Conole iaidis 22_july
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Transcript

  • 1. Rethinkinglearning andteaching in a digital age Gráinne Conole The Open University, UK 22nd July 2011, Rome IADIS conference
  • 2. A little context…
  • 3. A little context…My background:IrishPhD Chemistry
  • 4. A little context…My background:IrishPhD ChemistryResearch interests:Professor of e-learning at the OULearner and teachers’ use oftechnologyLearning designOpen Educational ResourcesLearning theoriesWeb 2.0 technologiesE-learning strategy and policy
  • 5. A little context…My background:IrishPhD ChemistryResearch interests:Professor of e-learning at the OULearner and teachers’ use oftechnologyLearning designOpen Educational ResourcesLearning theoriesWeb 2.0 technologiesE-learning strategy and policy
  • 6. Overview• Today’s educational context• Social and participatory media• Pedagogies of e-learning• Digital literacies• Community and interactivity• Open practices• Final thoughts
  • 7. Today’s educational context• Rapidly changing technological environment• New digital literacy skills needed for learners and teachers• New open practices are emerging• New forms of online community and interactivity Learning pathways
  • 8. Limitless• Unbounded intelligence• Unlocking potential• Distributed cognition (people and technologies) Trailer
  • 9. Social and participatory media 6 Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 10. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 11. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 12. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 13. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 14. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Virtual worlds and games Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 15. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Virtual worlds and games Syndication Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 16. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Virtual worlds and games Social Syndication bookmarking Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 17. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 18. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Collaborative Recommender editing systems Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 19. Social and participatory media 6 Media sharing Blogging Mash ups Messaging Collaborative Recommender editing systems Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 20. The machine is Us/ing us
  • 21. Peercritiquing The machine is Us/ing us
  • 22. Peercritiquing Usergenerated content The machine is Us/ing us
  • 23. Peercritiquing Usergenerated contentNetworked The machine is Us/ing us
  • 24. Peer Opencritiquing Usergenerated contentNetworked The machine is Us/ing us
  • 25. Peer Opencritiquing User Collectivegenerated aggregation contentNetworked The machine is Us/ing us
  • 26. Peer Opencritiquing User Collectivegenerated aggregation contentNetworked Personalised The machine is Us/ing us
  • 27. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010a A
  • 28. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010a Associative Focus on individual Learning through association and reinforcement A
  • 29. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010a Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A
  • 30. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010a Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A Situative Learning through social interaction Learning in context
  • 31. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010a Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A Situative Connectivist Learning through Learning in a social interaction networked Learning in context environment
  • 32. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010aE-trainingDrill & practice Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A Situative Connectivist Learning through Learning in a social interaction networked Learning in context environment
  • 33. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010aE-training Inquiry learningDrill & practice Resource-based Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A Situative Connectivist Learning through Learning in a social interaction networked Learning in context environment
  • 34. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010aE-training Inquiry learningDrill & practice Resource-based Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A Situative Connectivist Learning through Learning in a social interaction networkedExperiential, Learning in context environmentproblem-based,role play
  • 35. Mayes & De Freitas, 2004 Pedagogies of e-learning Dyke et. al, 2007 Conole, 2010aE-training Inquiry learningDrill & practice Resource-based Associative Constructivist Focus on individual Building on prior Learning through knowledge association and Task-orientated reinforcement A Situative Connectivist Learning through Learning in a social interaction networkedExperiential, Learning in context environment Reflective & dialogproblem-based, learning,role play Personalised learning
  • 36. Some case study examples E-training, Interactive materials, drill and practice e-assessment Google, media sharing Inquiry learning, repositories, user- resource-based learning generated content Location aware devices, Situative, problem- Virtual worlds, online based, role play games Reflective and dialogic Blogs, RSS feeds, e- learning, Personalised portfolios, wikis, social learning networks
  • 37. E-training, drill and practice McNaught, 2010, Edmedia Keynote
  • 38. Going mobile E-books Study calendars Learning resources Online modules Communication mechanisms
