400-million years of fishes: a survey ofsampling biases based on the UK record             Graeme T. Lloyd              Ma...
Extant Vertebrate Diversity                                      ‘fishes’                                    (ca. 28,000)s...
Historical ‘Fish’ DiversityAgassiz 1833-1843
Historical ‘Fish’ DiversityBenton 1998 (data from Fossil Record 2)
The Database      1678 occurrences      100 localities      683 species      437 genera      70 geologic formations
Collector Curve
Genus richness
Fish-bearing geologic formations
Fish-bearing localities
Grid occupancy      1              2             3                4 0.5-degree net   localities   grids sampled   grids oc...
Grid occupancy
Correlations           Correlation              Raw (rho)       G.D. (rho) Genus richness vs. Formations        0.66      ...
Sampling correction - rarefaction
Sampling correction - formations
Sampling correction - localities
Sampling correction - grids
Clade comparisonChondrichthyes     Osteichthyes
Genus richnessChondrichthyes   Osteichthyes
Modeling - formationsChondrichthyes                 Osteichthyes Raw (rho)   G.D. (rho)   Raw (rho)      G.D. (rho)   0.87...
Modeling - localitiesChondrichthyes                 Osteichthyes Raw (rho)   G.D. (rho)   Raw (rho)      G.D. (rho)   0.94...
Modeling – grid occupancyChondrichthyes                 Osteichthyes Raw (rho)   G.D. (rho)   Raw (rho)      G.D. (rho)   ...
Global curves        Agassiz 1833/43 –   Benton 1993 –        European            Global        Species             famili...
Dataset correlations                    UK          Agassiz1        Benton           Carroll    Sepkoski2     UK          ...
Dataset correlations                    UK          Agassiz1        Benton           Carroll    Sepkoski2     UK          ...
Dataset correlations                    UK          Agassiz1        Benton           Carroll    Sepkoski2     UK          ...
Dataset correlations                    UK          Agassiz1        Benton           Carroll    Sepkoski2     UK          ...
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:  • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:  • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…  • …y...
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:  • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…  • …y...
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:  • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…  • …y...
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:  • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…  • …y...
Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish  richness:  • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…  • …y...
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400-million years of 'fishes': a survey of sampling biases based on the UK record

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400-million years of 'fishes': a survey of sampling biases based on the UK record

  1. 1. 400-million years of fishes: a survey ofsampling biases based on the UK record Graeme T. Lloyd Matt Friedman
  2. 2. Extant Vertebrate Diversity ‘fishes’ (ca. 28,000)species counts from Nelson (2006)
  3. 3. Historical ‘Fish’ DiversityAgassiz 1833-1843
  4. 4. Historical ‘Fish’ DiversityBenton 1998 (data from Fossil Record 2)
  5. 5. The Database  1678 occurrences  100 localities  683 species  437 genera  70 geologic formations
  6. 6. Collector Curve
  7. 7. Genus richness
  8. 8. Fish-bearing geologic formations
  9. 9. Fish-bearing localities
  10. 10. Grid occupancy 1 2 3 4 0.5-degree net localities grids sampled grids occupied
  11. 11. Grid occupancy
  12. 12. Correlations Correlation Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) Genus richness vs. Formations 0.66 0.48 Genus richness vs. Localities 0.67 0.59 Genus richness vs. Grids 0.75 0.66 p > 0.05 p < 0.05
  13. 13. Sampling correction - rarefaction
  14. 14. Sampling correction - formations
  15. 15. Sampling correction - localities
  16. 16. Sampling correction - grids
  17. 17. Clade comparisonChondrichthyes Osteichthyes
  18. 18. Genus richnessChondrichthyes Osteichthyes
  19. 19. Modeling - formationsChondrichthyes Osteichthyes Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) 0.87 0.65 0.70 0.53 p > 0.05 p < 0.05
  20. 20. Modeling - localitiesChondrichthyes Osteichthyes Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) 0.94 0.87 0.69 0.37 p > 0.05 p < 0.05
  21. 21. Modeling – grid occupancyChondrichthyes Osteichthyes Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) Raw (rho) G.D. (rho) 0.93 0.83 0.72 0.57 p > 0.05 p < 0.05
  22. 22. Global curves Agassiz 1833/43 – Benton 1993 – European Global Species families Carroll 1988 – Sepkoski 2002 – Global Marine genera genera
  23. 23. Dataset correlations UK Agassiz1 Benton Carroll Sepkoski2 UK 0.39 0.76 0.67 0.68 Spearman Agassiz1 0.43 -0.11 -0.26 0.18 Benton 0.61 -0.15 0.52 0.72 Carroll 0.51 -0.20 0.78 0.38 Sepkoski2 0.65 0.26 0.90 0.71 Pearson p > 0.05 p < 0.05 1 European taxa only 2 marine taxa only(Correlations based on generalized differences of log10 data)
  24. 24. Dataset correlations UK Agassiz1 Benton Carroll Sepkoski2 UK 0.39 0.76 0.67 0.68 Spearman Agassiz1 0.43 -0.11 -0.26 0.18 Benton 0.61 -0.15 0.52 0.72 Carroll 0.51 -0.20 0.78 0.38 Sepkoski2 0.65 0.26 0.90 0.71 Pearson p > 0.05 p < 0.05 1 European taxa only 2 marine taxa only(Correlations based on generalized differences of log10 data)
  25. 25. Dataset correlations UK Agassiz1 Benton Carroll Sepkoski2 UK 0.39 0.76 0.67 0.68 Spearman Agassiz1 0.43 -0.11 -0.26 0.18 Benton 0.61 -0.15 0.52 0.72 Carroll 0.51 -0.20 0.78 0.38 Sepkoski2 0.65 0.26 0.90 0.71 Pearson p > 0.05 p < 0.05 1 European taxa only 2 marine taxa only(Correlations based on generalized differences of log10 data)
  26. 26. Dataset correlations UK Agassiz1 Benton Carroll Sepkoski2 UK 0.39 0.76 0.67 0.68 Spearman Agassiz1 0.43 -0.11 -0.26 0.18 Benton 0.61 -0.15 0.52 0.72 Carroll 0.51 -0.20 0.78 0.38 Sepkoski2 0.65 0.26 0.90 0.71 Pearson p > 0.05 p < 0.05 1 European taxa only 2 marine taxa only(Correlations based on generalized differences of log10 data)
  27. 27. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness:
  28. 28. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness: • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected…
  29. 29. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness: • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected… • …yet Paleogene rise survives…
  30. 30. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness: • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected… • …yet Paleogene rise survives… • …Cenozoic true “age of fishes”?
  31. 31. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness: • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected… • …yet Paleogene rise survives… • …Cenozoic true “age of fishes”?• Chondricthyans are more correlated with sampling than osteichthyans
  32. 32. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness: • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected… • …yet Paleogene rise survives… • …Cenozoic true “age of fishes”?• Chondricthyans are more correlated with sampling than osteichthyans• UK record accounts for one half to two-thirds of global signal
  33. 33. Le conclusions• First sampling corrected curves of fish richness: • Devonian diversity is far lower than expected… • …yet Paleogene rise survives… • …Cenozoic true “age of fishes”?• Chondricthyans are more correlated with sampling than osteichthyans• UK record accounts for one half to two-thirds of global signal• Estimates of global fish richness have changed substantially in last 170 years

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