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CCA Lecture Slides Final

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Margaret Ikeda and Evan Jones studio at CCA. Guest lecture by Grace Yeh on immigration and Japanese American history.

Margaret Ikeda and Evan Jones studio at CCA. Guest lecture by Grace Yeh on immigration and Japanese American history.

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  • Mixed race America and the law: a reader By Kevin R. Johnson. Page 86, LetiVolpp essay: http://books.google.com/books?id=Ki8Uwyez5XMC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=california+anti-miscegenation+laws&source=bl&ots=W4P21u_ZTY&sig=XJhIBOFflq9VWnmY7zai383WVso&hl=en&ei=jMukTPTPLIWqsAO2w6X_Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE0Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=california%20anti-miscegenation%20laws&f=false
  • See McWilliams, pp.107-109(McWilliams, pp. 111-112)
  • Courtesy California State Parks: http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=25662Arrival of picture brides(1909) Angel Island, California Courtesy of California State Parkshttp://nikkeijin.densho.org/reference_ch1_04_picture_brides_en.html
  • Image source: http://www.dipity.com/tickr/Flickr-relocation-camp/http://www.flickr.com/photos/16268809@N04/2073666865
  • U.S. government-produced film defending the World War II internment of Japanese American citizens.This movie is part of the collection: Prelinger ArchivesProducer: U.S. Office of War InformationSponsor: N/AAudio/Visual: Sd, B&WKeywords: World War II: Japanese Americans: Internment; Racism; Human rightsCreative Commons license: Public Domain
  • Economic losses to JA families: $400million or $4.7 billion in 2003 dollars (Gordon 25)
  • Item TitleRichard Kobayashi, farmer with cabbages, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984, photographer.Created/Published[1943] SummaryRichard Kobayashi, half-length portrait, standing, facing front, holding a head of cabbage in each hand.NotesTitle transcribed from Ansel Adams' caption on verso of print. Original neg. no.: LC-A35-4-M-31. Gift; Ansel Adams; 1965-1968. Forms part of: Manzanar War Relocation Center photographs.
  • Toyo Miyatake
  • http://www.pacificcitizen.org/site/NEWS/tabid/54/selectedmoduleid/373/ArticleID/175/Default.aspx?title=Seeing_Japanese_American_History_Through_Toyo%27s_Lens
  • Title:Mr. and Mrs. Sakuichi Sasaki, formerly of Marysville, California, and Granada, came to Rockford in March, 1944. The Sasakis, who are employed as domestics, insisted on taking the photographer to their room which was very large and furnished with modern maple furniture that also included several easy chairs and a davenport. Mrs. Sasaki said, Our employers treat us as if we were members of their family. The work is not difficult and we have time to visit often with our Issei friends. -- Photographer: Iwasaki, Hikaru -- Rockford, Illinois. 3/13/45 Identifier:Volume 52 Identifier:Section F Identifier:WRA no. I-817 Collection:War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement Series 13: Relocation (continued) Contributing Institution:The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.Title:May Ideta, oldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Kiyoshi Ideta-Minami, formerly of Seattle and the Minidoka Center, at Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. The Ideta-Minami family chose Des Moines as a place to live because May and their second daughter, Yuki, were enrolled as students at Drake University. The two younger children are attending public schools in Des Moines. May is in her junior year at Drake and is an economics major. One of May's Caucasian friends said, May is very popular on the campus here. A number of Nisei attend Drake University. The business manager of the college told WRA, Take all the pictures you like. They are fine people and good students. -- Photographer: Iwasaki, Hikaru -- Des Moines, Iowa. 3/17/45 Identifier:Volume 52 Identifier:Section F Identifier:WRA no. I-831 Collection:War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement Series 13: Relocation (continued) Contributing Institution:The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1
