Conole Japan


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Conole Japan

  1. 1. A holistic approach to design for learning: a student-centered approach Gráinne Conole, Open University, UK Annual International CODE Symposium, Chiba, Japan, 18 th February 2010 Slides and links:
  2. 2. My context… My background: Irish PhD Chemistry Professor of e-learning <ul><li>Open University, UK: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st ‘Open University’ </li></ul><ul><li>More than 200, 000 students </li></ul><ul><li>570 courses in 70 subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Open Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>(Materials+Tutor+Assessment) </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 tutors </li></ul><ul><li>20 partnerships in 30 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise in e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning environment: Moodle+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YouTube channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenLearn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SecondLife </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Towards student-centered learning Teacher Student Teaching Learning Content Activities New technologies: Opportunities and challenges New tools and resources: To help teachers design
  4. 4. Locating educational approaches Formal, ‘traditional’ courses Problem-based learning Contract-based learning Informal web-based learning Teacher-centred Student- centred Activity-based Content-based A lecture Why is a river polluted? Amateur photography Professional development
  5. 5. Blurring boundaries Teacher-centred Student- centred Activity-based Content-based Teaching Learning How do we deal with this new complexity? Learning Design as a conceptual framework
  6. 6. Outline <ul><li>Education in an increasingly technology context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The learner voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of technology innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converging practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradoxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gap between promise and reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work at the OUUK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OU Learning Design Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLnet </li></ul></ul>The landscape of the web 2.0 world…. Exploring new digital territories
  7. 7. Technologies: changing, evolving… Abundance of online resources Ubiquitous, just-in-time, learning Mobile technologies IT services decentralised (Cloud computing)
  8. 8. The learner voice <ul><li>Technologically immersed </li></ul><ul><li>Learning processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task orientated, experiential, cummulative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group orientated, experiential, able to multi-task, just in time mindset, comfortable with multiple representations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disconnect between student & institutional approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Caution re: net gen claims, importance of taking account of student differences </li></ul><ul><li>Do seem to be age related changes taking place and these are strongly linked to social networking and the use of a range of new </li></ul>Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Mary Thorpe, JISC LEX projects, Sharpe and Beetham (forthcoming)
  9. 9. Content defined… Open University UK: From broadcast TV to multi-channel
  10. 10. Personalised and mobile New learning opportunities Individualised personal environments Synchronising across devices Location and context aware The i-phone: a transformative technology But what next?
  11. 11. Reflection: e-portfolios
  12. 12. Virtual learning
  13. 13. New learning spaces <ul><li>Combining the affordances of new technologies with good pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Taking account of context, location and time </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring of real and virtual </li></ul>New spaces, new metaphors, new ways of working SKG: Learning Spaces project, Australia JISC Designing spaces for effective learning
  14. 14. Converging practices <ul><li>Modern technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Modern pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 practices </li></ul><ul><li>Location aware technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation & customisation </li></ul><ul><li>Second life/ immersive worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Google it! </li></ul><ul><li>“ Expert badges” , World of warcraft </li></ul><ul><li>User- generated content </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging, peer critiquing </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud computing </li></ul><ul><li>From individual to social </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualised and situated learning </li></ul><ul><li>Personalised learning </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry learning </li></ul><ul><li>Peer learning </li></ul><ul><li>Open Educational Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed cognition </li></ul>
  15. 15. Paradoxes created by the digital Expansive knowledge domain Hierarchy & control less meaningful Increasingly complex digital landscape Content distributed, everything is miscellaneous Collective intelligence Free content & tools, open APIs and mash ups Technology aspect Generic impact Educational impact Death of expertise / everyone an expert Multiple pathways / lost in cyberspace Beyond ‘digital space’/ New metaphors Multiple (co-)locations / loss of content integrity Social collective/digital individualism Issues re: ownership , value, business models Challenges the role of the teacher Need for new learner pathways Widening skills gap from ‘tech savy’ Need to rethink the design process Potential for new forms of learning Lack of uptake
  16. 16. Digital literacies <ul><li>Jenkins twelve skills for participatory culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play – experimentation/problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance – alternative identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation – construct models of real-world processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriation – sample and remix of media content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking – scanning and then focusing on salient details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed cognition – interaction to expand mental capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective intelligence - to pool knowledge with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment – evaluation reliability of different information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmedia navigation – follow the flow of stories across modalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking – search for, synthesize and dissemination information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation – travel diverse communities, multiple perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualisation – different data representations for ideas, patterns, trends </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The gap between promise & reality <ul><li>Common reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I haven’t got time ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ My research is more important” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What’s in it for me ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where is my reward ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t have the skills to do this” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t believe in this, it won’t work” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common resistance strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll say yes (and do nothing ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermine the initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermine the person involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do it badly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classic mistakes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the technologies , not the people and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding for technology developments but not use and support </li></ul></ul>Free resources Little reuse Array of technologies Not fully exploited
