20130527 library linkeddata

1,701 views

Published on

Lezing Gradmann op LIBISnet gebruikersdag

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,701
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
130
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

20130527 library linkeddata

  1. 1. Library Linked Data: Challenges and opportunitiesof the Linked Data ParadigmProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann (KU Leuven)LIBISnet Gebruikersdag 2013
  2. 2. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20132OverviewBooks and CataloguesMonolithic Containers ...… and MARC RecordsHypertext, Linked Data and the Web of ThingsThe WWW and its double extensionThe Europeana Data Model (EDM) in this contextEDM (and RDF) enabling Publishing and ResearchChallenges and Opportunities for Libraries:Opportunities: Content based and context drivenservicesRequired Cultural Changes: terms/thinking to get rid of
  3. 3. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20133Books and CataloguesContainers and Records
  4. 4. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20134The Traditional Scholarly Continuum
  5. 5. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20135Catalogue Based Libraries
  6. 6. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20136Library Functional PrinciplesMediating access to information objects via cataloguesMediating links as pointers from metadata to objectsObjects are part of a library collectionAn object to be used within a library typically is part of thislibrarys collectionInternal processing logic: focus onobjects as monolithic containers of information,not so much on the content of these containersand accordingly cataloguing is focussed on containerattributesFunctional macro-primitives are ingestion, storage,description and retrieval of information containers
  7. 7. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20137The WWW:DeConstruction of Monoliths and Records
  8. 8. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20138Decreasing functional determination by traditional cultural techniquesDisintegration of the linear / circular functional paradigmaErosion of the monolithic document notion in hypertext paradigmsWeb Based Scholarly Continuum ...… a triple paradigm shift
  9. 9. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/20139Ted Nelsons Xanadu:radicalised Hypertext ...
  10. 10. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201310The Web of DocumentsInformationManagement:A Proposal(TBL, 1989)... twiceextended:•in syntax•in scope
  11. 11. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201311Resources and Linksin the Document WebWe have HTTP URIs to identify resources and links between them – but we aremissing a few things!What kinds of resources are Louvre.html and LaJoconde.jpg?A machine cannot tell.Humans can: we recognize implied context!How exactly do they relate to each other?A machine cannot tell.Humans can: again we recognize implied context!
  12. 12. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201312Syntactically Extending theDocument Web (1)We add a syntax for making statements on resources: RDF triplesWe add a schema language (RDFS) with elements such asclasses (chair as instance of chairs),hierarchies of classes and properties (chairs are a subclass offurniture, teaches is a sub-property of communicates)inheritance (communication based on language → teaching also is)support for basic inferencing, deterministic logical operations
  13. 13. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201313Syntactically Extending theDocument Web: RDF (2)And thus are able to establish structures in triple aggregationsresulting in lightweight domain ontologies:
  14. 14. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201314Extending the Web in Scope:The Web of Things … (slightly Mistaken)Taken from Ronald CarpentiersBlog athttp://carpentier.wordpress.com/2007/08/08/1-2-3/Whats wrongwith this picture?
  15. 15. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201315… and the Way we extend the Web inscope to make it a Web of Things
  16. 16. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201316And we get … Linked DataCopyright © 2008 W3C (MIT, ERCIM, Keio)http://www.w3.org/2008/Talks/0617-lod-tbl/#(4)Standard IdentifiersStandard PointersStandards for Queriesand StatementsLink to Context
  17. 17. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201317A few Bubbles: 5/2007Over 500 million RDF triplesAround 120,000 RDF links between data sources © Richard Cyganiak
  18. 18. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201318And a lot of Bubbles as of last Year
  19. 19. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201319… and a better way of representing them• http://lov.okfn.org/dataset/lov/
  20. 20. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201320Google entering the Floor
  21. 21. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201321Modelling Object Representations as RDFAggregations generates new questions ...Where do resourceaggregations start?Where do they end?And what constitutesdocumentboundaries??And which node wasconnected to whichone at a giventime???→ Provenance,Versioning,Authorisation: NamedGraphsABC
  22. 22. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201322… and new opportunities:Triple Sets and Reasoning