    • 2. 3 periods in 20th century US immigration “classic era” (1901-1930) “long hiatus” (1931-1970) “new regime” (1970- present) 2
    • 3. Classic Era to Long Hiatus 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act 1907-8 Gentlemen’s Agreement 1917 Immigration Act 1924 National Origins Act 1954-5 “Operation Wetback” 1965 Hart-Celler Act 3
    • 4. New Regime 1943 Chinese Exclusion repealed 1952 Lifted racial restrictions to immigration and naturalization 1965 Quota system lifted 1980 Refugee Act 1986 IRCA 4
    • 5. Question How did America or ethnicity look in each of these periods? 5
    • 6. “assimilation” the process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group and is eventually accepted as part of that group. Assimilation is a majority ideology in which A+B+C=A, where A represents the majority group. Assimilation dictates conformity to the dominant group, and tends to devalue alien culture. 6
    • 7. “cultural pluralism”  A+B+C=A+B+C  Where differences and boundaries between cultures are maintained 7
    • 8. Laws affecting immigrants  Immigration laws  Naturalization laws  Alien land laws  Anti-miscegenation laws 8
    • 9. Naturalization laws/cases  1790 Naturalization Act  1868 14th Amendment ratified  1870 15th Amendment ratified  1922 The Cable Act (42 Stat. 1021) specified “that any woman citizen who marries an alien ineligible to citizenship shall cease to be a citizen of the U.S.”  1922 Takao Ozawa vs. U.S. (260 U.S. 178)  1923 Bhagat Singh Thind vs. U.S. (261 U.S. 204)  1952 McCarran-Walter Act9
    • 10. 1913, 1920 California Alien Land Laws Aliens ineligible to citizenship could not own or lease land 10
    • 11. Oyama vs California  Fred Oyama, a US citizen, was 6yo when father purchased land in his name, 1934  CA took land in 1944, claiming violation of CA alien land laws  1948 US Supreme Court decision returns land  Certain provisions of alien land laws violate 14th amendment 11
    • 12. Interracial marriage laws  1850 CA anti- miscegenation law  1933 Roldan v. Los Angeles County  1948 CA overturns anti-miscegenation laws  1967 Loving v. VA 12
    • 13. 13 Visayan Welfare League. Guadalupe, CA. 1938.
    • 14. New Regime 1943 Chinese Exclusion repealed 1952 Lifted racial restrictions to immigration and naturalization 1965 Quota system lifted 1980 Refugee Act 1986 IRCA 14
    • 15. How to immigrate today: aka, get a “green card”  Family sponsored  Employment-based  Immediate relatives  Diversity  Refugee/asylee  See Handout, “How to immigrate”  Table 6 15
    • 16. 16
    • 17. Race  …formed through “historically situated projects in which human bodies and social structures are represented and organized” (pp. 55-56).  “A racial project is simultaneously an interpretation, representation, or explanation of racial dynamics, and an effort to reorganize and redistribute resources along particular racial lines” (p. 56)  Omi & Winant, “Racial Formation” 17
    • 18. 18
    • 19. 19
    • 20. 20 California agriculture  Before 1860, semi-isolated, pastoral region-- ranching (cattle hide, tallow)  After 1860, extensive grain cultivation  Fruit and truck farming: corporate, capital- intensive form of agriculture (vs. small family farms) made possible by irrigation revolution  Role of “land monopolization” and “availability of large units of cheap labor”
    • 21. 21 Nipomo, CA. 1939. By Dorothea Lange.
    • 22. 22 Persons obtaining “legal permanent resident status” (US Census) 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s China 3 8 32 35,933 54,028 133,139 65,797 15,268 19,884 20,916 30,648 5,874 16,072 Japan 138 193 1,583 13,998 139,712 77,125 42,057 2,683 1,557 India 9 38 33 42 50 166 247 102 3.026 3,478 2,076 554 1,692 Philipp ines 391 4,099
    • 23. 23 Race and labor management 1930, CA Dept of Industrial Relations noted growers preferred to employ: “a mixture of laborers of various races, speaking diverse languages, and not accustomed to mingling with each other. The practice [was] intended to avoid labor trouble which might result from having a homogeneous group of laborers of the same race or nationality. Laborers speaking different languages [were] not as likely to arrive at a mutual understanding which would lead to strikes.”
