Teaching Second Language Learners On Mainstream Courses
Teaching Second‐Language Learners on Mainstream Courses An introduc7on to ESOL
Alphabet Soup • EFL: English as a Foreign Language • ESL: English as a Second Language • (T)ESOL: English for speakers of other languages • L1 – Learners using ﬁrst or na7ve language • L2 – Learners using an addi7onal language • IELTS ‐ Interna7onal English language tes7ng system • EAP – English for academic purposes • FCE – Cambridge First Cer7ﬁcate in English • E3 – Entry level 3
Typical proﬁles of L2 students: Se3led in UK post Yr 8 InternaBonal • Strong speaking & listening • Strong academic background • Weak wriKen language • Strong mo7va7on • Confused by disrup7on in • Good technical knowledge educa7on • Weaker spoken English • Limited formal vocabulary • Limited informal vocabulary • Gaps in technical knowledge • Limited cultural knowledge • Under‐performs in • Confused by assessment unsuitable wriKen exams • Confused by teacher/student rela7onship
Common problems: L2 student seKled in UK during secondary schoolQ• Forced to take unsuitable courses: e.g. GCSE English Language • Labelled as ‘struggling’ • Confused by disrup7on in educa7on • Confused by diﬀerent register (formal/ informal) • Low academic expecta7ons amongst peers • Under conﬁdent
Where can L2 students get help? IniBal Assessment Classes ESOL ini7al assessments throughout Self‐Access classes year in M206a: ‐ • Staﬀed by ESOL team throughout the Monday 11:00 – 12:00 year • Open to all learners who think they Monday 18:00 – 19:00 would beneﬁt from addi7onal ESOL Tuesday 11:00 – 12:00 input Wednesday 14:00 – 15:00 • Covers reading, wri7ng, speaking and listening. Thursday 11:00 – 12:00 Times Monday 1:30 – 3:00 Tuesday 5:00 – 6:00 Wednesday 1:30 – 3:00 Thursday 1:30 – 3:00
The English Language How many words? Typical vocabulary • OED deﬁnes 615,100 words • German: 180,000 words • 41,700 are obsolete. • 240 ‘ghost words’ • Russian: 160,000 words • 430 uses of ‘set’ • French 150,000 Usage • Lederer: 10,0000 words • Pinker: 60,000 average teen • Lederer ‘most democra7c language in history’ • ‘rela7ve simplicity of syntax and grammar
What is IELTS? What is IELTS? Interna7onal English Language Tes7ng System • Tests English proﬁciency across the globe. • Most popular English tes7ng system.Q Which organisaBons accept IELTS? • IELTS is accepted by more than 6000 organisa7ons worldwide. • universi7es, immigra7on departments, government agencies, professional bodies and mul7na7onal companies. IELTS has two versions – Academic and General Training. • Academic test is for those who want to study in an English‐speaking country. • General Training test for those migra7ng to or living in an English‐speaking country. • All candidates take the same Listening and Speaking tests but diﬀerent Reading and Wri7ng tests.Q
What do universi7es ask for? Kingston: Minimum IELTS score Warwick: Minimum IELTS score – Arts and Social Sciences; Faculty of Arts: 6.5 Pharmacy: 6.5 Faculty of Science 6.0 – Business and Law: 6.0 – Architecture; Art and Design; Psychology 6.5 Science; Engineering; Social Studies 7.0 CompuBng, InformaBon Business School 7.0 Systems and MathemaBcs; and Surveying: 6.0
What Language learners ﬁnd diﬃcult? Irregular Verbs Other common problems • 180 irregular verbs • Ar7cles: use of a/the/an • Thousands of regular ones • Past present/agreement • 70 % of all verbs used • Pinker: irregular verbs are fossils • Phrasal verbs • New verbs are all regular • Children & L2 learners make similar mistakes • ‘writed’ ‘speaked’ etc 10 most used verbs : ‐ be, make, do, take, go, come see, get, come, say Diﬃcult because they are illogical: ‐ The book you read today is the same as the one you read yesterday hKp://www.eslreading.org/english/english/ irregularverbs.html
Readibility Stats Ideally you should have low numbers for: passive voice, words per sentence, characters per word and Flesch Reading Grade level ‐ You should have a minimum of 60 for Flesch Reading Ease.
Typical Assignment brief How easy to read Sentences per paragraph: 1 (low) Words per sentence: 12 (high) Characters per word: 5.3 (low) Passive: 9% (very high) Flesch Reading Ease: (30.4 ) (very high) Flsch Kikaid: 12.1 (very high) Conclusion Text diﬃcult to read. Biggest problems are: use of passive voice, number of long sentences. Vocabulary score slightly misleading because of amount of repe77on. SoluBon: shorter sentences using ac7ve rather than passive verbs. Reduce number of abstract nouns.