  18. 18. Designing for Learning Representing pedagogy Guiding design Sharing ideas Empirical evidence base OULDI Open University Learning Design Initiative OLnet Supporting researchers and users of Open Educational Resources
  19. 19. OULDI…. Design methods: schema & patterns Visualisation: CompendiumLD Support and guidance: Events Sharing and discussing: Cloudworks
  20. 20. Visualisation <ul><li>Helps articulate and share designs </li></ul><ul><li>Supports effective design </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights key requirements at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates design advice and support at key points in the process </li></ul>
  21. 21. CompendiumLD <ul><li>Tool for visualising designs </li></ul><ul><li>Based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles – student, tutor, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks – read, discuss, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes design explicit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps out design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharable with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good at activity level </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Course map & Pedagogy profile <ul><li>Course map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives an ‘at a glance’ view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the 5 key aspects of a course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps to the types of student activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can look at different timeframes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages of these ‘views’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide pedagogical overviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can compare with other courses </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Guidance and Support “ Learning pathway”: Course structure and timetable e.g. course calendar, study guide, tutorials Thinking and reflection “ Meta-cognition” : Internalization and reflection, e.g. in-text questions, blogs, e-portfolios Evidence and demonstration “ Assessment” : Diagnostic, formative or summative, e.g. multiple choice questions, assignments, exams Information and experience “ Contents and activities” : Course materials, prior experience, learner-generated content, e.g. readings, DVDs, podcasts, labs Communication and Interaction “ Dialogue” : Social dimensions of the course, interaction between learners and tutors, e.g. course forum, email Course Map View: Course title Course summary Level, credits, duration, key features Key works Description words indicating pedagogical approach, special features
  24. 24. Pedagogy profile <ul><li>Map of student tasks to time periods (weeks, semesters, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Six types of student tasks + assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each cell indicates the amount of time spent in that period on each type of task </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based interactive version available </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Teaching is a ‘craft’ practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key aspects to support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing best practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas, support and advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing professional knowledge </li></ul></ul>Communication
  26. 26. Cloudworks: sharing teaching practice <ul><li>A space for sharing and discussing learning and teaching ideas and designs </li></ul><ul><li>Application of the best of web 2.0 practice to a teaching context </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative development and evaluation – based on use </li></ul><ul><li>Part of OU Learning Design Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juliette Culver – developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebecca Galley – cloudworks facilitators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing international ‘cloudworks champions’ </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Why was it developed? <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To bridge the gap between technologies and use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of uptake of technologies in education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers say they want examples /want to share/discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New skills needed for engaging with new technologies </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Key concepts <ul><li>Clouds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>core objects in Cloudworks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloudscapes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collections of clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity streams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamic filters of new activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow and be followed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal activity stream and peer recognition </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Homepage <ul><li>Active clouds </li></ul><ul><li>New Cloudscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Login </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloudstream </li></ul>
  30. 30. Clouds Clouds: Ideas Design or case studies Tools or resources Questions or problems
  31. 31. Active clouds <ul><li>Current topics </li></ul><ul><li>Hot issues </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Flash debates </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cloudscapes <ul><li>“ Learn about” Cloudscape: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 Clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Space to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Individuals, collectives, communities <ul><li>Views from 158 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers (from K-12, tertiary, independent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational technologists/support staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary crossing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose, different motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lurking through active participation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Uses and benefits <ul><li>Events: conferences and workshops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ETUG workshop , 20 th- 21 st October 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussions: Flash debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The changing nature of conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliciting expertise and open reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature review of Web 2.0 use in Higher Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggregating resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalising formal learning with technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. LD Toolbox <ul><li>A ‘pick and mix’ of learning design tools and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting advice and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Trialled across a range of teaching and learning environments </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  36. 36. Using the toolbox <ul><li>Activities graded: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introductory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advanced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 interventions offered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community peer support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailored events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side-by-side mentoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Co-creative approach to ensure relevance </li></ul>
  37. 38. Olnet - Design, use, reuse Designer OER Design Creates Deposits Deposits Learner A OER Design Learner B Tutor Chooses Uses Quiz + beginners route Uses Quiz + advanced route Repurposes & deposits
  38. 39. A holistic approach to design for learning – a vision for the future Gráinne Conole, Open University, UK Annual International CODE Symposium, Chiba, Japan, 18 th February 2010 More info, slides and references:
  39. 40. Flickr images <ul><li>Treasure island 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 city </li></ul><ul><li>Grand challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Open Space InQbate CETL in Creativity University of Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>Secondlife image / CC BY 2.0 </li></ul>