    • 24. 24 Japanese immigration  1885-1924  200,000 to Hawaii  180,000 to US mainland  “Push/Pull” factors:  Exclusion of Chinese laborers  US labor needs (e.g., sugar-beet, link to E. coast markets)  Opening up of Japan 1853  Industrialization and militarization of Japan: farmers taxed, experience deflation, lose land  Japanese govt allows HI planters to recruit labor (1885-94)
    • 25. 25
    • 26. 26 Characteristics  A select group: had higher literacy rate, more money than European counterparts.  1884 Japanese Consul Takahashi Shinkichi: “It is indeed the ignominious conduct and behavior of indigent Chinese of inferior character … that brought upon the Chinese as a whole the contempt of the Westerners and resulted in the enactment of legislation to exclude them from the country.”
    • 27. Characteristics, cont’d  Japan promoted more women emigrants:  In 1920, 46% in HI and 34.5% on mainland were women.  Ideal migrant/seasonal farm laborers  Movement into land ownership 27
    • 28. 28 Saruwatari with pea duster tractor
    • 29. 29
    • 30. 30
    • 31. 31
    • 32. 32
    • 33. 33 FDR’s speech to Congress “Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941--a date which will live in world history--the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
    • 34. 34 FDR’s speech to Congress “Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941--a date which will live in infamy--the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
    • 35. WWII and Japanese American internment: Knowledge and control through visibility 35
    • 36. 36 Life magazine December 1941
    • 37. “THE QUESTION OF JAPANESE- AMERICANS” by W. H. Anderson Perhaps the most difficult and delicate question that confronts our powers that be is the handling--the safe and proper treatment--of our American-born Japanese, our Japanese- American citizens by the accident of birth. But who are Japanese nevertheless. A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched. (LA Times, Feb. 2, 1942) 37
    • 38. 38
    • 39. 39
    • 40. 40
    • 41. 41 Executive Order 9066 Feb 19, 1942, FDR signs EO 9066 Suspends civil rights of US citizens by authorizing the “evacuation” of nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry 60% of internees are US born citizens (“Nisei” v. “Issei”)
    • 42. WRA 1943 film, “Japanese Relocation” http://www.archive.org/details/ Japanese1943 • Seeming transparency of federal government • Seeming normalcy of mass incarceration of a single ethnic group 42
    • 43. Title: Henry Mitarai, age 36, successful large-scale farm operator with his family on their ranch about six weeks before evacuation. This family, along with other families of Japanese ancestry, will spend the duration at War Relocation Authority centers. Photographer: Lange, Dorothea -- Mountain View, California. 3/30/42 Contributing Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley. http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft 1z09n73j/?brand=calisphere 43
    • 44. 44
    • 45. 45
    • 46. 46
    • 47. 47
    • 48. 48Lange
    • 49. 49
    • 50. 50
    • 51. 51
    • 52. 52
    • 53. 53
    • 54. 54
    • 55. Title: Japanese American woman and child, internees Creator/Contributor: Ishigo, Estelle, Artist Date: between 1942 and 1945 Contributing Institution: Dept of Special Collections/UCLA Library, A1713 Charles E. Young Research Library, 405 Hilgard Ave, Box 951575, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1575; 55
    • 56. Title: Send Off Husband at Jerome Camp Creator/Contributor: Sugimoto, Henry Date: 1943 Format: painting oil on canvas Denson, Ark. Inscription: Signed in medium, bottom left corner: H. Sugimoto, 1943. Written on back: Documentary/"Send Off Husband" at Jerome Camp/by Henry Sugimoto/1942 Collection: Henry Sugimoto Collection A Life Transformed 1941-1945 Contributing Institution: Japanese American National Museum (Los Angeles, Calif.) 56
    • 57. 57
    • 58. 58
    • 59. 59
    • 60. Sources for photographs, images  http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/jarda/  http://www.pacificcitizen.org/site/NEWS/tabid/54/selectedmoduleid/37 3/ArticleID/175/Default.aspx?title=Seeing_Japanese_American_Histo ry_Through_Toyo%27s_Lens  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/anseladams/index.html  http://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=tf596nb4h0;query=;style=oac4 60