  23. 23. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201323... based on Documents asAggregations of RDF-Triples (1)
  24. 24. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201324Documents as Aggregationsof RDF-Triples (2)<assertion><subject>NG_000007.3:g.70628G>A</subject><predicate>has variant frequency</predicate><object>0.25%</object></assertion><condition>Sardinian</condition><provenance><dateofcreation>March 24, 2011</dateofcreation><lastedit>March 24, 2011</lastedit><evidenceType>empirical</evidenceType><authorID>Giardine et. al.</authorID><curatorID>unresolved</curatorID><registrantID>Mons et. al.</registrantID><PMID>6695908</PMID><PMID>1428944</PMID><PMID>1610915</PMID><DOI>http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.785</DOI><linkout>http://globin.bx.psu.edu/cgi-bin/hbvar/query_vars3?mode=output&display_format=page&i=239</linkout><linkout>http://phencode.bx.psu.edu/cgi-bin/phencode/phencode?build=hg18&id=HbVar.239</linkout></provenance><nanopublication id="0"><nanopublication id="0">
  25. 25. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201325The use of Inferencesvan Haagen HHHBM, t Hoen PAC, Botelho Bovo A, de Morrée A, van Mulligen EM, et al.(2009) Novel Protein-Protein Interactions Inferred from Literature Context. PLoS ONE 4(11):e7894. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007894 / Example provided by Jan Velterop
  26. 26. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201326Data = PublicationDistinction data vs. publication gets increasinglyobsolete in semantic publishing environments …… at least in the STM sector.The move into semantic publication will be much slowerin the SSH because offuzzy and unstable terminologyfuzzy linking semantics hard to formalise consistentlyclose relation between complex document formats and scholarly discourseCurrent examples are mostly from the medical and bio-medical area as a consequence
  27. 27. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201327→ Visualise and Explore Cultural ContextMapping the Republic of Letters:http://knot-dev.herokuapp.com/investigate.htmlOr again the graph of writers and thinkers andhow they are connected:http://zoom.it/Vj6F (is this one really useful?)http://bgriffen.scripts.mit.edu/www/media/json/thinkers/http://mariandoerk.de/edgemaps/demo/http://www.visualdataweb.org/relfinder/relfinder.phpOr again a Finnish example (Kultuurisampo):http://www.kulttuurisampo.fi/kulsa/historiallisetKartat.shtmlOr finally Obama vs. Palin:http://truthy.indiana.edu/memedetail?id=324&resmin=45&theme_id=4 vs.http://truthy.indiana.edu/memedetail?id=783&resmin=45&theme_id=4
  28. 28. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201328The Europeana Data Model (EDM)in the LoD Context
  29. 29. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201329EDM – what is it?And what not?• EDM is the metadata model replacing the ESE …• … a model for making statements about digitalrepresentations of cultural heritage objects• … a model for contextualising such representations• EDM is not an object model (but might be combinedwith object and process models)!• EDM is an RDF based graph model• EDM enables modeling of objects and context andthus knowledge generation
  30. 30. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201330EDM: ClassesCIDOC CRM E5 hierarchycould be pruned here
  31. 31. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201331EDM: Properties
  32. 32. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201332Mona Lisa: French Ministry of Culture
  33. 33. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201333Metadata Record in EDMProxyAggregationDigitalRepresentationsCultural Heritage Object
  34. 34. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201334Semantic Enrichmentens:Agent: persons ororganizationsens:Place: spatial entitiesens:TimeSpan: time periods ordatesskos:Concept: entities from KOS
  35. 35. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201335Event-Centric ModelingPreserving and exploiting original data also means being compatiblewith descriptions beyond simple object level ( CIDOC CRM!)→
  36. 36. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201336Complex Objects• Part-whole links for complex(hierarchical) objects• Order among parts of objects• Derivation and versioning relations
  37. 37. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201337Les Fleurs du Mal: UNIMARChttp://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37367035f000 nam 22 450001FRBNF373670350000003009http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb37367035f039 $oGEA$a000288182100 $a19920409d1857 m y0frey50 ba1010 $afre102 $aFR105 $a||||z 00|||106 $ar2001 $aˆLes ‰fleurs du mal$bTexte imprimé$fpar Charles Baudelaire210 $aParis$cPoulet-Malassis et De Broise$d1857215 $a248 p.$d19 cm676 $a841.8$v22686 $a840$2Cadre de classement de la Bibliographie nationale française700 |$311890582$aBaudelaire$bCharles$4070801 0$aFR$bBNF$c19920409$gAFNOR$2intermrc
  38. 38. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201338Les Fleurs du Mal: Gallicahttp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k70861t
  39. 39. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201339Les Fleurs du Mal: Digitisedhttp://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k70861t.textePage.f1
  40. 40. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201340Les Fleurs du Mal: EDMCultural Heritage Object (CHO)ProxyDigitalRepresentationsAggregationSemanticContext
