Using Kanban to Improve Web   Operations                  LSE Case StudyLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012                     ...
Contents Web Operations: the Issue Kanban System as designed System in practice Lessons learnedLSE Kanban Case StudyN...
LSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012                3                            Horia Varlan
Complex workload mix                                        Wide range of skills                 Short deadlines          ...
The Spiral of Death People can’t see &understand workload                         Low confidence                          ...
Kanban Literally “signal card” “Pull” system using signal cards to  manage the flow of work 5 Principles       Visuali...
Board
Best Practice No such thing as the perfect kanban system Mindset:                 Start where you are              Make ...
Reasons for managing WIP Surface flow issues (dependencies, capacity  limits, etc)rapidly & resolve them by:       Swarm...
Starting PointLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012                10
Backlog             Input Queue                           Work in Progress                       Output                   ...
Name                                     Deadline                                         IDOwnership   Originator        ...
Name                                 Done                                        Doing                                    ...
Backlog             Input Queue                           Work in Progress2) Finish item                                  ...
Backlog             Input Queue                           Work in Progress4) Internal depend                              ...
Name                                                                                                                      ...
Metrics & ReportingBacklog                        Cycle                                Analysis   Await Resource   Externa...
Board
Graham Oakes Ltd Making sense of technology…     Many organisations are caught up in the      complexity of technology a...
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Kanban for Web Operations - LSE's experience

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  • Web OperationsWho here has spare capacity?
  • Visualize the WorkflowSo typically, we are looking for state changes in the work, that generally reflect changes in the activity used to generate new information about that work, for example, analysis (an activity) generates information, and when it reaches a point of diminishing returns, we tend to refer to the work as “analyzed” and change to a different activity to generate further information such as design or test development. It is this process of punctuated information arrival that we seek to model when I ask us to Visualize the Workflow.Make it visible so we can manage & improve itLimit WIPLimiting WIP implies that we implement a pull system on part or all of the workflow. The pull system can be a kanban system, a CONWIP system, a DBR system, or some other variant. The critical elements are that work-in-progress at each state in the workflow is limited and that new work in “pulled” into the new information discovery activity when there is available capacity within the local WIP limit.This is central, so I’ll come back to it in next slideManage FlowThe flow of work items through each state in the workflow should be monitored and reported - often referred to as Measuring Flow. By flow we mean movement. We are interested in the speed of movement and the smoothness of that movement. Ideally we want fast smooth flow. Fast smooth flow means our system is both creating value quickly, which is minimizing risk and avoiding (opportunity) cost of delay, and is also doing so in a predictable fashion.We often manage static stuff (status, size of queues) – subconscious incentive to start a lot of stuff; switch the mindset towards movement & getting things finishedFlow feels good; it lets us get a lot done – efficient & high morale state: create a positive loop of increasing throughputMake Process Policies ExplicitUntil the mechanism of software development or IT operations process is made explicit it is often hard or impossible to hold a discussion about improving it. Without an explicit understanding of how things work and how work is actually done, any discussion of problems tends to be emotional, anecdotal and subjective. With an explicit understanding it is possible to move to a more rational, empirical, objective discussion of issues. This is more likely to facilitate consensus around improvement suggestions.Again, about making it visible so we can manage and improve it – a lot of policies are hidden / don’t even realise we have themImprove Collaboratively (using models/scientific method)It is the WIP limit that ultimately stimulates conversations about process problems. Things which impede flow, or introduce perturbations that mean flow is inconsistent or ragged, often result in a challenge to the WIP limit. The team has the option to break the limit, ignore the problem and carry on, or to face up to the issue, discuss it and suggest a change.Continuous improvement; with an emphasis on measuring so we don’t fool ourselves
  • Kanban for Web Operations - LSE's experience

