20120420 www2012 dh-sem-web

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20120420 www2012 dh-sem-web

  1. 1. The Web & Digital Humanities:What about Semantics?Lyon, WWW 201220 April 2012Prof. Dr. Stefan GradmannHumboldt-Universität zu Berlin / School of Library and Information Sciencestefan.gradmann@ibi.hu-berlin.de 1
  2. 2. Overview What are Digital Humanities? How do they use semantic technology? Issues Signification and Meaning Text, Context, Subtext Interpretation Logic How semantic is the Semantic Web – as seen from the DH perspective? “Thinking in the Graph” - will Digital Humanists ever do so? The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 2
  3. 3. What are Digital Humanities?A new discipline? Old disciplines turning digital?“a field that is endlessly wrestling with its self-definition” (Tara L. Andrews)Or again Stephen Ramsay on “Whos in and WhosOut?” (http://lenz.unl.edu/papers/2011/01/08/whos-in-and-whos-out.html)All scholarly efforts concerned with understandingand interpretation (e. g. literary criticism) in thedigital and making use of digital instruments (e.g. digital narratology)As opposed (?) to empirically grounded scientificapproaches (there are no “digital sciences”!)Risk of regression into sterile discourse of “twocultures” (C. P. Snow) The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 3
  4. 4. … and how do they use semantic technologies? 3 examplesThe Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 4
  5. 5. Processing of source data in theHumanities: aggregation ... The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 5
  6. 6. ... modeling ... The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 6
  7. 7. ... and Digital Heuristics? The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 7
  8. 8. Good Practices and Better PracticesCOST A32, Discovery, SemLib, Shared Canvas The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 8
  9. 9. Discovery Corpus:Digitised Manuscripts The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 9
  10. 10. HyperNietzsche:Digitisation, Presentation The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 10
  11. 11. HyperNietzsche:Transcription, Presentation The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 11
  12. 12. HyperNietzsche:Sources, Editions (synoptic) The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 12
  13. 13. Talia: Refactoring Hyper withSemantic Web Technology The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 13
  14. 14. Generating Stemmatabased on Inferencing (1) The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 14
  15. 15. Generating Stemmatabased on Inferencing (2) Abandoned! The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 15
  16. 16. Interpretation: MurucaThe Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 16
  17. 17. SwickyNotes: Ontology BasedAnnotation as Linked Open Data The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 17
  18. 18. SwickyNotes:Selecting Ontologies The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 18
  19. 19. “Cretans are always Liars”… annotated The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 19
  20. 20. SemLibSemLib (http://www.semlibproject.eu/) is acontinuation of Discovery in a EU funded project underFP7 working on A Tool to export existing metadata in RDF and publish it as Linked Data (Web of Data); A Semantic Annotation System, to exploit user- generated RDF metadata and publish it as Linked Data; A Semantic Recommender System, to use Linked Data to improve searching and browsing in the DLs. The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 20
  21. 21. Shared CanvasShared Canvas (http://www.shared-canvas.org)is about annotation again – but in a muchmore sophisticated data model enablingmultiple and potentially concurrentlayered annotations.Demo at http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo1/Common traits Use of RDF as underlying technology Emulation of well known annotation functionality on the Web The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 21
  22. 22. Scholarly Use of Semantic Technology … beyond Emulation of Annotation The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 22
  23. 23. Scholarly PrimitivesDiscoveringAnnotatingComparingReferringSamplingIllustratingRepresenting „!“ The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 23
  24. 24. Digital Humanities Functionality(WP3) Can we enable digital scholarship building on combined EDM metadata and digital surrogates ... … building on an ontological, granular representation of John Unsworths scholarly primitives (or their successors according to Blanke/Hedges 2011)? And what is the use of the resulting increasingly complex social semantic scholarly graph that extends the EDM data with RDF statements such as VersionA – isSuccessorOf – VersionB ScribeY – copiedFrom – ScribeZ Statement1 – contradicts - Statement2 → what do you obtain from on inferencing on this graph … → and which are the limitations of such an approach? The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 24
  25. 25. WP3: Digital Humanities RelatedEngineeringGoal: lower the barriers for digital content curation byproviding an integrated, flexible, semantic based environmenttargeted to digital humanities scholars The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 25
  26. 26. Contextualisation The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 26
  27. 27. For DiscussionThe Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 27
  28. 28. Modelling Documents as RDF Aggregationsgenerates new questions ... B Where do resource A aggregations start? Where do they end? And what constitutes document boundaries?? And which node was connected to which one at a given C time??? The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 28
  29. 29. Aggregations and Context:Calculating Closeness The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 29
  30. 30. How semantic is it – as seenfrom the DH perspective?„I called this graph the Semantic Web, but maybe itshould have been Giant Global Graph!“ (TBL,http://dig.csail.mit.edu/breadcrumbs/node/215)From a DH perspective, there is not much semantics here…… but the attribute has already been burnt, anyway :)“Thinking in the Graph” (TBL) - will DH ever do so? Our breakfast will not be in the Graph, nor other essentials But the bulk of our scholarship will be there quite soon, and we start realizing this→ Time for the Linked Data Community to prepare for newchallengesThe discussion should not be about infrastructure butabout epistemological foundations: this is where theissues are located! The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 30
  31. 31. IssuesSignification and Meaning ... much more than just names pointing to things How to model diachronous aspects?Text, Context, Subtext What about the explicit, the implicit and the things that are not said at all?Interpretation Is inherently non-deterministic!Logic: the AI rathole has never been appealing for DH Need of support for non-monotonous, non- deterministic, modal reasoning strategiesLinked Data Quality, Versioning, Provenance ... The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 31
  32. 32. Thank you!The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 32
  33. 33. Selected ReadingMartin Doerr, Stefan Gradmann, Steffen Hennicke, Antoine Isaac, CarloMeghini, Herbert van de Sompel (2010): The Europeana Data Model.IFLA 2010 (Gothenburg). Session on „Libraries and the Semantic Web“.http://www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla76/149-doerr-en.pdfStefan Gradmann (2010): Knowledge = Information in Context: on theImportance of Semantic Contextualisation in Europeana. EuropeanaWhite Paper 1.http://www.scribd.com/doc/32110457/Europeana-White-Paper-1John Unsworth (2000): Scholarly Primitives. What methods dohumanities researchers have in common, and how might our toolsreflect this? In the seminar on Humanities Computing, Kings College,London.http://www3.isrl.illinois.edu/~unsworth/Kings.5-00/primitives.htmlTobias Blanke, Mark Hedges (2011): Scholarly primitives. Buildinginstitutional infrastructure for humanities e-Science. Future GenerationComputer Systems, Available online 13 July 2011,http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167739X11001178 The Web & Digital Humanities: What about Semantics? Stefan Gradmann. Lyon / WWW 2012. 20 April 2012 33

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