How can we predict for the unknown? Drawing out underlying trends from existing practice Gráinne Conole Institute of Educa...
The macro and micro context Current developments Complexity and  Interconnection: macro and  micro contexts Bridging the gap
Contemporary perspectives in e-learning ,  Conole and Oliver (eds), Forthcoming. RoutledgeFalmer Organisational issues Cha...
Learner Experiences Project LXP Student experiences Subject  discipline  differences Uses of  technologies Effective  e-le...
<ul><ul><li>Expected findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of standard packages: Word, PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Mobile to text class mates to get exam hints Blogs - personal reflection Internet and search engines Tie in key concepts a...
Survey qualitative data I use email to communicate with everyone,  especially lecturers; arranging meetings,  asking quest...
Survey qualitative data The use of the internet has replaced many aspects  of my studying before I used the internet.  I g...
Practice Information Communication Perceptions Environment
Information Content Materials and information  freely available on the Internet Perceived worth and value of material More...
Communication Communication Using tools in a variety of ways to communicate  –  with friends, family, peers and tutors  Us...
Environment Media Mixed media – increase of USB pens,  ipods, mps players, integrated phones,  better screen displays for ...
Perceptions Comfortable with technology See it as integral Nothing special – another tool to support their learning Sophis...
Practice Integrated Use of tools in a  combination  of ways to suit individual needs  Evidence of mixing and matching, com...
Context and complexity Macro-context Micro-context Socio-cultural/technological trends Organisational/policy constraints T...
Culturally rich and complex society  with changing norms and values Unpredictable, constantly changing world Giddens Virio...
Society Work Education Technology Globalisation Cultures Time Values Boundaries Fads Policy directives Economy Identity Na...
Context and complexity Micro-context Technological affordances Pedagogical approaches
Mobile technologies Blogs  and Wikis Technology-enabled spaces Personalised environments Grid technologies Adaptive techno...
ICT affordances  Access  to wealth of resources Information  overload , quality issues New forms of  dialogue Literacy  sk...
Learning by  doing Through  experience Through  dialogue Socially  situated Through  reflection Mercer Vygotsky Laurillard...
<ul><li>Gap between the </li></ul><ul><li>potential   of the technologies  </li></ul><ul><li>(confusion over how they can ...
Activities Use of different mobile devices  in a range of settings (formal and informal)  and for a range of purposes  (co...
DialogPlus toolkit: http://www.nettle.soton.ac.uk/toolkit/ Distilling the essence of activities
 
 
 
Making the link Didactic Re-production  of knowledge Approach Outcome Tasks Assessment Knowledge Assimilative Problem base...
Learning activity taxonomy ‘ Context’, ‘Outcomes’, ‘Pedagogy’  ‘ Task’  (Type, technique, roles/interactions, tools/resour...
Associative  Present  concepts Assign  tasks Adapt in light  of feedback Represent  concepts Present  content Assign  task...
Tasks Listen to video  (assimilative) Respond to questions using  PRS/whiteboard  (Info handling and experiential) Whole g...
Constructivist  Present  concepts Orientation in  relation to own  knowledge Exploration choice of resources  to solve pro...
Tasks Read problem  (assimilative) Explore environment  (experiential) Identify relevant resources  (Info handling) Apply ...
Situative  Set discussion topic Set up  format of  debate Engage in discussion Participate in  scenario Apply to  personal...
Tasks Establish context  (assimilative) Do scenario  (experiential) Watch play back  (assimilative) Peer critique  (commun...
Technologies for learning Technologies for life Information   Communication Passive Interactive Individual Social
Learning object Shared repository Active Passive Experience Information Social Individual
Active Passive Experience Information Reusable  Learning object Social Individual
Chat Archived text Active Passive Experience Information Social Individual
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Conole Final Queens

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  • It’s a rather a daunting proposition having to do an inaugural as it is difficult to know how to pitch it and it feels as if you are leaving your research philosophy very much bear. Also should one describe some in depth research or a broad overview? I have decided to opt for the latter. What I hope to do in this talk is three things. Firstly, I hope I can share with you my passion for this area of research and show you why I think it is such an exciting area to be working in. Secondly, I hope to be able to demonstrate why this is an important area, highlighting ways in which it is impacting on policy and practice. Thirdly, I would like to give you a snapshot of some of my current research interests.
