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  1. 1. The Victorian Era Society and Living Conditions
  2. 2. Public Sphere <ul><li>Industrialization brought many working class women into the “paid” economy </li></ul><ul><li>1832: All property-owning males could vote </li></ul><ul><li>1847: Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inequity of industrial capitalist society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revolution is the necessary response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1867: voting rights extended to ALL males </li></ul>
  3. 3. Private Life <ul><li>Really only applies to Upper-middle class families </li></ul><ul><li>A man’s home was his “castle” and the woman was “the angel in the house” </li></ul><ul><li>Wives had responsibility for instilling morals, propriety and culture in children </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intellectual Issues <ul><li>Intellectual Progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of nature and human intelligence continued to thrive throughout the Victorian period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Darwin’s Origin of Species </li></ul><ul><li>Education was now viewed as the vehicle to take society out of poverty and need. </li></ul><ul><li>Success was measured for the first time not by the position you were born into--but the position you climbed to. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Domestic Issues <ul><li>Cities were filthy--raw sewage was polluting the Thames river. </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment was high since England was in the midst of economic depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten to twelve hour work day was normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Children worked in slave conditions in coal mines and factories. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Domestic Progress <ul><li>Streets were named </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were numbered </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage was collected </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage was eventually moved away from people’s homes and treated </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions (light bulb, telephone, anesthesia etc) aided in everyday life </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gender Issues <ul><li>Women were expected to marry, produce children </li></ul><ul><li>In 1850, women outnumbered men in England by 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1880, public education was generally available for both boys and girls </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Woman’s Question <ul><li>Questions first addressed by Wollstonecraft in the 18 th Century, become major issues of public debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to vote was only one of main issues discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal rights for women was defended on both religious and increasingly pseudo-scientific grounds. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>The application of power-driven machinery to manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>change was rapid </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed home/small scale industry, crafts, guilds, and peasant farmer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often skilled artisans found themselves degraded to routine process laborers as machines began to mass produce the products formerly made by hand. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Laissez Faire Economics <ul><li>French for “Allow to do.” </li></ul><ul><li>Policy based of minimum of governmental interference in the economic affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual, pursuing his/her own desired ends, would achieve the best results for the society. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Zero regulation on business. </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith was influential proponent. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Working Conditions <ul><li>Large supply of labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers had no incentive to look out for the employees' safety or health.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If one worker was injured he or she was easily replaced. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long hours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory laborers endured sixteen hour work days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low wages </li></ul>
  12. 12. Child Labor <ul><li>Children expected to contribute to the family's income because they had in agricultural economy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children as young as five or six were sent to work in factories and mines. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children were placed under the supervision of an overseer rather than a parent.  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Working Class Living Conditions <ul><li>In factory towns, workers lived in hastily built tenements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of good brick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no building codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the lack of machinery for public sanitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>factory owners' tendency to regard laborers as commodities and not as a group of human beings. </li></ul></ul>