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  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    The Study of Logic
  • 2. Definition
    Derived from the Greek word ”logos” which means - study, reason or discourse
    LOGIC is the science and art of correct thinking
    - it is a SCIENCE because it is a systematized body of logical truths and principles governing correct thinking
  • 3. - as an ART, logic is a “techne” and it teaches how to make a good argument
    - often called the arts of arts because it develops and perfects the intellect which all artists need in their work
  • 4. Logic and correct thinking
    It is “correct” when it conforms to a pattern or to rules
    Example: A ruler is 12-inch long
    Pres. GMA is a ruler
    Therefore, Pres. GMA is 12-inch long
    -THINKING is a mental process – involves analysis, definition, classification, comparison and contrasts, etc.
    - It guides or directs man to form correct ideas
  • 5. Branches of logic
    FORMAL LOGIC
    -concerned with the aspect of form which has something to do with the correctness or sequence or the following of rules
    Ex. All men are mortal
    but Pedro is a man
    therefore Pedro is mortal
  • 6. Branches of logic
    MATERIAL LOGIC
    -concerned with the aspect of subject matter or content or truth of the argument
    Example: A ruler is 12-inch long
    Pres. GMA is a ruler
    Therefore, Pres. GMA is 12-inch long
    KINDS
    • Deductive Logic: from more to less
    • 7. Inductive Logic: implies a sense of probability
  • Concepts and terms
    The three essential operations of the intellect
  • 8. concept
    The representation of an object by the intellect through which man understands or comprehends a thing
    It is an “idea”- starts with an outside reality and apprehended by the senses
  • 9. Kinds of concept
    1.First Intention: we understand what the thing is according to what it is in reality
    Ex. A dog is an animal.
    Second Intention: we understand not only what the thing is according to what it is in reality but also how it is in the mind
    Ex. “Monte Vista” (Mountain View) is the name of my subdivision
  • 10. Kinds of concept
    2.Concrete Concepts: expresses a “form” and a “subject”
    Ex. The flower rose
    Abstract Concepts: has a “form” only , has intangible quality, that which cannot be perceived by the senses
    Ex. Beauty in a woman
  • 11. Kinds of concept
    3.Absolute Concepts: signifies the meaning of a concept, all definitions are absolute concepts
    Ex. A triangle is a three-sided figure.
    Connotative Concepts: signifies a characteristic existing in the concept, all modifiers are connotative concepts
    Ex. Drummer boy
  • 12. Kinds of concept
    4.Positive Concepts: signifies the existence or possession of something
    Ex. happy
    Negative Concepts: signifies the absence of something
    Ex. sad
  • 13. Seatwork #2
    Underline the simple subject of each proposition then classify according to the four kinds of concepts in the column below:
    Justice is a prerequisite of love.
    Men are creatures of God.
    “Freedom” is the name of our park.
    Honesty is still the best policy.
    Joy is Zeny’s friend.
  • 14.
  • 15. Assignment #2
    Underline the simple subject of each proposition then classify according to the four kinds of concepts in the column below:
    1. Love is a many-splendored thing.
    2. “Love” is the theme of the homily.
    3. The loving couple is a model to their children.
    4. Hope is the opposite of despair.
    5. “Hope” is the street where I live.
    6. The urban poor are people in need of hope.
  • 16. The term
    The external representation of a concept and the ultimate structural element of a proposition.
    - external representation means it is always a sign of a concept or an idea
    - ultimate structural element means it could either be the subject or predicate of a proposition
  • 17. The term
    EXAMPLE:
    Hilda is a (nun).
    subject
    predicate
  • 18. Properties of a term
    EXTENSION OF A TERM
    • the sum total of the particulars to which the comprehension of a concept can be applied
    • 19. The denotation of a term
    • 20. The terms that are members of the domain of the concept
  • Properties of a term
    COMPREHENSION OF A TERM
    - the sum total of all notes which constitute the meaning of a concept
    - set of traits or characteristics that differentiates the term in a group
    - the connotation of a term
  • 21. Properties of a term
    Example is the term BAT
    -for its extension it will include all animals, regardless of size, shape, colour, or breeding
    -further analysis (comprehension), know the nature of bats – how?
    - You must try to state the trait or set of traits and characteristics that differentiates bats from the rest of the animal kingdom
  • 22. Properties of a term
    Example is the term BAT
    -the important common trait of bats is: they are the only mammals capable of sustained flight like a bird
    - Unlike birds, bats are able to fly at low speed with extreme maneuverability.
