Responsible campus journalism


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A Talk for High School Campus Journalists
Sept. 19, 2013; 8:00 – 10:00 AM, MM Audi B
University of St. La Salle

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Responsible campus journalism

  1. 1. A Talk for High School Campus Journalists Sept. 19, 2013; 8:00 – 10:00 AM, MM Audi B University of St. La Salle Jean Lee C. Patindol
  2. 2. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  3. 3. The Functions of Journalism: Why People Consume News  Surveillance – to inform people about what is going on in the world  Opinion-making - influence on people’s views and attitudes, whether aimed for or not  Entertainment – entertaining people about human nature, nature, life  Education – educating people about issues, new discoveries, challenges, etc.  “Watchdog” function - monitoring public accountability of public officials  ??? (Shaping/re-shaping culture?) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  4. 4. Others Gov’t . Big Business MEDIA CULTURE: way of life Attitudes, ideas, behavior The Powerful Role of Media in Our Lives Jean Lee C. Patindol
  5. 5. News and Culture  Linear model  The Feedback Loop Jean Lee C. Patindol Source Facts Reporter Media Audience Facts Reporter Source Audience Media
  6. 6. What is News?  Any communication or information presented will do?  The simple relaying of events?  “new, interesting and true” Interesting to whom? Why is it that only a tiny fraction of the billions of events that happen in the world each day that might pass the basic criteria, do not even make it to the local media, much less the national and international media? True from whose perspective? The job of the journalist is to assess those different accounts and to try to find a coherent, concise and objective account of what happened (Accuracy, Reliability, Meaning) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  7. 7. News  “The sifting and editing of information, comments and events into a form that is recognizably different from the pure form in which they first occurred.  Journalism is about putting events, ideas, information and controversies into context. It is about selection and presentation. Above all, perhaps, it is about the assessment of the validity, truthfulness or representativeness of actions or comments.” (Rudin and Ibbotson, 2002) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  8. 8.  Journalism is all about producing a product– sometimes called a commodification– and is a social construction, which is formed and limited by the dominant ideology of a society: a set of views and ideas that are presumed to be “normal” and “common sense”. As in the production of any item, those manufacturing and producing it must know who is going to want that product. (Rudin and Ibbotson, 2002) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  9. 9. News Selection Deviance Legitimate Controversy Consensus Jean Lee C. Patindol Based on “The Uncensored War” by Daniel Hallin
  10. 10. Do “News Values” Equate to Valuable News?  Conflict as violence  Frequency  Negativity  Unexpectedness  Unambiguity  Personalization/ human interest  Meaningfulness/ cultural proximity  Reference to the elite  Consonance/ media readiness  Continuity  Composition  Competition  Co-optation  Prefabrication  Predictability  Time constraints  Logistics  Information that people need to live better, happier, healthier, more harmonious lives?  Information that promotes more:  Truth,  Respect,  Freedom,  Compassion,  Fairness/ justice? Jean Lee C. Patindol
  11. 11. Journalism’s Core Values  Truth-telling  factual accuracy  contextual accuracy  corroboration by multiple-sourcing  but do not break the law  avoid deceiving sources, misrepresentation  use special methods only under justifiable circumstances (hidden cameras and recorders, undercover reporting, false identities)  Freedom and autonomy  Avoid conflicts of interest : when your interest is what you pursue ahead of your duty (involvement in particular activities/affiliations, acceptance of favors and money, financial investments, outside employment)  Keep relationships with sources professional  Justice  Both or all sides must be given equal space/time  Honor right of reply  Correct errors promptly and with the same prominence Jean Lee C. Patindol
  12. 12. Core Values  Humaneness  Portray subjects as human beings; avoid stereotyping  Keep sources confidential if they demand it or when the occasion demands it ○ On the record – can cite and print ○ Off the record – can’t cite/print, can be used as lead ○ Not for attribution – use info but can’t quote/cite source ○ For background – don’t even mention source; present as multiple sources or “not her real name”  Do not endanger sources  Respect privacy  Protect vulnerable groups (women, children, cultural/religious groups, survivors/victims and their families, hospital patients/relatives, accused/convicted of crimes and their relatives, individuals at risk) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  13. 13. Core Values  Stewardship/ Responsibility/Accountability Abide by the same standards you hold others up to Protect freedom of expression; others’ freedom too Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct Expose unethical practices of journalists and the news media Jean Lee C. Patindol
  14. 14. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  15. 15. Jean Lee C. Patindol Concepts of Peace  Pax (Latin) – a pact, a contract; an absence of war through the imposition of order by a dominant power  Sala’m (Arabic) – peace with justice/order/following the right path of God  Shalom (Hebrew) – wholeness, integrity, harmony; co-existence of opposites through acceptance of differences; continuous growth of all creative human powers  Shanti (Sanskrit) – equanimity, spiritual peace, oneness with the Divine, non-attachment, self- realization  Heping (Chinese) – harmony within and without, stability and order  Filipino?
  16. 16. Jean Lee C. Patindol Key Elements of Peace  Absence of war and physical violence  Conditions necessary for human fulfillment and the growth of our creative powers  Conditions necessary for human harmony  Conditions necessary for oneness with all creation, inner peace  Upholding basic human rights: Truth, respect, freedom, compassion, fairness, justice