    1. 1. Using Kanban to Improve Web Operations LSE Case StudyLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 1
    2. 2. Contents Web Operations: the Issue Kanban System as designed System in practice Lessons learnedLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 2
    3. 3. LSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 3 Horia Varlan
    4. 4. Complex workload mix Wide range of skills Short deadlines Lots of intangibles (hard to track) (hard to manage & improve) Lots of external partiesLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 4 Lingaraj G J
    5. 5. The Spiral of Death People can’t see &understand workload Low confidence Make noise (status reports, etc) Reduced capacity to deliver Add work “just in case” Context switching Large backlog Effort to manage Effort to prioritise ReworkLSE Kanban Case Study Queuing delayNov 2012 5
    6. 6. Kanban Literally “signal card” “Pull” system using signal cards to manage the flow of work 5 Principles  Visualise the workflow  Limit WIP  Manage flow  Make process policies explicit  Improve collaboratively (using models and experiments)LSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 6
    7. 7. Board
    8. 8. Best Practice No such thing as the perfect kanban system Mindset: Start where you are Make bottlenecks visible Evolve through experiments to eliminate bottlenecks KaizenLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 8
    9. 9. Reasons for managing WIP Surface flow issues (dependencies, capacity limits, etc)rapidly & resolve them by:  Swarming  Adjusting policies  Raising an issue  … Reduce queuing delays and hence:  Speed up feedback loops, so we learn and refine faster  Reduce time wasted on context switches, requirements decay, etc  Improve speed of response to requests  Kill the spiral of deathLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 9
    10. 10. Starting PointLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 10
    11. 11. Backlog Input Queue Work in Progress Output Displaced DoneExternal Analysing Ready Doing In Production UsageRequests WIP = 3 + WIP = 1 anal. WIP = Team size + 1 + Reviewed expedite + 2 inter-team ExpediteHigh WIP=3 In-House Expedit e Management & GovernanceMedium WIP=3 Analysis Interteam Expedit e Interteam OperationsLow Production Expedit Analysis Interteam e Interteam OperationsInternal Design Expedit eStrategy & Analysis Interteam InterteamCapacity OperationsImprovements Editorial ExpeditHigh WIP=3 e Analysis Interteam InterteamMedium Operations WIP=3 Rich Media Expedit Analysis Interteam eLow Interteam Operations Agency Issues LSE Kanban Case Study IT Nov 2012 Client
    12. 12. Name Deadline IDOwnership Originator Worker / Internal OwnerInterdependencies Related ItemsSystems / ComponentsDescription & Notes Also use • Colour (Originator) • Size (Effort estimate) • Rotation (Blockage) 14
    13. 13. Name Done Doing Timing Ready Stage Backlog Analysis Displaced In Production Date & TeamUsage Reviewed Date Date Date / Team 1 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 215 Date / Team 2 Date / Team 2 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 1 ID Date Deadline Date
    14. 14. Backlog Input Queue Work in Progress2) Finish item Output Displaced DoneExternal Analysing Ready Doing In Production UsageRequests WIP = 3 + WIP = 1 anal. WIP = Team size + 1 + Reviewed expedite + 2 inter-team ExpediteHigh WIP=3 In-House Expedit e Management & GovernanceMedium WIP=3 Analysis Interteam Expedit e Interteam OperationsLow Production Expedit Analysis Interteam e Interteam OperationsInternal Design Expedit eStrategy & Analysis Interteam InterteamCapacity OperationsImprovements Editorial ExpeditHigh WIP=3 e Analysis Interteam InterteamMedium Operations WIP=3 Rich Media Expedit Analysis Interteam eLow Interteam Operations Agency Issues LSE Kanban Case Study IT Nov 2012 Client
    15. 15. Backlog Input Queue Work in Progress4) Internal depend Output Displaced DoneExternal Analysing Ready Doing In Production UsageRequests WIP = 3 + WIP = 1 anal. WIP = Team size + 1 + Reviewed expedite + 2 inter-team ExpediteHigh WIP=3 In-House Expedit e Management & GovernanceMedium WIP=3 Analysis Interteam Expedit e Interteam OperationsLow Production Expedit Analysis Interteam e Interteam OperationsInternal Design Expedit eStrategy & Analysis Interteam InterteamCapacity OperationsImprovements Editorial ExpeditHigh WIP=3 e Analysis Interteam InterteamMedium Operations WIP=3 Rich Media Expedit Analysis Interteam eLow Interteam Operations Agency Issues LSE Kanban Case Study IT Nov 2012 Client
    16. 16. Name Deadline IDTiming Date & Team Date / Team 2 Date / Team 2 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 2 Date / Team 1 Date / Team 1 Date Date Date Date Stage Backlog Awaiting Resource Analysis Analysis Ready Sign Off Displaced Doing Done In Production Working Usage Reviewed 26
    17. 17. Metrics & ReportingBacklog Cycle Analysis Await Resource External Working Sign Off Size of backlog  No of items; rough estimate of time to complete them Cycle time versus size of work item  Min, max, average, distribution Percent of cycle time item is  In Analysis (Ready-Analysis time)  Awaiting resources (Doing-Ready + Doing-Displaced time, across internal teams)  Being worked on internally (Done-Doing time across all internal teams)  Being worked on by external team (Done-Ready time for external teams)  Awaiting sign-off (In Production-Done time) Throughput  No of items completed over a period, and hence average throughput Usage  Actuals (usage statistics, satisfaction) versus targets in PDLSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 29
    18. 18. Board
    19. 19. Graham Oakes Ltd Making sense of technology…  Many organisations are caught up in the complexity of technology and systems.  This complexity may be inherent to the technology itself. It may be created by the pace of technology change. Or it may arise from the surrounding process, people and governance structures.  We help untangle this complexity and define business strategies that both can be implemented and will be adopted by people throughout the organisation and its partner network. We then help assure delivery of implementation projects. Clients…  Cisco Worldwide Education – Architecture and research for e-learning and educational systems  Council of Europe – Systems for monitoring compliance with international treaties; e-learning systems  Dover Harbour Board – Systems and architecture review  MessageLabs – Architecture and assurance for partner management portal  National Savings & Investments – Helped NS&I and BPO partner develop joint IS strategy  The Open University – Enterprise architecture, CRM and product development strategies  Oxfam – Content management, CRM, e-Commerce  Thames Valley Police – Internet Consultancy  Sony Computer Entertainment – Global process definition  Amnesty International, Endemol, tsoosayLabs, Vodafone, …LSE Kanban Case StudyNov 2012 37

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