  • 23. RELATIONSHIP
    Comprehension and Extension are related to each other inversely
    Meaning: the greater the comprehension of a term, the lesser its extension and vice versa
    - the arrangement of the characteristics from general to specific
    Ex. city, barangay, province, municipality, region, country , sitio
  • 24. Seatwork#3
    Arrange the ff. from greater comprehensiont o lesser extension
    Pedro, Filipino, Man, Asian, Brown Race
    Square, Plane, Figure, Rectangle, Polygon, Parallelogram, shape
  • 25. Answer to sw#3
    1. Man 2. Plane
    Asian Figure
    Brown Race Shape
    Filipino Polygon
    Pedro Parallelogram
    Rectangle
    Square
  • 26. Quantities of terms
    SINGULAR – it stands for a single definite individual or group
    - Proper nouns ex. Raul, La Union, DMMMSU
    - Nouns modified by adjective to the superlative degree ex. most charming
    - Demonstratives ex. this book, that door
    - Collective nouns ex. flock, class
    - The article the ex. The man in blue shorts
    - Personal pronouns – I, you, he, she, we, they, my, your, our
  • 27. Quantities of terms
    PARTICULAR - it stands for an indefinite subject
    - Indefinite pronouns and adjectives
    ex. Some, several, many, few
    - Use of numbers ex. Seven tickets
    - Use of article “a” and “an”
    - General propositions: which are true most of the time but not all the time
    ex. Filipinos are hospitable
  • 28. Quantities of terms
    3. UNIVERSAL – it stands for every subject signified
    - Universal expressions ex. All, every, each, whatever, whoever, whichever, without exception, everything
    - Universal ideas
    Ex. Men are mortal
    - The use of articles “the”, “a”, “an” if the idea is universal
    Ex. The snake is a dangerous creature.
  • 29. Seatwork #4
    Underline each simple subject and classify its quantity: S for singular, P for particular, and U for universal
    I am a violinist’s daughter.
    All the children are musicians.
    Six of them are a string ensemble.
    A brother is a trombone player.
    Some bands are their competitors during the town fiesta.
    A square is a geometric figure with four equal sides.
    Two parallel lines will not meet.
    You should practice what you preach.
    That girl beside me is wearing a red dress.
    The weather is warm.
  • 30. Kinds of terms
    UNIVOCAL – if they mean exactly the same thing in the last two occurrences
    Ex. Man is rational.
    Get that man!
    EQUIVOCAL – if they have different meanings in at least two occurrences
    Ex. Man the lifeboat!
    The son of man
  • 31. Kinds of terms
    3. ANALOGOUS – if they have partly the same and partly different meanings in at least two occurrences
    KINDS:
    1. Intrinsic analogy: used in technical terms and as definitions
    2. Extrinsic analogy: used as a metaphor
    Ex. The heart of the forest
  • 32. Kinds of terms
    KINDS:
    3. Analogy of Proportionality: when the terms use are similar
    Ex. The stepmother is cruel.
    The sea is cruel.
    4.Analogy of Attribution: attribute the term to its denotation
    Ex. I am drinking Coke.
  • 33. Seatwork #5
    Classify the underlined terms- write U for Univocal, E for Equivocal, IA for Intrinsic Analogy, EA for Extrinsic analogy, AP for for Analogy of Proportionality, AA for Analogy of Attribution.
    I am reading Rizal.
    Gold is a precious metal. Lydia de Vega received a gold for 100m. Dash.
    Politicians speaks of leveling the Smokey Mountain. Geneva Cruz is a member of the Smokey Mountain.
    Gonzaga is a tenor. Cabahug is a tenor.
    I am using Colgate.
  • 34. Seatwork #5
    Classify the underlined terms- write U for Univocal, E for Equivocal, IA for Intrinsic Analogy, EA for Extrinsic analogy, AP for Analogy of Proportionality, AA for Analogy of Attribution.
    6. Father Sales and my father are friends.
    7. The smiling sun is so brilliant.
    8. The mouth of the river is clean.
    9. We pass by Bridal’s Veil along Kennon Road
    10. Hitler is a man.
    Marcos is a man.
  • 35. SUPPOSITION OF TERMS
    It is functional – the way it is meant in the proposition
    Examples:
    A square is a rectangle with four equal sides.
    Square has six letters
    Square is the subject the sentence
    A black-rimmed square clock is classy in my living room.
  • 36. KINDS OF SUPPOSITION
    MATERIAL SUPPOSITION: is that which uses a word for itself alone, for its spoken or written sign, not for its real meaning
    Examples: #2 and 3
    FORMAL SUPPOSITION: is that which uses a word for its real meaning
    Example: #1
  • 37. Other kinds
    A] LOGICAL SUPPOSITION: is that which uses a word for its second intention; that is the way the mind thinks it to be
    Example: #4
    B] REAL SUPPOSITION: is that which uses a word in its first intention
    Example: #1
  • 38. uNDER real supposition:
    1] Absolute Supposition: is that which uses a word for essence, but without excluding existing reality
    Example: Proposition #1
    Personal Supposition: is that which uses a word for the subject containing the essence signified by the word
    Example: Proposition #4
  • 39. Essential Supposition: is that which uses a word for qualities necessary to the subject
    Example: #1
    Accidental Supposition: is that which uses a word for qualities not actually necessary to the subject
    Example: #4
  • 40. Seatwork#6
    Give the specific kind of supposition illustrated by
    the words “carabao” and “pag-asa” in each
    proposition below.
