Website Globalization And E Business United Kingdom


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The Website Globalization and E-Business Series includes a series of brief reports on country-specific website globalization and e-business topics. This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-commerce as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts by country.

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Website Globalization And E Business United Kingdom

  1. 1. Globalization Partners International White Paper | 2014 Website Globalization and E-Business United Kingdom The Website Globalization and E-Business Series includes a series of brief reports on country-specific website globalization and e-business topics. The series includes: • • • • • • China Japan Germany US Hispanic Market Brazil India • • • • • Russia Argentina France United Kingdom United Arab Emirates This series of reports is meant to be a primer on e-Business as well as a collection of language, culture and website globalization facts by country. These reports are by no means a complete coverage of these topics. For more comprehensive or customized reports on country-specific Website Globalization and E-Business topics, please email No material contained in this report may be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written permission of Globalization Partners International. The information contained in this White Paper has been obtained from sources we believe to be reliable, but neither its completeness nor accuracy can be guaranteed. The Website Globalization and E-Business paper was researched and written by: Martin Spethman Managing Partner Globalization Partners International Phone: 866-272-5874 Nitish Singh, PhD, Author of “The Culturally Customized Website”, “Localization Strategies for Global E-Business”, and Assistant Professor of International Business, Boeing Institute of International Business, John Cook School of Business, Saint Louis University. Phone: 314-977-7604 1 of 14 © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved. ® All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners. All graphics used in this report were provided by Flickr, Google Images and other free internet resources for pictures. Globalization Partners International helps companies communicate and conduct business in any language and in any locale by providing an array of globalization services including: • • • • • • • • Translation Multilingual Desktop Publishing Software Internationalization & Localization Website Internationalization & Localization Software and Website Testing Interpretation (Telephonic, Consecutive, Simultaneous) Globalization Consulting SEO (Global Search Engine Marketing) To learn more about Globalization Partners International, please visit us at Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. I. Market Introduction and Stats Stats/Source Online Activities UK Online Population • In Great Britain, 21 million households (83%) had Internet access in 2013. • Access to the Internet using a mobile phone more than doubled between 2010 and 2013, from 24% to 53%. eCommerce Shopping Trends Online Payment Choices Access • 10% of total retail in the UK is online sales • Online retail is growing 6x faster than store sales and is estimated to exceed $57.9 billion by 2014 • The number of Brits making online purchases is expected to reach 32.5 million by 2014 (Verdict Research) • 74% of adults in the UK have broadband (fixed + mobile) • Debit Card • PayPal (PayPal processes $10 million per day in mobile transactions) • Broadband Internet connections using fibre optic or cable were used by 42% of households, up from 30% in 2012. • In 2013, 6 in 10 adults (61%) had used a device such as mobile phone or portable computer (a tablet or laptop) to access the mobile Internet Main Product Categories • Travel • Clothing • Groceries • Consumer Electronics The British Online Consumer Fast Facts $2.38 Trillion (World Bank 2012) 1.9% (BBC, 2013) Population Approximately 63.23 Million, 2012 Internet Population Approximately 51.4 Million, 83% of the population Online Spending Internet GDP Growth Rate General Stats Numbers £87 Billion in 2013 (IMRG 2013) LLThe United Kingdom has the 6th-largest national economy in the world and 3rd-largest in Europe measured by nominal GDP. (Source: Wikipedia) LLAccording to IMRG mobile commerce in UK grew by 254% between 2010 and 2011, and by a further 300% between 2011 and 2012. LL17% of UK shoppers have made a purchase in response to a location-based advertisement. LLThe UK had the highest rate of online purchasing, with 82% of Internet users buying online. LLOn average mobiles account for 31% of site traffic in the UK. (Source: Mobify) LL69% of tablet owners make a purchase on their device every month. (Source: InMobi and Mobext) LL 25% of UK consumers have made a purchase using their mobile. (Source: Econsultancy) LLIn 2013, 36 million adults (73%) in Great Britain accessed the Internet every day. LLThe online sector has seen significant growth, doubling its share of the market in the past five years. By October 2013, it accounted for around 10% of all retail sales in Britain with an average weekly spend of just over £650m. (Source: ONS) LLThe IMRG Capgemini eRetail Sales Index showed that in December online sales soared by 17.5 percent on the same month a year before. Overall in 2012, £78bn was spent at online retailers, around a fifth of all retail sales. 