  17. 17. Jean Lee C. Patindol Peace Total Peace Integrated Peace: Absence of Indirect Violence Direct/Symptomatic Peace: Absence of Direct Physical Violence
  18. 18. Jean Lee C. Patindol Violence: Inflicting Harm, Damage  Direct Violence -usually physically manifested (hitting, beating, shooting, bombing, raping, kicking, etc.)  Indirect Violence – usually insidiously/subtly manifested  Cultural Violence: hate speech, gossip, xenophobia, discrimination in any form, gender violence, “chosen-ness”, etc.  Structural Violence: poverty, slavery, apartheid, colonialism, corruption, excessive material inequality  Ecological Violence: overconsumption, pollution, environmental harm and damage
  19. 19. Jean Lee C. Patindol What is Conflict? Conflict is a process through which two or more actors try to pursue incompatible goals while trying the undermine the goal- seeking potential of the others. It may also arise when two or more actors pursue compatible goals with incompatible methods. Conflict basically arises because of unmet needs/changes in needs.
  20. 20. Jean Lee C. Patindol Sources of Conflict  Scarce resources  Uneven distribution of power  Poor or no communication between parties  Parties have incorrect perceptions of each other  There is a lack or very low level of trust  Unresolved grievances exist from the past  Parties do not value the relationship between them
  21. 21. News and Conflict Escalation 9. Destruction and self-destruction 8. Destruction of the opponent 7. Limited destructive blows and sanctions 6. Threatening strategies 5. Open attack and loss of face 4. Formation of coalitions 3. Confrontation, with a “fait accompli” 2. Debate 1. Tension and Crystallization Jean Lee C. Patindol How Conflict is Managed And Communicated Quantity and Quality of Information
  22. 22. Jean Lee C. Patindol Conflict is not the same as Violence!  Conflict is part of life. Life means growth.  Conflict is about change. Life is a series of changes towards growth.  Change requires adjustments and readjustments of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, structures, ways of life.  Responses to conflict can be creative and collaborative, if change is seen as an opportunity for new and better possibilities rather than a threat.
  23. 23. The Media Filter FACTS Source Personal Knowledge What source? Hierarchy… How many? Time… Interpreters… What information do you pick up? In what condition are you? How much do you understand? Professional What‘s News? Journalistic decisions… Target Group For whom do you write and report? Team Who is working with you? Time …for investigation, for interviews, for writing and authorizing? Money NO COMMENT… Editorial House Style External Influence Newsvalue compared to other stories Space in the paper, program Taste, personal relationship Organizational background? ? Report / Article Jean Lee C. Patindol
  24. 24. Peace Journalism is when editors and reporters make choices – of which stories to report, and how to report them – which create opportunities for society at large to consider and to value non-violent responses to conflict. (Jake Lynch, Annabel McGoldrick, Reporting the World / BBC) Jean Lee C. Patindol
  25. 25. Characteristics of War/Violence-Focused Journalism War Journalism reports on conflict as a Sports Reporter does on a tennis match: • who is fighting (playing) • what the score is (casualties taken/territory won or lost by either side) • who is winning and who is losing Jean Lee C. Patindol
  26. 26. Characteristics of Peace/Conflict-Focused Journalism Conflict is to a Peace Journalist as disease is to a Health Correspondent. e.g. Heart disease reported as: •Technical aspects,e.g. the latest development in open- heart surgery (the equivalent of War Journalism and its talk of ‘surgical strikes’). •But also: underlying causes (diet and lifestyle, poor education, housing conditions etc.)) •highlight possible SOLUTIONS - initiatives to counter the effect of marketing fatty foods to children, or persuading people to take more exercise. Jean Lee C. Patindol
  27. 27. Peace Journalism vs. War Journalism  Two party geometry  Tug of war  Zero sum gain  Victory or defeat  Demonization for justification  Good vs. evil • Round table • Conflict as common problem • Positive sum gain • Solutions • Humanizing all parties • Shades of gray/ colors of the rainbow!  Jean Lee C. Patindol
  28. 28. War/violence oriented Propaganda oriented Elite oriented Victory oriented • Peace/Conflict oriented • Truth oriented • People oriented • Solution oriented Jean Lee C. Patindol
  29. 29. The Peace Journalism (PJ) Approach in Analyzing News  How is a conflict framed?  Peace/Conflict-focused journalism or war/violence-focused journalism?  What is the shape of the conflict?  Two-party geometry or Round-Table?  How is violence portrayed?  Focus on understanding of conflict or highlighting violence?  Use of language, tone?  Implications of layout, colors, etc.?  How is the role of the journalist in presenting the conflict?  Escalates conflict by highlighting violence and promoting polarization, or de-escalates conflict by promoting deeper understanding of conflict issues and helping create spaces for reflection and dialogue? Jean Lee C. Patindol
  30. 30. Is Peace Journalism “Peace Propaganda”?  Peace Journalism  Independent/Multi-source  Conflict-focused: presentation and analysis of conflict issues  Helps create spaces for peaceful dialogue-based instead of violent solutions by providing well-researched factual and multi-source INFORMATION for DECISION-MAKING  “Peace Propaganda”  Usually uni-source (from a peace working group)  Also conflict-focused: presentation and analyses of conflict issues but usually in not as much breadth and depth  Explicitly encourages more specific steps/solutions; is usually directly involved in the addressing of conflict issues through ACTION Jean Lee C. Patindol
  31. 31. Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defense of peace must be constructed. - UNESCO Constitution Jean Lee C. Patindol