    “Tamarao” belongs to the endangered species.
    “Tamarao” is a word with three syllables.
    “Pag-asa” is the name of the eaglet.
    “Pag-asa” is the subject of the sentence.
    “Pag-asa” means hope in English.
    “Pag-asa” is now the adopted child of bird lovers.
  • 41. Other types
    • IMAGINARY SUPPOSITION: exists as a product of imagination
    Ex. Fictional character
    • METAPHORICAL SUPPOSITION: term is used as a figure of speech
    Ex. The smiling sun
    • SYMBOLIC SUPPOSITION: signifies a group of men
    Ex. L.A. Lakers
  • 42. The proposition
    • A special type of sentence
    • 43. An enunciation of truth or falsity
    • 44. Verbal expression of mental judgment
  • STRUCTURAL ELEMENT
    S – C – P
    [subject]- [copula]- [predicate]
    • Subject stands for the thing signified, the one spoken of
    • 45. Predicate stands for what is affirmed or denied of the subject
    • 46. copula- links the subject and the predicate
    • 47. * acceptable only is the present tense is or is not
  • example
    All boys (are) future men.
    Quantifier subject[S] copula[C] predicate[P]
  • 48. Logical symbol[Four standard propositions]
  • 49. examples
    A - Every monkey is an animal.
    E - No monkey is a human.
    I - Some monkeys are brown.
    O - Some monkeys are not brown.
  • 50. Logical diagram
    A PROPOSITION
    PREDICATE
    SUBJECT
  • 51. E PROPOSITION
    SUBJECT
    PREDICATE
  • 52. I PROPOSITION
    SUBJECT
    PREDICATE
  • 53. O PROPOSITION
    SUBJECT
    PREDICATE
  • 54. LOGICAL FORM
    WAYS OF REWRITING PROPOSITION TO ITS LOGICAL FORM
    Change the verb to its present tense progressive.
    Change the verb to a noun.
    Change verb to a relative clause.
    Change verb to a noun clause.
  • 55. example
    ALL CROCODILES CANNOT FLY.
    1.NO CROCODILES ARE FLYING.
    2.NO CROCODILES ARE FLYERS.
    3.NO CROCODILES ARE REPTILES THAT CAN FLY.
    4.NO CROCODILES ARE FLYING REPTILES.
  • 56. SQUARE OF OPPOSITION
    A
    E
    CONTRARY
    S
    U
    B
    A
    L
    T
    E
    R
    N
    S
    U
    B
    A
    L
    T
    E
    R
    N
    CONTRADICTORIES
    CONTRADICTORIES
    SUBCONTRARY
    I
    O
  • 57. CONTRADICTORIES
    • 2 pairs:
    1] A – O: Every S is P, therefore, some S is not P.
    O – A: Some S is not P, therefore, every S is P.
    2]E – I: No S is P, therefore, some S is P.
    I– E: Some S is P, therefore, no S is P.
  • 58. Examples:
    A - All men are rational, therefore
    O - some men are not rational.
    I – Some students are girls, therefore
    E – No students are girls.
  • 59. Rules:
    1. If one is true, the other is false.
    2. If one is false, the other is true.
    A- All men are rational is true [ T ], therefore
    O - some men are not rational. False or F
  • 60. contrary
    • 1 pair:
    A – E: Every S is P, therefore, no S is P.
    or
    E – A: No S is P, therefore, every S is P.
    Example:
    E- No students are girls, therefore,
    A - every students are girls.
  • 61. Rules:
    If one is true, the other is false.
    If one is false, the other is doubtful.
    Example:
    E- No students are girls is false [ F ], therefore,
    A - every students are girls is doubtful [ ? ]
  • 62. subcontrary
    • 1 pair
    I – O: Some S is P, therefore some S is not P.
    or
    O – I: Some S is not P, therefore some S is P.
    EXAMPLE:
    I - Some students are girls, therefore
    O - some students are not girls.
  • 63. Rules:
    If one is true, the other is doubtful.
    If one is false, the other is true.
    EXAMPLE:
    I - Some students are girls is true [ T ], therefore
    O - some students are not girls is doubtful [ ? ].
  • 64. subalterns
    • 2 pairs
    1. A – I: Every S is P, therefore some S is P.
    I – A: Some S is P, therefore every S is P.
    2. E – O: No S is P, therefore some S is not P.
    O – E: Some S is not P, therefore no S is P.
  • 65. example
    A- All triangles are planes with three sides, therefore
    I- Some triangles are planes with three sides.
  • 66. Rules:
    1. If the universal is true, the particular is true; if the universal is false, the particular is doubtful
    A- All triangles are planes with three sides is true [ T ], therefore
    I- Some triangles are planes with three sides true [ T ].
  • 67. If the particular is true, the universal is
    doubtful; but if the particular is false, the
    universal is false.
    I- Some triangles are planes with three
    sides is true [ T ]
    therefore
    A- All triangles are planes with three sides is
    Doubtful [?]