  • Conole Final Queens

    1. 1. How can we predict for the unknown? Drawing out underlying trends from existing practice Gráinne Conole Institute of Educational Technology [email_address] Enhancing the education environment Queens University, Belfast 18 th September 2006
    2. 2. The macro and micro context Current developments Complexity and Interconnection: macro and micro contexts Bridging the gap
    3. 3. Contemporary perspectives in e-learning , Conole and Oliver (eds), Forthcoming. RoutledgeFalmer Organisational issues Changing roles Strategy & policy Structures & processes Staff development Underpinning technologies Mobile & ubiquitous technologies The Grid: E-Science & E-Social Science Personalised & adaptive Standards Infrastructures Pedagogical aspects E-literacies New pedagogies Models of practice Case studies of innovation Learning design Experiences & perceptions
    4. 4. Learner Experiences Project LXP Student experiences Subject discipline differences Uses of technologies Effective e-learning strategies J. Darby - Southampton, M. de Laat - Exeter, T. Dillon - Bristol Online survey Audio logs Interviews www.geodata.soton.ac.uk/eLRC/learner_survey
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Expected findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of standard packages: Word, PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data manipulation: Excel, statistical software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of search engines/internet for information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexpected findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of communication tools for learning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phone, Instant messaging, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VLE not so popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often only provides content or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher notes/powerpoint slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer science students prefer to build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their own infrastructure and websites </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Mobile to text class mates to get exam hints Blogs - personal reflection Internet and search engines Tie in key concepts and subject matter <ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile to get assignment cover sheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course websites confusing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of other students’ homepages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burning onto CDs, plagarism checks </li></ul></ul></ul>E-Portfolio and link to professional practice Internet sites for meanings and glossary Mobile phone find out about course work MSM to send course work to friends Internet for research essay Google keywords/phrase Wikipedia and podcasts
    7. 7. Survey qualitative data I use email to communicate with everyone, especially lecturers; arranging meetings, asking questions about work and queries over assignments etc I write all my assignments using Word and to sort through the information I find, make notes of what I still need to do and spell check my emails that I'm sending to lecturers. Search engines are used to find news articles I use them to find out information for assignments, and also to help me clarify my notes on each subject area that I study. Instant messaging is used to discuss issues with friends if a topic is not understood Use it to manage my data and thoughts... endnote for referencing spss - stats software - easier Data entry, producing stats The first thing i do when given any piece of word is type it into a search engine! this gives me the opportunity to see how different people interpret the title. from there i can focus on one main idea and use the electronic resources to support my initial findings or indeed rule them out. e-mail is always vital with communicating with different mediums. teachers for support
    8. 8. Survey qualitative data The use of the internet has replaced many aspects of my studying before I used the internet. I generally start by using the internet for research and then move to books etc when I have the background info My PDA is useful for reading things when I'm on the move. I use my laptop to store data and type my course works. The MP3 player serves as a storage media used to save most of my assignments, electronic journals and articles, while I use MS word application to type most of my course works. The electronic library gives me access to books, journals and articles all of which are important for my study Instant messenger and skype for communicating with students, powerpoint for laying out slides and revision notes. Do not use any graphical packages for my studies but do use them for extra-curricular activities
    9. 9. Practice Information Communication Perceptions Environment
    10. 10. Information Content Materials and information freely available on the Internet Perceived worth and value of material More interactivity Higher presentation standards Evaluation New skills needed in terms of assessing worth of content over the internet and ensuring work is that of the student Interactivity Gaming generation, used to highly, engaging and entertaining environments Evidence of a shift from passive to interactive interactions across all aspects of their learning
    11. 11. Communication Communication Using tools in a variety of ways to communicate – with friends, family, peers and tutors Use of the internet to access expert knowledge (indirect form of communication) Expectation of being able to communicate with anyone about anything when they want to Collaboration New forms of collaboration possible both with peers and via new ‘smart’ and adaptive technologies – distributed cognition and shared enterprise with tools
    12. 12. Environment Media Mixed media – increase of USB pens, ipods, mps players, integrated phones, better screen displays for reading Near ubiquitous Many now have their own PCs and wireless internet access – becoming accustomed to being able to access information or contact people on demand, anywhere
    13. 13. Perceptions Comfortable with technology See it as integral Nothing special – another tool to support their learning Sophisticated use Different tools for different purposes Critically aware of the pros and cons Expectations Access up to date and relevant information and resources vital Implications Mismatch between institutions perceptions of student use of technology and actual use
