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  • 1. What are the implications of new social and participatory media on assessment practices?<br />Gráinne Conole,<br />The Open University, UK<br />E-Assessment Scotland conference, Dundee<br />3rd September 2010<br />
  • 2. Orientation<br />Focus<br />Review of the technology landscape <br />Current landmarks <br />Future trajectories<br />Focus on learning<br />Pedagogies of e-learning<br />Case study examples<br />The gap between promise and reality<br />Implications for assessment<br />A new approach: learning design<br />
  • 3. Changing context of education<br />Changing technologies<br />Abundance of free online content and tools<br />Ubiquitous, networked access<br />Increase in mobile and smart devices<br />Need new approaches to understanding, designing and supporting learning<br />Changing learners<br />Grown up ‘digital’ <br />Technologically immersed<br />Task-orientated, group-based, ‘just in time’<br />Comfortable with multiple representations<br />
  • 4. Web 2.0 landscape of practices<br />
  • 5. New social and participatory media<br />New tools/practices need new forms of assessment<br />Sharing<br />Media sharing<br />Web 2.0<br />Communicating<br />Blogs & wikis<br />Networking<br />Social networking<br />Interacting<br />Virtual worlds<br />Shift from:<br />Web 1.0 – content repository and static information<br />Web 2.0 – user generated content and social mediation<br />
  • 6. A typology of new technologies<br />(Conole and Alevizou, 2010), Review of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education<br />http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloudscape/view/1895<br />
  • 7. Open and participatory learning<br />Design<br />Courses design & shared openly<br />Delivery<br />Use of free tools & resources<br />Open practices<br />Evaluation<br />Critical reflection<br />Assessment<br />Shared; learner controlled<br />
  • 8. The learner experience<br />Guidance & support<br />Collaboration & communication<br />Content & activities<br />Learning<br />Assessment<br />
  • 9. Pedagogies of e-learning<br />Mayes & De Freitas, 2004<br />Dyke et. al, 2007<br />A<br />E-assessment<br />Drill & practice<br />Inquiry learning<br />Resource-based<br />Associative<br />Focus on individual<br />Learning through association and reinforcement<br />Constructivist<br />Building on prior knowledge<br />Task-orientated<br />Situative<br />Learning through social interaction<br />Learning in context<br />Connectivist<br />Learning in a networked environment<br />Experiential, Problem-based Role play<br />Reflective & dialogic learning, <br />Personalised learning<br />
  • 10. Some case study examples<br />Interactive materials, <br />E-assessment<br />E-assessment, <br />drill and practice<br /> Virtual worlds, <br />Location aware devices, Online games <br />Inquiry learning, resource-based learning<br />Google, Media sharing repositories, User-generated content<br />Experiential, problem-based, role play<br />Blogs, RSS feeds, <br />E-portfolios, Wikis,<br />Social networks<br />Reflective and dialogic learning, Personalised learning<br />
  • 11. E-assessment<br />
  • 12. Going mobile<br />
  • 13. Inquiry-based learning<br />My community<br />The Personal Inquiry project<br />Inquiry-based learning across formal and informal settings<br />Sharples, Scanlon et al.<br />http://www.pi-project.ac.uk/<br />
  • 14. Resource-based learning<br />GLO Maker<br />Learning Objects<br />Podcasts - iTunes U<br />Open Educational <br />Resources<br />
  • 15. Situated learning – virtual exhibitions<br />What can avatars do? Virtual realities in collaborative learning<br />Li et al., 2010, Edmedia conference<br />Aims to develop proficient technical writing and design skills<br />Cohort of 82 students created a movie poster of the film, Avatar<br />Virtual exhibition in SecondLife<br />Other examples:<br />Archeological digs<br />Medical wards<br />Art exhibitions<br />Cyber-law<br />Virtual language exchange<br />Beyond formal schooling<br />
  • 16. Role-based learning<br />Wills et al., 2010<br />Pheny and Shun, 2009, Ascilite conference<br />
  • 17. Reflective and dialogic learning<br />Uses<br />Blogs and E-portfolios for personal reflection <br />Wikis/social bookmarking for aggregation<br />Wikis for project-based work<br />Cohort blogs for shared understanding<br />Web 2.0 tool to connect beyond the course<br />E-portfolios for aggregation and evidence<br />Twitter for just-in-time learning <br />Joyes, 2009, Ascilite conference<br />
  • 18. Connectivism and Connective knowledge <br />Personalised learning<br />Critical literacies online<br />
  • 19. Co-evolution of tools and practice<br />Characteristics of users<br />Affordances of technologies<br />Affordances (Gibson)<br />‘All"action possibilities" latent in an environmentt…<br />but always in relation to the actor and therefore dependent on their capabilities.’<br />For instance, a tall tree offers the affordances of food for a Giraffe but not a sheep.<br />Preferences<br />Reflection<br />Interests<br />Dialogue<br />Evolving<br />practices<br />Aggregation<br />Skills<br />Context<br />Interactivity<br />Basic communications <br />& gestures<br />Symbolic representations <br />(words, numbers)<br />1st wave technologies (phone, radio, fax, <br />TV, CD/DVDs)<br />2nd wave technologies networks, mobiles, the Internet)<br />
  • 20. A Tweet is simply 140 characters…<br />Examples of use<br />Posting queries<br />Commenting<br />Backchannel<br />Crowdsourcing<br />Gathering opinions<br />Sharing ideas<br />Brainstorming<br />Social presence<br />Issues<br />Your ‘a-ha’ moment<br />The right network<br />Your digital voice<br />Inappropriateness <br />Personal/private<br />Too much!<br />Use with other tools<br />A passing fad?<br />
