiles pedagogical overview
Can compare with other courses
Guidance & support Evidence & demonstration Information & experience Communication & interaction Thinking & reflection Course map
Gives an “at a glance view”
Five components to any course
Represent a course
Course map/At a glance representation Guidance and support “ Learning pathway” Course structure and timetable Course calendar, study guide, tutorials Information and experience “ Content and activities” Could include course materials, prior experience or student generated content Readings, DVDs, podcasts, lab or field work, placements Communication and interaction “ Dialogue” Social dimensions of the course, interaction with other students and tutors Course forum, email Thinking and reflection “ Meta-cognition” Internalisation and reflection on learning In-text questions, notebook, blog, e-portfolio, Evidence and demonstration “ Assessment” Diagnostic, formative and summative Multiple choice quizzes, TMAs, ECA
Course map Information & experience PDF resources Links to e-journal articles and other websites Evidence & demonstration 6 TMAs – submitted online (505 of overall score) 3hr examination (50% of overall score) Thinking & reflection Activities throughout learning guides (4-7 per guide) 5 website ‘interactives’ Journal space in MyStuff Core questions, thinking points and summaries in course books Communication & interaction Course-wide Café forum Tutor group forums with sub-forums for each block F2F tutorials near beginning, middle and end of course (some regional variation) Guidance & support Study planner 20 Learning guides General assessment guidance TMA questions Course guide Study calendar KE312 Working Together for Children 60pt course over 32 weeks 3 blocks/20 learning guides Whole weeks devoted to TMAs Consolidation week (week 22)
Aligned to latest prof framework for mult-agency working
Rich case studies
Read – relate to practice – reflect – write
3 co-published course books (21 chapters/ 960pp) DVD – videos of 3 practice settings + interviews (XXmin) Plus own experience and practice Tutor support – 1:20; 21 contact hrs; band 7 Mick Jones, Associate Dean, HSC, OU
Map of student tasks to time periods (weeks, semesters, etc)
Six types of student tasks + assessment
Each cell indicates the amount of time spent in that period on each type of task
Widget provides graphical view
Cloudworks: the dialogic element
Lack of uptake of technologies for learning and teaching
New skills needed for engaging in a participatory digital landscape
Teachers say they want examples /want to share/discuss
To bridge the gap between the potential of technologies and their actual use in an educational context
Can we harness web 2.0 practices to foster better sharing and discussing of learning and teaching ideas and designs?
core objects in Cloudworks
collections of clouds
dynamic filters of new activity
Follow and be followed:
Personal activity stream and peer recognition
Putting it all together
The learning design toolbox
Pick and mix of tools, resources, activities, methods and templates
Tailored workshops and events
Working with new MBA programme at OU
Brunel Blended Learning Design Challenge
Reading and Southbank events in development
Educational Technology User Group (Canada) Workshops
Integration with other research
Building on other research…. Guiding the design process Range of representations Dialogue around designs Free resources Inherent designs Student view Abstracted best practice Solutions to a problem Language as related problems Design for learning Open Educational Resources Pedagogical patterns
OLnet: Open Learning network Network Research Fellowships
From producing open resources to use of open resources
Refine the issues
Process design Prior designs & resources New designs Visualisation (CompendiumLD) Sharing (Cloudworks) Content (OER repositories, etc) Methods (Pedagogical Patterns) New OER & designs
A framework for intervention Policy Research & development Teacher practice The learner’s experience Institutional & national funding Embedding in strategy Aligning to technology trends Changing user behaviour Drivers and challenges Actual use in practice What’s in it for me? Evidence of impact
Students increasingly digital – demands on institutions?
Students and teachers - personalised environment of tools vs. institutional tools?
What new forms of blended learning spaces are needed?
How do we support new approaches to design and delivery of courses to make more effective use of technologies and lead to an enhance student learning experience?
How do we take account of a digital divide that is ever narrower but deeper?
What new digital literacy skills will learners and teachers need ?
What new pedagogical models are needed to marry the affordances of personalisation with the best affordances of technologies?
How do we account for blurring boundaries (real/virtual, formal/informal, etc)?
Digital divide is ever increasing. How do we deal with this?
Are we seeing Jenkin’s 12 digital literacies skills? How can we help those in education develop these more?
How can we study these complex, fast evolving technological systems ? New methodologies ?
What theoretical insights should we draw on?
Is there evidence of new pedagogies emerging?
Are we capable (and willing) to rise to the challenge?
Treasure island 1 http://www.flickr.com/photos/tontoncopt/2075310775/
Web 2.0 city http://www.flickr.com/photos/4everyoung/313308360/
Grand challenges http://www.kamaelia.org/GrandChallengesCover.png