    14. 14. Practice Integrated Use of tools in a combination of ways to suit individual needs Evidence of mixing and matching, comfortable with switching between media, sites, tools, content, etc. Pervasive and personalised Extensive use to find, manage and produce content Use of computer, internet and books simultaneously Using their community of peers to share resources, get help, peer assess Changing work patterns New working practices using an integrated range of tools Use of tools is changing the way they gather, use and create knowledge Skills – shift from lower to higher levels of Blooms taxonomy Management Sophisticated at finding and managing information (searching and structuring) Used to having easy access to information (for travel, entertainment etc) and therefore have an expectation of the same for their courses
    15. 15. Context and complexity Macro-context Micro-context Socio-cultural/technological trends Organisational/policy constraints Technological affordances Pedagogical approaches
    16. 16. Culturally rich and complex society with changing norms and values Unpredictable, constantly changing world Giddens Virioli Increasing impact of technology Unintended consequences and manufactured risks Becks Networked society Castells
    17. 17. Society Work Education Technology Globalisation Cultures Time Values Boundaries Fads Policy directives Economy Identity National Strategy Mission Institutional Individual roles and identities Individual
    18. 18. Context and complexity Micro-context Technological affordances Pedagogical approaches
    19. 19. Mobile technologies Blogs and Wikis Technology-enabled spaces Personalised environments Grid technologies Adaptive technologies Podcasting
    20. 20. ICT affordances Access to wealth of resources Information overload , quality issues New forms of dialogue Literacy skills issues New forms of community Learner identity and confusion Speed of access, immediacy Lack of permanency, surface Virtual representations Lack of reality, real is fake Accessibility Speed of change Diversity Communication & collaboration Reflection Multimodality Risk Immediacy Monopolisation Surveillance Conole and Dyke, 2004
    21. 21. Learning by doing Through experience Through dialogue Socially situated Through reflection Mercer Vygotsky Laurillard Papart Kolb Dewey Lave Jarvis Paiget Wenger Constructivism Communities of practice Social learning Cognition Key characteristics of learning In the company of others
    22. 22. <ul><li>Gap between the </li></ul><ul><li>potential of the technologies </li></ul><ul><li>(confusion over how they can be used) </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>application of good pedagogical principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(confusion over which models to use) </li></ul></ul>Pedagogical approaches
    23. 23. Activities Use of different mobile devices in a range of settings (formal and informal) and for a range of purposes (collecting data, communicating findings, instructing others), imparting situated information Assistive and mind mapping software to help develop presentation skills Vicarious or experiential learning through videos and peer critique Collaborative learning through discussion – ‘ virtual student common rooms’ and cyber café, collaboration assessment tasks Rich, authentic virtual or blended augmented environments to encourage active, constructivist learning Extensive and flexible repositories of resources which can be used and repurposed in a variety of ways
    24. 24. DialogPlus toolkit: http://www.nettle.soton.ac.uk/toolkit/ Distilling the essence of activities
    25. 28. Making the link Didactic Re-production of knowledge Approach Outcome Tasks Assessment Knowledge Assimilative Problem based Application of concepts to problems Analysis Info handling Dialogic Critique and argument Evaluation Communicative
    26. 29. Learning activity taxonomy ‘ Context’, ‘Outcomes’, ‘Pedagogy’ ‘ Task’ (Type, technique, roles/interactions, tools/resources, assessment) Models Synthesis Learning activity Abstraction Case studies
    27. 30. Associative Present concepts Assign tasks Adapt in light of feedback Represent concepts Present content Assign tasks Give feedback Test understanding Acquisition of skills through sequences of concepts/tasks and feedback Guided instruction Drill and practice
    28. 31. Tasks Listen to video (assimilative) Respond to questions using PRS/whiteboard (Info handling and experiential) Whole group discussion (communicative) Roles: Indiv. and whole class Tools and resources: video, PRS, whiteboard Assessment: formative ESOL Learners can check understanding through series of structured tasks and iterative feedback
    29. 32. Constructivist Present concepts Orientation in relation to own knowledge Exploration choice of resources to solve problem Reflect observation Active experimentation Application of knowledge gained Construction of meaning based on prior experience and context Problem based Active learning Abstract conceptualisation Concrete experience
    30. 33. Tasks Read problem (assimilative) Explore environment (experiential) Identify relevant resources (Info handling) Apply resources to problem (experiential) Written report on recommendations (productive) Roles: Individual Tools and resources: Website, virtual PDA, video clips, online subject specific tools Assessment: summative Exploring the Nardoo Learners set ecological problem & use of range of resources to solve
    31. 34. Situative Set discussion topic Set up format of debate Engage in discussion Participate in scenario Apply to personal context Plenary and reflection Learning in social and/or authentic settings Dialogic Situated learning Reflect and discuss Set up work- based scenario
    32. 35. Tasks Establish context (assimilative) Do scenario (experiential) Watch play back (assimilative) Peer critique (communicative) Reflective diary (productive) Roles: Group Tools and resources: VIP suite, video camera, e-portfolio, subject specific tools & instruments Assessment: summative Virtual Interactive Practice Learners develop understanding together through authentic scenarios followed by peer-group critique
    33. 36. Technologies for learning Technologies for life Information Communication Passive Interactive Individual Social
    34. 37. Learning object Shared repository Active Passive Experience Information Social Individual
    35. 38. Active Passive Experience Information Reusable Learning object Social Individual
    36. 39. Chat Archived text Active Passive Experience Information Social Individual
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