2 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. II. UK Culture and the Online Consumer Cultural Values UK Culture and Values Individualism: Cultures like the UK that are high on the Individualism Value tend to value individual goals over group goals. Independence, individuality, and selfexpression are preferred values. Power Distance: This is a belief in authority and hierarchy (high power distance). Cultures that are high on power distance accept power and hierarchy in The UK shares some of the common symbols and traditions of other Western cultures yet still maintains its own unique, rich culture. At a macro-level, the UK culture can be described using five cultural values based on the work of Hofstede (1980). Professor Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture and is the author of several books including Culture’s Consequences (2nd fully revised edition), and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind (2nd fully revised edition). society and are low on egalitarianism. In such cultures, less powerful citizens are accepting of unequal power distribution in society. However, the UK is not considered high on power distance. Uncertainty Avoidance: The importance of predictability, structure, and order (high uncertainty Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of societies and organizations that are very persistent across time. Hofstede’s research showed that cultural values like Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Masculinity-Femininity, High-Low Context and Uncertainty Avoidance can be used to categorize various national cultures (see sidebar for definitions of these terms). avoidance) versus a willingness for risk-taking and an acceptance of ambiguity and limited structure (low uncertainty avoidance.) People from cultures high on uncertainty avoidance tend to have low tolerance for A country’s culture is made unique by which of these five values are incorporated into daily life and they emphasis it puts on each. For example, the UK scores 89 for Individualism. This is high and therefore points to that fact that British culture values and promotes individuality. uncertainty and avoid ambiguous situations. They view both conflict and competition as threatening and value Insights Into UK Consumer Values: security over adventure and risk. Masculinity-Femininity: A belief in achievement and ambition (masculine) versus a belief in nurturing LLLoyalty: A recent study showed that 72% of British Internet users do not like to shop around the web, but instead prefer to stick with 10 or less online stores they know. ( and caring for others (feminine). Masculine cultures like the UK value achievement orientation, material possessions and success. High-Low Context: To communicate effectively across LLPrivacy and Security: Based on a report from the Office of Fair Trading (OFT), almost 79% of online British consumers are “very concerned” about online privacy and security. Almost 3.5 million British shun online shopping due to lack of trust and security concerns. cultures the correct level of context has to be found. This context can be labeled as high or low, on a sliding scale. High context societies have close connections LLGender Differences: Women, aged 25 - 34 spend almost 20 percent more time online than their male counterparts (Ofcom communication market report). among group members. Everyone has a similar, intrinsic knowledge-base. Low context cultures are societies that are logical, linear, action-oriented, and the sharing LLMobile Devices: According to MobileWeb Metrix British Mobile, web users account for almost 67% of the entire mobile web audience of the UK. of the information is explicit and formalized. Most communication takes place in a rational, verbal and explicit way to convey concrete meanings through rationality and language. The UK is a combination of LLSocial Networking: Research shows that more than one third of British online consumers are big on social networking and other social computing activities, like blogs, podcasting, etc. This participation in social networking is double the European average (Forester research). both, High and Low Context. (Hofstede, Geert. Culture’s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications) 3 of 14 LLMoney: Data shows that British consumers have money to spend. Almost one quarter of them have a household income of about €50,000 ($100,000). Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. II. UK Culture and the Online Consumer UK Consumer Decision Making: €€Familiarity: UK consumers do not shop around, but prefer to stick to 10 or less online stores they know. €€Payment: British consumers prefer to use credit and debit cards for online purchases. PayPal is used less frequently. Other online payments like direct debit are not yet widely accepted. (ensor). €€Security: UK consumers are very worried about online security and want to purchase from a site that they feel has a good privacy policy and will keep their information secure. €€Social Networking: Consumers are less likely to buy high-ticket items through social networking sites. 65% say that they would only ever spend between £1 and £50 on a social networking site. UK Consumer Segments: Note: Market segmentation is an exercise in carefully identifying profitable and accessible consumer segments based on socio-demographics, geographics, and psychographics. Segmentation is unique to each company and product. (Some general insights on the UK consumer segments-based research. Gong, Hie et Al., Fax and Xiao, McExen et al., Singh et al.). ””15 - 25 Age Group: This group is 25% more likely to be online than the general online British population and spends 24% more time online than average users. (comscore). ””35 - 44 Age Group: This group represents the largest online segment within the UK with 23% of the total online population. ””Silver Shoppers: This group is 55+ years of age and is overtaking the 35 - 44 age group for the largest representation online. They are very interested in search engines. Adult and shopping classifieds are some of the most popular categories for the silver shoppers. ””Slow Adaptors: A little more than half of British view the web as not making their life easier and find it difficult to keep abreast with the fast changing online environment (Nielsen//NetRatings MegaPanel UK Digital Consumer Survey). 4 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. III. The English Language Different Words – Same Meaning (Adapted from Singh and Pereira) American English Queen’s English Truck Lorry Eraser Rubber Chips Crisps Fries Chips Hood (car) Bonnet Trunk (Car) Boot Mudguard Fender Trash Can Dust Bin Cookie Biscuit Biscuit Scone Candy Sweets Baked Potato Jacket Potato Raincoat Mac (Macintosh) Glue Gum Same Words – Different Spelling American English Kerb License (noun) Licence Maneuver Manoeuvre Neighbor Neighbour Organization Organisation Aging Ageing Pajamas Pyjamas Skeptical Sceptical Tire Tyre Gray Grey Draft Draught The English used in the UK, called either the King’s or Queen’s English depending on the ruler at the time, is different than the English used in America. UK English and US English are set apart in terms of vocabulary equivalence, conceptual equivalence and idiomatic equivalence leading to some confusion and sometimes innocent linguistic blunders. For example, the word “rubber” in the UK is thought to mean a device used to erase pen or pencil marks, whereas in the US it is associated with condoms. Judgement Curb English is written using the Latin alphabet. There are over 600,000 words in the Oxford English Dictionary, and it is estimated that 25,000 new words per year are added to the English Language ( Queen’s English Judgment English is a West Germanic language that originated in England and is spoken by more than a billion people worldwide on at least a basic level. There are several different dialects of English including the Queen’s English, American English, Cockney slang, Newfoundland English, Canadian English, and American Vernacular English (Ebonics) and South African English ( 5 of 14 Localization from US English to the Queen’s English can involve software that is aware of the differences in language and localizes accordingly. To truly localize from US English to UK English, a translator must be utilized in order to use specific idiomatic and dialectical nuances that will appeal to the British population. Example: Yahoo! mail has been localized with British specific phrases like “without spending a bean” or “no need to fret” – phrases that might not appeal to or work well with US audiences. Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. IV. Website Globalization Whether you are trying to launch a multilingual website in order to expand the markets for your products and services, or you are trying to increase your company’s global operational efficiencies by developing multilingual extranets and intranets, Website Globalization is a requirement to make either a reality. In order to enable your web presence to communicate, conduct and complete international e-Business, you need to translate (globalize) your website. Website translation is also known as “Website Globalization”. In order to truly “translate” a website into other languages you may need both Internationalization (I18n) and Localization (L10n) services. + Internationalization (I18n) involves enabling the backend of a website to handle different languages, character sets, currencies, submit form data, site search capabilities, etc… and involves understanding what database and content management systems you are using to author, store and publish your site’s content. Localization (L10n) involves translating and localizing the front end of your website into different languages ensuring all content (text and graphics) is translated in an accurate and culturally correct manner. 