Interdisciplinarity <ul><li>Fostering dialogue and creating new meaning </li></ul>Gráinne Conole and Eileen Scanlon  IET, ...
Plan <ul><li>Some musings on interdisciplinarity </li></ul><ul><li>Case study from PI project </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm...
ESRC Genomics network <ul><li>Sahra Gibbon followed 2 social science and 2 science Ph D students  </li></ul><ul><li>Studen...
<ul><li>Initially the science students didn’t know what a trope was and the social science students were confused by what ...
Two prerequisites <ul><li>Participants must be able to understand each others language </li></ul><ul><li>The setting of sp...
Wootton (2004) and Kumar Giri (2002) <ul><li>People become firmly attached to their disciplines and wholly entrenched with...
CNRS seminar <ul><li>http://www.interdisciplines.org/interdisciplinarity </li></ul><ul><li>Internet has introduced so-to-s...
<ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive constra...
Redekkal, 1994 <ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-subject area  – no evidence of the area or perceived need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Cognitive science? <ul><li>“ At present most cognitive scientists are drawn from the rank of specific disciplines—in parti...
RAE musings <ul><li>Submission in Chemistry – I published in the standard recognised journals for my area, I was lucky eno...
Training and Evaluation <ul><li>What should be done about interdisciplinary training of graduate students and postdoctoral...
What counts??? <ul><ul><ul><li>Covers an  important  and topical area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to be  ci...
Co-evolution of  tools and practice <ul><li>Impact of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Changing nature of academic disco...
 
Experiences from PI project <ul><li>Language issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger artefacts - terms such as scenario, task...
‘Personalisation’ <ul><li>Language from different perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government agenda on choice </li></ul...
Inquiry Cycle <ul><li>Inquiry Learning Cycle developed from literature as part of working paper </li></ul><ul><li>Discussi...
 
 
Select domain and orientate Create inquiry question or hypothesis Plan method and procedure Conduct inquiry Analyse eviden...
Select domain and orientate Create inquiry question or hypothesis Plan method and procedure Conduct inquiry Analyse eviden...
‘Mediating artefacts’ <ul><li>As mechanism for making issues explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Shared mediating artefact coupled ...
Approaches <ul><li>Identify mediating artefacts to promote discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of facilitating dialog...
Team and institution <ul><li>What are the critical aspects of interdisciplinary team formation? </li></ul><ul><li>Are ther...
Workshop activity <ul><li>Brainstorm  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Birth disciplines’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodologies ...
What do we mean by Inquiry-based Construction Conceptual u/s Taking tests Problem-solving Narrative Literacy Game authorin...
RAE UOA45: Research scope - methodologies <ul><li>Educational research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied linguistics </li></ul...
Towards AERA 2009 <ul><li>I ssues of design:  How can we design for innovation and adopt a more participatory, inclusive a...
Breakout rooms <ul><li>2nd Floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C42: A -F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C45: G - L </li></ul></ul><ul>...
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Conole Scanlon Final

