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  1. 1. DROUGHT E. Grace Selvarani
  2. 2. What is a Drought? Drought is defined as a period in which a region has a deficit in its water supply whether surface or underground water. It can last for months or years, or even days….. though droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage and harm to the local economy.
  3. 3. Causes Drought can be caused by a number of factors. The most important one though relates to the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere as this is what creates precipitation. If there is an above average presence of dry, high pressure air systems instead, less moisture is available to produce precipitation. Even, deforestation for agriculture and/or building combined with the resultant erosion can also cause drought to begin because as soil is moved away from an area it is less able to absorb moisture when it falls.
  4. 4. Droughts can be of three kinds •Meteorological drought •Hydrological drought •Agricultural drought
  5. 5. Meteorological drought This happens when the actual rainfall in an area is significantly less than the climatological mean of that area. The country as a whole may have a normal monsoon, but different meteorological districts and sub-divisions can have below normal rainfall. The rainfall categories for smaller areas are defined by their deviation from a meteorological area's normal rainfall.
  6. 6. Hydrological drought A marked depletion of surface water causing very low stream flow and drying of lakes, rivers and reservoirs.
  7. 7. Agricultural drought Inadequate soil moisture resulting in acute crop stress and fall in agricultural productivity.
  8. 8. Consequences of Drought There are short and long term consequences with any drought because of nature and society's dependence on water. Problems associated with drought can have economic, environmental, and social impacts on both the areas where they occur and areas that have relations with those where the drought happens.
  9. 9. Impacts of Drought •Economic impact(agriculture and the income generated from crops in short term and unemployment of farmers and even retailers can occur at long term) •Environmental impact(insect infestations and plant diseases, increased erosion, habitat and landscape degradation in short term and plant and animal species can suffer tremendously, and over time desertification can happen with an extreme lack of moisture at long term) •Social impact(disputes between users of available water, inequalities in water distribution between wealthy and poor, disparities in areas in need of disaster relief, and a decline in health)
  10. 10. Policies History of drought policy is very old in India. Muhammad Tughlakh was perhaps the first Sultan to take systematic steps to alleviate the effects of droughts. He distributed grains to people in Delhi for six months during the famine of 1343 A.D. He also gave loans to farmers and started relief works to provide employment to affected people. Mughal emperors were much better in this matter. They provided grains to people even outside Delhi, in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Malwas and started relief works for the poor. They also revised land revenue, increased recruitment in army and promoted deepening of ponds and digging of wells during famines.
  11. 11. Policies Drought Management Strategies Adopted in 2012 was based on, “This is clearly a realization of ground reality which needs to be reflected in a long term drought area developmental policy in India. The current approaches aims at reducing the short term impact of drought by providing relief measures”. A statement made at a SubRegional Seminar on Drought Mitigation on 28-29th August, 2001 in Tehran .
  12. 12. Policies Few drought Management Strategies Adopted in 2012 Desirable features of drought weather codes of a sustainable framework are: • Complete revision of existing drought relief manual • Development of a well network of information management system- through GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques. • Improvements in rural banking system of human, livestock, water resources, fee/food/fodder supplies, natural resources especially seed banks. • Billions of rupees are spent for drought mitigation in most of the years. This expenditure should lead significantly towards drought adaptations, mitigation/ moderation and reduce vulnerability (poverty) in the future.
  13. 13. A cartoon depicting India's drought management policies on April 2013
  14. 14. References •Contingency and Compensatory Agriculture Plans for Droughts and Floods in India- 2012 by National Rainfed Area Authority Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi •Multiple Impacts of Droughts and Assessment of Drought Policy in Major Drought Prone States in India by Anil Kumar Roy& Indira Hirway •Dictionary of geography •http://geography.about.com
  15. 15. Thank you…