6 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Cultural Customization: Key Issues The basis for cultural customization of websites is a theoretically-sound, empirically-validated framework built on five unique cultural values that account for similarities and differences across global cultures. Research indicates that attitude towards websites, the sites’ interactivity and usability, as well as purchase intentions of users are enhanced when sites are congruent with the target customers’ cultural predispositions (see “The Culturally Customized Website,” Elsevier). The cultural customization framework is drawn from established research and is based on five unique values: Individualism-Collectivism, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity-Femininity, and Low-High Context (See page 3 of this report). These five predominant cultural values can be represented in a country-to-country comparison using the maps below: Masculinity - Femininity vs. Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance vs. Individualism - CollecƟvism Individualism - CollecƟvism Index Uncertainty Avoidance Index ÌÌUK 100 100 ÌÌUK 50 Masculinity - Femininity Index 0 0 Arab World Canada Czech Republic El Salvador Guatemala Iran Japan o r ay oland South Korea hailand n ited States 50 ArgenƟna Chile Czech Republic Finland Hong Kong Ireland Malaysia akistan ortugal Spain urkey rugua y Australia China Denmark France Hungary Israel Me ico anama Russia S eden S Hispanic Market enezuela 100 Austria Colombia East Africa Germany India Italy eth erlands eru Singapore S itzerland n ited Arab Emirates West Africa Brazil Costa Rica Ecuador Greece Indonesia Jamaica e ealand hilippines South Africa ai an n ited Kingdom 50 Power Distance Index 0 0 Arab World Brazil Colombia El Salvador Hungary Iran Malaysia akistan ortugal Spain S Hispanic Market enezuela 50 ArgenƟna Canada Costa Rica Finland Hong Kong Israel Me ico anama Russia S eden n ited Arab Emirates West Africa Australia Chile Czech Republic France India Italy eth erlands eru Singapore S itzerland n ited Kingdom 100 Austria China Denmark Germany Indonesia Jamaica e ealand hilippines South Africa ai an n ited States Belgium Colombia East Africa Guatemala Ireland Japan o r ay oland South Korea urkey rugua y Cultural Maps for UK Cultural Maps adapted from: “The Culturally Customized Website: Customizing Websites for the Global Marketplace” by Nitish Singh and Arun Pereira (2005), and Hofstede, Geert. “Culture’s Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations” Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications) 7 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization The Cultural Customization Scorecard Once we have identified the country’s predominant cultural values using the cultural maps the next step in customizing a website is to evaluate it on the relevant cultural values. This can be done in the form of The Cultural Customization Score Card. The score card is produced by analyzing the site on the features that conform to the cultural values of interest. The cultural values of interest for the UK are Individualism, Masculinity, and a balance of High and Low Context. (For a detailed cultural analysis of your website, please contact The Cultural Customization Scorecard™ - China Values Individualism Collectivism Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Masculinity Low Context High Context Cultural Scores Grading Scale: > 90% Excellent Customization on Cultural Value 70-89% Good Customization on Cultural Value < 70% Poor Customization on Cultural Value Cultural Customization (Examples) ÂÂIndividualism: Research suggests that there are web-specific features, like personalization, that can make a site more appealing to individualistic cultures. Some examples of websites customized for the UK are: • At they have a section entitled MP3 matchmaker, in which the consumer can put in a mixture of features and get an individualized selection of MP3 players. • Privacy is an important factor to the UK online customer. Therefore, clearly emphasizing the privacy policy on a website may be a very good strategy. • In both British advertising and web communication, there’s a certain common theme: independence, respect for privacy, and emphasis on uniqueness. Virgin Mobile, for example, emphasizes this uniqueness with a service called “Crave” and the slogan - “Everyone Wants It. You’ve Got It”. 