  • 39. Inquiry-based learning My communityThe Personal Inquiry projectInquiry-based learning across formal andinformal settingsSharples, Scanlon et al.http://www.pi-project.ac.uk/
  • 40. Resource-based learning GL OM ake r Lea rnin gO bje cts es U iTun dca sts - Po Open Educational Resources
  • 41. Mash ups 14 http://voicethread.com/
  • 42. Situative and role-based learning What can avatars do? Virtual realities in collaborative learning Li et al., 2010, Edmedia conference Aims to develop proficient technical writing and design skills Cohort of 82 students created a movie poster of the film, Avatar Virtual exhibition in SecondLife Other examples: Archeological digs Medical wards Art exhibitions Cyber-law Virtual language exchange Beyond formal schooling
  • 43. SecondLife 16• Heightened sense of telepresence• Importance of non-verbal clues• Conveying emotional state• Stimulating, involving, motivational
  • 44. Reflective and dialogic learning Uses Blogs and E-portfolios for personal reflection Wikis/social bookmarking for aggregation Wikis for project-based work Cohort blogs for shared understanding Web 2.0 tool to connect beyond the course E-portfolios for aggregation and evidence Twitter for just-in-time learningJoyes, 2009, Asciliteconference
  • 45. Using media for my Spanish learning 18 Completed two OU Spanish courses(books, DVDs, audio conferencing, f-to-f tutorials) Follow Spanish speakers on Twitter Postin Spanish on Twitter and facebook Changed Facebook skin to Spanish Joined relevant social networking groups of language learners Usee-dictionaries and Google translate (with care!) Listen to online podcasts Read Spanish newspapers online
  • 46. Livemocha 19
  • 47. Role play 20
  • 48. Busuu 21
  • 49. Spanish meetup 22
  • 50. facebook 23
  • 51. 24Effective use of new technologies requires a radical rethink of the core learning and teaching processes; a shift from design as an internalised, implicit and individuallycrafted process to one that is externalised and shareable with others. Change in practice may indeed involve the use of revised materials, new teaching strategies and beliefs - all in relation to educational innovation. Conole and Alevizou, 2010
  • 52. Digital literacies Jenkins et al, 2006
  • 53. Digital literaciesPerformance SimulationAppropriation JudgementNetworking MultitaskingCollective Transmediaintelligence navigationDistributed Negotiationcognition Play Jenkins et al, 2006
  • 54. Creativity Special issue EURODL: Creativity and OER
  • 55. Definition • Derived from Latin ‘creo’ to create/make • About creating something new (physical artefact or concept) that is novel and valuable • Ability to transcend traditional ideas, rules, partners, relationships and create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, interpretations
  • 56. Why is it important?• Essential skill to deal with today’s complex, fast and changing society• Discourse and collaboration are mediated through a range of social and participatory media
  • 57. Technologies• Can promote creativity in new and innovative ways• Enable new forms of discourse, collaboration and cooperation• Access and repurpose knowledge in different forms of representation• Aggregation and scale - distributed and collective
  • 58. Online communities• New open, social and participatory media enable new means of communication, collaboration, sharing and co- construction of knowledge• Want to focus on the nature of community in these new online spaces• From tight to loosely coupled: groups, networks and collectives (Dron and Anderson, 2007)• What is it and how can it be fostered, supported?
  • 59. The nature of community• Complex, distributed, loose communities are emerging• Facilitated through different but connected social networking tools such as facebook, Twitter, Ning• Users create their own Personal Digital Environment• Mix of synchronous and asynchronous tools• Boundary crossing e.g. the power of retweeting• Links between interests, rather than places
  • 60. Definitions[Community does not] imply necessarily co-presence, a well-defined identifiable group, orsocially visible boundaries. It does implyparticipation in an activity system aboutwhich participants share understandingsconcerning what they are doing and what thatmeans in their lives and for their communitiesLave and Wenger, 1991Virtual communities are social aggregationsthat emerge from the Net when enoughpeople carry on those public discussions longenough, with sufficient human feeling, to formwebs of personal relationships in cyberspace.Rheingold, 1993
  • 61. Community as a process• Constantly evolving and changing• Shifting groups and depths of relationships• Dynamic, evolving and potentially transformative• Both directed and serendipitous interactions
  • 62. Interactivity• New technologies enable increasing interactivity between learners and teachers• Complex: psychological, social, technical, linguistic and cultural dimensions• Types: communication-based, purpose-based, tool-based, activity-based• Important in achievement, persistence, enjoyment and approaches to learning
  • 63. DefinitionInteractions occur when theseobjects and events mutuallyinfluence one another. Aninstructional interaction is anevent that takes place between alearner and the learnersenvironment. Its purpose is torespond to the learner in a wayintended to change his or herbehavior toward and educationalgoal. Instructional interactionshave two purposes: to changelearners and to move them toward Wagner, 1994achieving their goals.
  • 64. Types• Learner-learner• Learner-teacher• Learner-content• Learner-interface Moore, 1989; Hillman et al., 1994
  • 65. Open practices What are the implications ofadopting more open approaches?