  41. 41. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201341What can you use it for:De arte venandi cum avibus
  42. 42. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201342De Arte Venandi … in Europeana Regia
  43. 43. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201343De Arte Venandi … EDM version
  44. 44. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201344De Arte Venandi … theres more!
  45. 45. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201345De Arte Venandi … theres more (2)!
  46. 46. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201346De Arte Venandi … theres more (3)!
  47. 47. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201347An Opportunity Libraries ...… and what it needs to do to be up to it
  48. 48. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201348“What do you do with a million books?”(Greg Crane)Digitisation and semantic publishing result ingrowing quantityincreased complexityWell beyond scholarly processing capacity (=readingfaculty)Scientists and Scholars will badly need help in threeareas:Semantic abstracting, named entity recognition for “strategicreading” (Renear)Contextualisation of information objectsRobust reasoning and inferencing yielding digital heuristics=> Opportunities for Research Libraries!
  49. 49. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201349Ceci nest pas une bibliothèque
  50. 50. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201350Ceci nest pas une bibliothèque
  51. 51. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201351CatalogueThe card catalogin the nave ofSterling MemorialLibrary at YaleUniversity.Picture by HenryTrotter, 2005.
  52. 52. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201352Catalogue Entry: MARC Record
  53. 53. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201353Library CollectionsPhoto © Ralf Küpper
  54. 54. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201354Change Thinking,Change Terminology!Libraries will serve research as part of the LinkedOpen Data web – or else risk becoming insignificant.For operating this change we definitely need tochange terminology and underlying thinking patterns:AggregationDiscoveryNavigationGraphLinkContextKnowledgeInformationCatalogueHoldingsLibrary SearchDocumentRecord
  55. 55. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201355From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (1)ReverseProportional!
  56. 56. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201356From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (2)ReverseProportional!
  57. 57. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201357From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (3)
  58. 58. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201358From Catalogues to Graphs:old terms – new terms (4)
  59. 59. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201359Lessons learned in EuropeanaWe have learned some of theselessons in Europeanawe dropped the brand “EDL” very earlywe decided not to have a catalogueWe know that the current portal is notenoughwe devised the RDF based EuropeanaData Model (EDM)we are gradually migrating to EDM basedoperationswe make Europeana part of the LinkedOpen Data cloud
  60. 60. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201360An Aggregation ...
  61. 61. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201361… some context
  62. 62. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201362… more context
  63. 63. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201363… and the Big Picture:Object and Semantic Data Layer
  64. 64. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201364Context Data•DBpedia•GND•Geonames•LCSH•…EDM and Linked Open Data
  65. 65. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201365Sticking to empty metaphors ..."Whats in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet."(Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1-2))Why then do we stick to emptied metaphors?… because they constitute identity (a very bad reason!)… because they guarantee institutional persistency (a fallacy!)… because we are afraid of substantial changes and believe inthings changing only once we use new terms (dangerouslychildish!)… or simply because we do not have new terms yet?Let us then start looking for them!
  66. 66. Library Linked DataProf. Dr. Stefan Gradmann, LIBISnet Gebruikersdag, 27/05/201366Suggested ReadingGregory Crane (2006): What Do you Do with a Million Books? In: Dlib Magazine, Vol.12, March. (http://bit.ly/JhzF90)Gutenberg Paranthesis Research Group / University of Southern Denmark: PositionPaper (http://bit.ly/JjGKb6)David Parry: Burn the Boats/Books. Presentation to Digital Writing and Research Lab,Austin. (http://bit.ly/JYLlJV)David Shotton (2009a): Semantic Publishing. The coming revolution in scientificjournal publishing. Learned Publishing Volume 22, No 2, 85–94, April 2009;doi:10.1087/2009202David Shotton et al. (2009b): Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar SemanticEnhancements of a Research Article (http://bit.ly/IgT5Km)Barend Mons, Jan Velterop: Nano-Publication in the e-science era (http://bit.ly/IISMGt)Alan Renear, Carol Palmer (2009): Strategic Reading, Ontologies and the Future ofscientific Publishing. In: Science, August 2009, p. 828 – 832.Thank you for your patience and attention

×