8 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization ÂÂMasculinity: The UK is a culture that leans towards masculinity. Emphasizing themes, values and graphics that relate to this aspect, is an important component of a website for the UK. Emphasizing achievement, success, product durability and effectiveness, and adventure in the web content are ways to depict masculinity for the British audience. For example, the UK site of Virgin Mobile emphasizes achievement by prominantly displaying their customer service award and emphasizing that they are “The only UK operator to have won best customer service award seven years running”. ÂÂHigh-Low Context: The UK is unique as it is neither high or low context, but instead a mixture of both; therefore, companies need to balance imagery, aesthetic and colors with a clear well-organized layout suitable for British users. Some examples include: • The UK Virgin Mobile website exhibits low context features like a clear, to the point communication style and a direct, persuasive theme. These include providing consumers reasons for choosing them or information on how they will best take care of the customer. TESCO’s site is full of colorful boxes, and its layout is very linear and organized. 9 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Website Customization Considerations Symbols and Icons The United Kingdom, also known as Great Britain, was established through the merging of four constituent countries, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, each with their own unique culture. However, as time passed, many of the symbols and icons from the individual countries fused together to create a unique UK culture. For example: LL13 is considered a very unlucky number. LLFriday is considered an unlucky day, especially Friday the 13th. LLBlack cats are considered lucky. LLIt is considered good luck to touch a piece of wood. It is not uncommon to hear one yell, “Touch Wood!” to prevent a change in luck. LLAnimals: Peacock feathers are considered unlucky, possibly because the eye-shape on the feather can be considered the evil-eye. A sparrow entering a house is considered a death omen. LLRed poppies are worn on Remembrance Day in memory of service personnel who lost their lives in the First and Second World Wars and subsequent conflicts. LLBritish Monarchy: People in general are proud of the monarchy and like to celebrate this ancient institution. Colors Certain colors carry specific meaning and symbolize aspects of the British culture. €€Red: Considered to be the most masculine of colors signifying authority, government, power and visibility. €€Black: Considered to be the color of death. It is also a very formal color – such as “black-tie” events. Spatial Orientation: Spatial orientation refers to how web content is structured. According to Wendy Barber and Albert Badre, authors of “Culturability: The Merging of Culture and Usability” (1998), spatial orientation has a direct effect on website usability, because it affects visual perception. Manipulating the orientation can change the user’s comfort level. What is user-friendly for one country may be vastly different for another. Orange balances imagery with a neat, clean layout and a logical orientation. 10 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. V. UK Cultural Correctness and Web Customization Text Length: When translating a document or website, it is important to take into account how the length of the text will change after translation. There are a variety of reasons why text expansion occurs. Equivalent phrases in a target language may have more characters or words than in English, and some cultures prefer using a more formal style than other cultures, avoiding abbreviations, for example. Additionally, for both documents and websites both line and page breaks may be different in the localized version than in the English version. Finally, the layout of the document or website itself may change depending on the direction of the text. For example, Arabic is a bi-directional language and is read right-to-left, which will not only switch the layout of the text, but also the graphics, the tool bars, the navigation bars, and the binding of the book, etc... Similarly, some languages like Chinese and Japanese can be displayed either in left-to-right character rows or vertical character columns, and the choice influences how document elements such as graphics, figures, tables, call outs, etc. are arranged in the final document or webpage. There can either be text expansion or contraction when a document or website is translated from English into a target language. With document localization, there are several steps that can be taken to help preserve the integrity of the look and feel “layout” of the document. These include: LLUsing a larger font in the original language, if it is expected the language will expand during translation. This will help to develop a better feel for the final size of the document and how the document elements will be laid out relative to the text. If the text is expected to shrink, use a slightly smaller font for the same reasons. LLTables and graphics may need to be resized or changed. Some, like the vertical Chinese or Japanese layout, will require more finessing than others. 