  • 21. Communication+<br />A redefining of what ICT means<br />Audio & video conferencing<br />Media sharing<br />Forums<br />Google <br />wave<br />Email<br />Wikis<br />Blogs<br />Instant messaging<br />Twitter<br />Interactivity<br />Virtual worlds, <br />online games & <br />immersive environments <br />Web pages<br />Social networking<br />Mash ups<br />
  • 22. Digital skills (Jenkins, et al., 2008)<br />Play<br />Performance<br />Visualisation<br />Appropriation<br />Negotiation<br />Multi-tasking<br />Simulation<br />Networking<br />Distributed cognition<br />Collective intelligence<br />Transmedia navigation<br />Judgment<br />
  • 23. Implications for assessment<br />Traditional knowledge recall no longer a valid form of assessment<br />Issues with assessing collaborative learning<br />Blurring of boundaries between ‘teacher’ and ‘learner’<br />Learning no longer ‘bounded’ within the institution<br />
  • 24. Locating assessment practices<br />Activity-based<br />Group-based assessment<br />Dialogic and reflective assessment<br />Problem-based or role play learning<br />Informal web-based learning<br />Need new approaches to design<br />Teacher-centred<br />Student-<br />centred<br />Formal, ‘traditional<br />courses<br />Learner-defined<br />learning<br />Evidence-based assessment<br />Essays, exams<br />Content-based<br />
  • 25. Learning Design/Designing for learning<br />Shift from belief-based, implicit approaches to design-based, explicit approaches<br />A design-based approach to creation and support of courses<br />Encourages reflective, scholarly practices<br />Promotes sharing and discussion<br />Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Rebecca Galley, Paul Mundin <br />
  • 26. The learning design concept wheel<br />Tools<br />Activities<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />Theory<br />Dialogue<br />Representation<br />Activities<br />Tools<br />Tools<br />Activities<br />Resources<br />
  • 27. The learning design wheel<br />Tools<br />Activities<br />Learning design theory<br />Cloudworks<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />’Design<br />Challenge’<br />Foundations<br />Collaboration<br />Course views<br />Representation<br />Activities<br />Tools<br />Tools<br />Activities<br />Resources<br />Excel template<br />CompendiumLD<br />
  • 28. Translates into…<br />Tailored guided pathways of different levels of intensity and length<br />Awareness sessions<br />‘LD-lite’ workshops<br />Design challenges<br />Master’s level OER<br />Free format<br />
  • 29. Learning design course views<br />Course map<br />Pedagogy profile<br />Learning outcomes<br />Course dimensions<br />Task swimlane<br />
  • 30. Cloudworks<br />A space for sharing and discussing learning and teaching ideas<br />Application ofweb 2.0 practice<br />Examplesfor teachers & learners to share/discuss<br />A space for collaboration & communication <br />Helps develop skills needed for engaging with new technologies’<br />
  • 31. Final thoughts<br />Learning and the context of learning have changed<br />We need new assessment practices <br />How can we harness increasingly sophisticated e-assessment tools?<br />There will be an ongoing co-evolution of tools and use<br />New digital literacies are needed for both teachers and learners<br />How do we assess beyond the individual (others plus tools)?<br />We need to devise pathways for navigating an increasingly complex digital landscape<br />The boundaries between formal and informal learning are blurring<br />Changing learning, teaching and assessment <br />
  • 32. Sources<br />Mash ups http://www.flickr.com/photos/richardellard/4524139966/<br />Molecule http://www.flickr.com/photos/8272941@N07/498827420/<br />Periodic table http://www.flickr.com/photos/chemheritage/3984920162/<br />Music sheet http://www.flickr.com/photos/anyaka/21848267/<br />One world http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/2731067095/<br />World of warcraft http://www.flickr.com/photos/shardsofblue/3981216281/<br />Questionmarkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/<br />http://suifaijohnmak.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/communication-sep08_leskovec_tdef_page_03_480.jpg<br />Yin-Yang image http://learn4kicks.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/yinyangconceptmap.gif<br />Imperial collage second life island http://knowledgecast.wordpress.com/2009/07/10/icl-tour2/<br />Personal Inquiry project http://www.pi-project.ac.uk/resources/<br />E-Portfolios http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/e-portfolios <br /> <br />
  • 33. Sources <br />http://www.geeky-gadgets.com/samsung-galaxy-s2-android-3-0-and-a-2ghz-processor-06-07-2010/<br />http://thehottestgadgets.com/2008/05/samsung-to-debut-3m-mini-projectors-with-new-phones-00280<br />http://www.dontwasteyourtime.co.uk/elearning/ipad-is-it-any-good-for-the-classroom-or-learning/<br />http://www.erwinvanlun.com/images/uploads/SmartGlasses.jpg<br />OpenLearningInitiative<br />http://distancelearn.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=distancelearn&cdn=education&tm=6&f=00&su=p897.9.336.ip_&tt=11&bt=1&bts=1&zu=http://www.cmu.edu/oli/<br />Molecule http://www.flickr.com/photos/8272941@N07/498827420/<br />Periodic table http://www.flickr.com/photos/chemheritage/3984920162/<br />Music sheet http://www.flickr.com/photos/anyaka/21848267/<br />One world http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/2731067095/<br />World of warcraft http://www.flickr.com/photos/shardsofblue/3981216281/<br />Questionmarkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/<br />Crystal ball http://mashable.com/2009/08/20/ted-future/<br />
  • 34. Sources<br />iPhonehttp://virulentwordofmouse.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/iphone.jpg<br />eBook readers http://wowio.files.wordpress.com/2007/07/reader-options2.jpg<br />

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