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  • Conole Scanlon Final

    1. 1. Interdisciplinarity <ul><li>Fostering dialogue and creating new meaning </li></ul>Gráinne Conole and Eileen Scanlon IET, The Open University TEL Interdisciplinarity workshop Nottingham University 14th November 2008
    2. 2. Plan <ul><li>Some musings on interdisciplinarity </li></ul><ul><li>Case study from PI project </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections from pre-TEL: 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Next steps - towards AERA 2009 </li></ul>
    3. 3. ESRC Genomics network <ul><li>Sahra Gibbon followed 2 social science and 2 science Ph D students </li></ul><ul><li>Students experienced research practices and methods of each others disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Shared difficulty in understanding each others specialist disciplinary language </li></ul><ul><li>Some progress made with each other’s language </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Initially the science students didn’t know what a trope was and the social science students were confused by what introns and possibly also by tropes </li></ul><ul><li>Smith and Gibbon </li></ul>
    5. 5. Two prerequisites <ul><li>Participants must be able to understand each others language </li></ul><ul><li>The setting of specific goals for collaboration </li></ul>
    6. 6. Wootton (2004) and Kumar Giri (2002) <ul><li>People become firmly attached to their disciplines and wholly entrenched with the associated disciplinary mindsets. It has been said that we belong and tend to think that the whole world is characterised by disciplinary significance. The problems of this tunnel vision include the fact that researchers may overlook the effects of their work on other disciplines and produce solutions of no use in the real world </li></ul>
    7. 7. CNRS seminar <ul><li>http://www.interdisciplines.org/interdisciplinarity </li></ul><ul><li>Internet has introduced so-to-speak “soft-assembled” online research communities </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary research is always a new synthesis of expertise. How can the necessary expertise be mounted to evaluate research results? </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Mode 2 knowledge (Nowotny, Fuller) </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetic interdisciplinarity? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Redekkal, 1994 <ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-subject area – no evidence of the area or perceived need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beginnings – individuals begin to ask new questions triggered by some event or catalyst </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence – more researchers begin to work in the area and a community begins to develop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment – the area becomes recognised in its own right with a defined community, experts, associated journals and conferences, perceived of as ‘respected’ research with associated professional status, courses and career routes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Cognitive science? <ul><li>“ At present most cognitive scientists are drawn from the rank of specific disciplines—in particular, philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, and neuroscience. … The hope is that some day the boundaries between these disciplines may become attenuated or perhaps disappear altogether, yielding a single unified cognitive science.” (Gardner 1985: 7). The Minds New Science: A History of the cognitive Revolution. New York: Basic books </li></ul>
    11. 11. RAE musings <ul><li>Submission in Chemistry – I published in the standard recognised journals for my area, I was lucky enough to be collaborating with a good range of internationally recognised researchers. When I moved into the area of e-learning things became less clear; as a relatively young research area should I be publishing in new e-learning focused journals or more main-stream, well established education journals? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Training and Evaluation <ul><li>What should be done about interdisciplinary training of graduate students and postdoctoral scholars ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are effective criteria for evaluating interdisciplinary papers? Does interdisciplinary research require different or additional criteria for evaluation than disciplinary research? </li></ul>
    13. 13. What counts??? <ul><ul><ul><li>Covers an important and topical area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to be cited a lot by others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key positional paper or review which gives a definition of an area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New insight /ways of thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact – on policy makers, institutions or practitioners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides the development of new theory , framework or model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes good solid empirical studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grounded in the literature and evidence of knowledge of key issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of novel, new thinking , new approaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrospective piece showing how the work builds on or provides a foundation for other work that followed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides clarity and insight into a well recognised problem </li></ul></ul></ul>ALT-J editorial, 2007, Issue 15.3
    14. 14. Co-evolution of tools and practice <ul><li>Impact of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Changing nature of academic discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly evolving/changing technological environment </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatch between new practices and old methods and metrics </li></ul>
    15. 16. Experiences from PI project <ul><li>Language issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger artefacts - terms such as scenario, task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Stages’, ‘phases’, does it determine workflow? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger events - workshop and wiki used to produce a project glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inquiry learning cycle issues </li></ul><ul><li>School issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum, ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ buy in’, relevance, different perspectives on issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participatory design </li></ul>
    16. 17. ‘Personalisation’ <ul><li>Language from different perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government agenda on choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective on individualisation of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term appropriated by PLE and Web 2.0 communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postmodern perspective - will we ever get shared agreement on terms anymore? folksonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-evolution of practice and technologies </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Inquiry Cycle <ul><li>Inquiry Learning Cycle developed from literature as part of working paper </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion influenced curriculum planning </li></ul><ul><li>Representation issues emerged when using it to guide design of (implemented) activity guide </li></ul>
    18. 21. Select domain and orientate Create inquiry question or hypothesis Plan method and procedure Conduct inquiry Analyse evidence Draw conclusions Present inquiry Evaluate inquiry
    19. 22. Select domain and orientate Create inquiry question or hypothesis Plan method and procedure Conduct inquiry Analyse evidence Draw conclusions Present inquiry Evaluate progress
    20. 23. ‘Mediating artefacts’ <ul><li>As mechanism for making issues explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Shared mediating artefact coupled with timed targeted discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification – the area starts to mature and different schools of thought emerge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolving understanding - vocabulary, representation, concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Working paper 2 - Distinction between operation, technical and educational </li></ul>
    21. 24. Approaches <ul><li>Identify mediating artefacts to promote discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of facilitating dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staged outputs and face to face workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participatory design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing together different stakeholder perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted events </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. Team and institution <ul><li>What are the critical aspects of interdisciplinary team formation? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there polices could adopt that would facilitate interdisciplinary research, such as different cost-sharing, allowing for co-PIs, etc.? </li></ul>
    23. 26. Workshop activity <ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Birth disciplines’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of research focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches to fostering interdisciplinarity </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. What do we mean by Inquiry-based Construction Conceptual u/s Taking tests Problem-solving Narrative Literacy Game authoring Skill-learning (TCS) Fieldwork Communication Collaboration Learning identity Conceptual networks Manipulation skills Informal interests Self-worth Modelling Scenarios Evaluating evidence Games Tools Cultural tools Adaptive ITS Avatars Embodied interaction Augmented cognition Pers L Environment Learner models Portable devices Conversation agents Editable digital artefacts Digital data tracking Haptic devices Virtual objects Online communities Adaptive support Simulation Collaborative technology Replacing less active methods Frameworks for learning design Only form of access to learning Improve quality of interaction More practice in skills Adaptive personalisation Visualisation in situ Alternative modes or pathways Constructive personalisation Better quality assessment Sharing and peer support Scaling up More engaging activities More flexible learning Personalised guidance Technology? Enhanced? Learning? … from the current project proposals for TEL: Learning as ‘doing’; and through ‘social interaction’ Enhancement as forms of personalisation, flexibility, inclusion and productivity Laurillard, 2006
    25. 28. RAE UOA45: Research scope - methodologies <ul><li>Educational research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>action research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literature review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>documentary analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analytic work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TEL research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>action research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literature review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information mgt, systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCI, AI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design, architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>+ design studies, creative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discourse analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pre- and post-testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical incident analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activity monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modelling </li></ul></ul>TEL Education TEL is extending the methodologies of research Are there other key methodologies? Laurillard, 2006
    26. 29. Towards AERA 2009 <ul><li>I ssues of design: How can we design for innovation and adopt a more participatory, inclusive approach to design? What is the relationship between design and instantiation of practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation of practice: How might innovative technologies lead to real transformation of practice? What are the barriers and enablers? What new forms of pedagogy are possible? </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological development and interdisciplinary inquiry: What are the methodological challenges and what are methodological innovations? What are the benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary research? </li></ul>
    27. 30. Breakout rooms <ul><li>2nd Floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C42: A -F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C45: G - L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C47: M - R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C49: S - Z </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appoint a report back person!! </li></ul><ul><li>Come back at 2.30 </li></ul>

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