11 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. VI. Internet and Search Engine Marketing in the UK The key to promoting a website internationally is to create localized content and keywords, register local domains and then promote through local search engines, online and offline branding and promotions, and affiliate marketing. It is recommended that firms plan on and conduct some form of global search engine marketing (SEM) in order to drive traffic to their new language sites. This may include global search engine optimization of your localized web content, submission of pages to key country (locale) search engines, and a pay-per-click marketing campaigns through services like Google Adwords or Overture. For more information on Global SEM Services, see The Importance Sites If a company chooses to have site in addition to site it is important to not only make the UK English site, different in terms of dialect use, but also localize to have original content specific to the UK audience. This is not just a good localization policy to address each locale uniquely, but is also necessary to avoid penalties from search engines like Google. This is because Google tries to identify and penalize sites that are carbon copies of one another (Sean Carlos: UK SEO Considerations ÌÌYour keywords for SEO need to be adapted for the corresponding locale, in this case, the UK. This ensures that your website employs keywords most frequently used by UK consumers. ÌÌ Content and metadata translation/copy writing/research needs to be performed by in-country (UK) translators. This is essential to ensure that original content is adapted to your targeted UK consumers. ÌÌStrong website quality assurance (QA), performed by UK, in-country translators, will ensure that your website works properly for targeted UK consumers. The QA process will detect and eliminate broken links, missing information, and uncover any other cultural issues diminish your website experience for UK consumers. 12 of 14 According to an independent survey completed by Nominet, UK web addresses are the gateway to the Internet for the majority of British searching for information and purchasing online. In the UK, Nominet is the national registry for registering ccTLD ending and they manage over 6 million domain names. This makes domain almost the 4th largest registry in the world after .com, .org and .de ( These are several syntax rules that need to be taken into account when registering a .uk domain with Nominet (adapted from Baker and McKenzie, 2001): LLTwo letter names are not allowed, expect ISO country codes LLTwo character names are allowed, i.e., but not LLAll second level names are banned from being third level names, i.e. LLAll top level names are banned from being third level names, i.e. LLAll one character domain names, such as [a-z0-9] are reserved for possible future subdomain usage Top Search Engines in UK €€Google (90.47%) €€Bing (4.94%) €€Yahoo (3.05%) €€Ask Jeeves (0.44%) Source: References available upon request. Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. VII. Social Media and Digital Marketing for UK With the growth of global communications and marketing you need to adapt your social media communication to different cultural audiences and locales. Since social media is influencing all online communications, it is no longer enough just to localize your content. In today’s dynamic, social networking charged environment, you need to adapt your communication to match your target audience in UK to make sure that your message and intent is successfully communicated. It is recommended that firms plan on and conduct some form of global social media localization in order to drive traffic to their websites and social media profiles. This may include global social media localization of your content, social media optimization for local networks, and advertising campaigns through services like Facebook Advertising. For more information on Global Social Media Services, see Key Insights from the Digital Landscape for UK: LLFacebook remains the leading social network in the UK, capturing the greatest number of unique visitors. However, there are some rising stars on the horizon - Tumblr, Instagram, Pinterest and Goodreads – that have all witnessed strong growth over the year across both PC and mobile. (Source: ComScore) LL64% of UK mobile users owned a smartphone, while 82% of new phones acquired in December 2012 were smartphones. The rapid adoption of internet-enabled devices is creating a more fragmented digital media landscape. (Source: ComScore MobiLens) LLThe UK online video audience grew 8 percent in the past year, whilst mobile video audience grew 262 percent. (Source: ComScore) Top Social Media Networks in UK €€Facebook (60%) €€Twitter (19.27%) €€StumbleUpon (6.91%) €€Reddit (4.02%) €€Pinterest (3.95%) Source: References available upon request. 13 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Resources Search Engines ßßYahoo UK ßßEuroFind: European Business Directory ßßUK Nation ßßLycosUK ßßAbacho ßß ßßDogpile UK ßßooBdoo ßßSplut: Directory of UK Wesbites ßß ßßMojeek Beta ßßBusiness Link ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß ßß Useful Links Acrobat may ask you for permission to open the links. Click on the “Allow” button to let Acrobat open the link in your browser 14 of 14 Website Globalization and E-Business | United Kingdom © Copyright 2008 - 2014 Globalization Partners International. All rights reserved.