  • 66. Social and participatory media 38 Media sharing Blogging Mash ups Messaging How are social andCollaborative participatory media Recommenderediting systems being used to enable open practices? Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking
  • 67. Open resources
  • 68. Open resources
  • 69. Open resources
  • 70. Open resources
  • 71. Open courses
  • 72. Open design Shift from belief-based, implicit approaches to design-based, explicit approaches Learning Design A design-based approach to creation and support of coursesEncourages reflective, scholarly practices Promotes sharing and discussion Conole, 2010b
  • 73. Open research
  • 74. Open research
  • 75. Open research
  • 76. Open research
  • 77. Open scholarship 44
  • 78. Open scholarship 44DiscoveryIntegrationApplicationTeaching
  • 79. Open scholarship 44DiscoveryIntegrationApplicationTeachingOpenDigitalNetworked Weller: http://nogoodreason.typepad.co.uk/
  • 80. CloudworksCloudworks audio presentation
  • 81. Community indicatorsParticipation CohesionSustained over time Support & toleranceCommitment from core group Turn taking & responseEmerging roles & hierarchy Humour and playfulnessIdentity Creative capabilityGroup self-awareness Igniting sense of purposeShared language & vocab Multiple points of viewSense of community expressed, contradicted or challenged Creation of knowledge links & patterns Galley et al., 2010
  • 82. Final thoughtsOpen, participatory and social media enable new forms of communication and collaborationCommunities in these spaces are complex and distributedLearners and teachers need to develop new digital literacy skills to harness their potentialWe need to rethink how we design, support and assess learningOpen, participatory and social media can provide mechanisms for us to share and discuss teaching and research ideas in new waysWe are seeing a blurring of boundaries: teachers/ learners, teaching/research, real/virtual spaces, formal/informal modes of communication and publication
  • 83. 48Conole, G. (forthcoming), Designing for learning in an open world, Springer:Verlag g.c.conole@open.ac.uk
  • 84. The future?• Limitless potential of technologies• Individual, tools and collective• Augmented and gesture technologies• Blurring the boundaries of real World Builder and virtual worlds
  • 85. References Conole, G. (forthcoming), Designing for learning in an open world, Springer:Verlag. Conole, G. (2010a), Review of pedagogical models and their use in e-learning, http:// cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2982 Conole, G. (2010b), Learning design - making practice explicit, ConnectEd conference, Sydney, 28th June 2010, http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/4001 Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (submitted), Community Indicators: A framework for building and evaluating community activity on Cloudworks, Interactive Learning Environments. Conole, G, and Alevizou, P. (2010), A literature review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education, HE Academy commissioned report, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/EvidenceNet/ Conole_Alevizou_2010.pdf Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (2010), Case study: Using Cloudworks for an Open Literature Review, An HE Academy commissioned report. Alevizou, P., Conole, G. and Galley, R. (2010), Using Cloudworks to support OER activities, An HE Academy commissioned report. Conole, G., Galley, R. and Culver, J. (2010), Frameworks for understanding the nature of interactions, networking and community in a social networking site for academic practice, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Conole, G. and Culver, J. (2010) The design of Cloudworks: applying social networking practice to foster the exchange of learning and teaching ideas and designs Computers and Education, 54(3): 679 - 692. Conole and Culver (2009), Cloudworks: social networking for learning design, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), pp. 763–782, http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet25/conole.html.
  • 86. Websites• http://ouldi.open.ac.uk• http://cloudworks.ac.uk• http://e4innovation.com• http://oer-quality.org/• http://olnet.org
  • 87. Other references• Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A.J. and Weigel, M., (2006), Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st Century, http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/ %7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E%7D/ JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF• Weller, M (2011) The Digital Scholar. Bloomsbury Academic• Loveless, A M (2007) Creativity, technology and learning – a review of recent literature Futurelab, http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/ documents/lit_reviews/Creativity_Review_update.pdf• Dron, J., and Anderson, T. (2007). Collectives, networks and groups in social software for e-Learning, Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education Quebec. Retrieved Feb (Vol. 16, pp. 2008).• Moore, M. (1989). Three types of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.• Hillman, D. C., Willis, D. J., and Gunawardena, C. N. (1994). Learner- interface interaction in distance education: an extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 30-42.
  • 88. URLs• http://robwall.ca/2009/03/10/creativity-is-the-new-technology/• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvIQP-EBPqc• http://vimeo.com/3365942• http://blogs.hbr.org/video/2010/05/andrew-klavan-on-how-21st- cent.html• Questionmark http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/
  • 89. Acknowledgements• Snoopy http://www.flickr.com/photos/andertoons-cartoons/2754475964/• Juggling http://www.flickr.com/photos/r8r/4109502436/• Social media http://www.flickr.com/photos/intersectionconsulting/5045734278/• Creativity http://content5.videojug.com/89/89cae62c-c95f-a407-cf09-ff0008ca3c71/how-to- improve-your-creative-thinking.WidePlayer.jpg• 8LEM http://cetl.ulster.ac.uk/elearning/images/8LEM.jpg• Voicethread http://www.elearningclouds.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/VoiceThread.png• Secondlife http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_bsWh9JKbOZ0/SxYN0s1MWJI/AAAAAAAABuk/ Pvj5ETXXSRU/s400/MUVErs%2BPatient%2BRoleplay%2BSimulation%2B2.jpg• Pandora’s box http://www.flickr.com/photos/darkwood67/3431956363/• Clouds http://www.flickr.com/photos/torley/2311784203/• Students http://www.flickr.com/photos/snoy/2599258991/• Community http://www.flickr.com/photos/anonymonk/1403378488/• One world-oneweb http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/2731067095/• Web2.0 city - http://www.flickr.com/photos/4everyoung/313308360/