Study of studies


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Study of studies

  1. 1. Study of Studies: Formative Assessment<br />Ryan Graham<br />
  2. 2. Formative vs. Summative Assessment<br />Formative Assessment<br />Is any assessment which provides feedback to the teacher for the purpose of improving instruction. <br />(Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1996)<br />Summative Assessment<br />A culminating assessment, which gives information on student’s mastery of content. <br />(ASCD, 1996)<br />
  3. 3. Why formative assessment?<br />“Empirical studies have shown the effectiveness of formative assessment for students, and recent theoretical work indicates that the positive feedback aspect of formative assessment stimulates self-regulation and transformation, processes that are regarded as critical to developing intelligence.”<br />“When teachers understand what students know and how they think, and then use that knowledge to make more effective instructional decisions, significant increases in student learning occur.”<br />(Davis & McGowen, 2007)<br />
  4. 4. Why formative assessment?<br />“Firm evidence shows that formative assessment is an essential component of classroom work and that its development can raise standards of achievement.”<br />(Black & Wiliam, 1998)<br />“Reviews of research have demonstrated that substantial learning gains are possible when teachers introduce formative assessment into their classroom practice”<br />(Wiliam, Lee, Harrison, & Black, 2004)<br />
  5. 5. Categorizing formal assessment<br />ASSESSING MATHEMATICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE<br /><ul><li>Use a vocabulary “Pre-test” before a unit to grasp student understanding</li></li></ul><li>Categorizing formal assessment<br />ASSESSING MATHEMATICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE<br /><ul><li>Use a daily quiz sheet as an exit slip on entry slip into class.</li></li></ul><li>Categorizing formal assessment<br />ASSESSING MATHEMATICAL PROCESS<br /><ul><li>To try to get the students to “think about their thinking”, try using some of the following interview questions. </li></li></ul><li>Categorizing formal assessment<br />ASSESSING MATHEMATICAL DISPOSITIONS<br /><ul><li>Try using the following question to get an understanding of how the student feels about math. </li></li></ul><li>Use rich questioning <br />Item 1 (success rate 88%)<br />Which fraction is the smallest?<br /> A. 1/6 B. 2/3 C. 1/3 D. 1/2 <br />Item 2 (success rate 46%)<br />Which fraction is the largest?<br /> A. 4/5 B. 3/4 C. 5/8 D. 7/10<br />
  6. 6. Use rich questioning <br />Have students write test questions.<br />“There is a substantial body of evidence that classroom learning is enhanced considerably by shifting from asking questions to making statements.” (Wiliam 1999)<br />EX. Instead of asking “Is a square a rectangle?” Make the statement “A square is always a rectangle. Explain why.”<br />
  7. 7. Dialogue and Feedback<br />“Successful teaching and learning is about dialogue and feedback.” (Callingham, 2008)<br />Find a task or activity that engages students. <br />Provide feedback with two pieces of information:<br />An affirmation of what they can currently do <br />What they need to do next to improve their understanding<br />
  8. 8. Dialogue and Feedback<br />“Feedback has to be tailored to the student and the context, and there is no simple set of instructions that can be followed to ensure that it always provides a positive result.” (Callingham, 2008) <br />Remember that every student is an individual and every student learns differently. What works for one student may not work for another. <br />
  9. 9. Student Self-Assessment<br />The teacher must share criteria with the students so that they know where it is they need to be. (a goal to reach for)<br />Students need to monitor their own progress towards that goal.<br />
  10. 10. Formative Assessment<br />Formative assessment isn’t an adding piece to the curriculum<br />It is something that teachers need to be doing everyday within their teaching<br />
  11. 11. Formative Assessment<br />Is there evidence that improving formative assessment raises standards?<br />YES<br />Is there evidence that there is room for improvement?<br />YES<br />Is there evidence about how to improve formative assessment?<br />YES<br />
  12. 12. Bibliography<br /> <br />Boston, C. (2002). The Concept of formative assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8(9), Retrieved from<br />Callingham, R. (2008, September 22). Dialogue & feedback assessment in the primary mathematics classroom. Australian Primary Mathematics, 13(3), 18-21.<br /> <br />Davis, G.E., & McGowen, M.A. (2007). Formative feedback and the mindful teaching of mathematics. Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, 21(1), 19-29.<br /> <br />Heritage, M., Kim, J., Vendlinski, T. , & Herman, J. (2009). From Evidence to action: a seamless process in formaative assessment?. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 28(3), 24-31. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  13. 13. Bibliography<br />Lawson, D. (1999). Formative assessment using computer-aided assessment. Teaching Mathematics And Its Applications, 18(4), 155-158.<br /> <br />McIntosh, M.E. (1997, November/December). Formative assessment in mathematics. Clearing House, 71(2), 92-99.<br /> <br />Wiliam, D. , & Black, P. (1998, October). Inside the black box: raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappa, 1-13.<br />Wiliam, D. (1999). Formative assessment in mathematics part 1: rich questioning. Mathematics and Special Educational Needs, 5(2), 15-18.<br />
  14. 14. Bibliography<br />Wiliam, D. (2000). Formative assessment in mathematics part 3: the learner's role. Mathematics and Special Educational Needs, 6(1), 19-22.<br /> <br />Wiliam, D., Lee, C., Harrison, C., & Black, P. (2004). Teachers developing assessment for learning: impact on student achievement. Assessment In Education, 11(1), 49-65.<br />