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Effects of ancestral character estimation on methods for estimating rates of evolution in discrete morphological characters
 

Effects of ancestral character estimation on methods for estimating rates of evolution in discrete morphological characters

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    Effects of ancestral character estimation on methods for estimating rates of evolution in discrete morphological characters Effects of ancestral character estimation on methods for estimating rates of evolution in discrete morphological characters Presentation Transcript

    • Effects of ancestral character estimation on methods for estimating rates of evolution indiscrete morphological characters Graeme T. Lloyd, Steve C. Wang and Stephen L. Brusatte
    • G. G. Simpson 1902 - 1984
    • T. S. Westoll 1912 - 1995
    • Westoll and lungfish Westoll 1949
    • Simpson modification
    • Textbook example
    • Other discrete character studiesDerstler 1982 Forey 1988 Ruta et al. 2006 Brusatte et al. 2008
    • Translating Westoll’s method
    • Evolution is phylogenetic Phyletic Phylogenetic
    • Evolution is phylogenetic Use cladogram
    • Zero duration branch problem
    • Zero duration branch problemUse Ruta et al. dating technique
    • Uncertainty in dating Time
    • Uncertainty in datingRandomly choose dates and repeat
    • Uncertainty in optimisation
    • Uncertainty in optimisationApply ACCTRAN and DELTRAN
    • Uncertainty in topology
    • Uncertainty in topology Apply to multiple MPTs
    • Specimen completeness biasMany elements preserved Few elements preservedMany changes observed Few changes observed
    • Specimen completeness biasUse Wagner’s patristic dissimilarity
    • Lacks null/alt. hypotheses H0 Halt
    • Lacks null/alt. hypothesesApply equal rates as null hypothesis
    • Data
    • Lungfish
    • Lungfish supermatrix 91 characters 86 taxa
    • Results
    • Rate over time test (ACCTRAN)
    • Rate over time test (DELTRAN)
    • Likelihood estimation of ancestral states
    • Parsimony problems DELTRAN ACCTRAN ? ? Change early ? Change late
    • Likelihood ? ? ? ? ? ?
    • Likelihood ? ? ? ? ? No changes ?
    • Rate over time test (Likelihood)
    • Rate over time test (Likelihood)
    • Terminal vs internal branches
    • Branch length comparison
    • Branch rate comparison
    • Branch changes comparison
    • Branch duration comparison
    • Branch length comparison
    • Internal length comparison Devonian post-Devonian
    • Terminal length comparison Devonian post-Devonian
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements, code, data Roger Benson http://www.graemetlloyd.com/