23909483 how-internet-help-to-develop-business

1,324 views

Published on

how-internet-help-to-develop-business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,324
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

23909483 how-internet-help-to-develop-business

  1. 1. Contents.............................................................................................................................................................1.............................................................................................................................................................1Word Count: 8183.................................................................................................................................1Vikas Kumar Viswash...........................................................................................................................1Date: 09/12/2009..................................................................................................................................1Acknowledgment..................................................................................................................................4Executive Summary..............................................................................................................................5 How internet help developing a Business A project report submitted in part requirement for the MSc Word Count: 8183 in Management. University of Glasgow Vikas Kumar Viswash Date: 09/12/2009CHAPTER 1: Introduction....................................................................................................................6 1.1 The Internet: A technology changing the boundary of the firm.....................................................................6 1.2 What is e-business? .......................................................................................................................................7 1.3 The effect of Internet on business..................................................................................................................7 1.4 Dissertation Objective....................................................................................................................................7 1.5 Project Structure.............................................................................................................................................7CHAPTER 2: Literature Review...........................................................................................................9 2.1 The Internet and its impact on International Marketing.................................................................................9 2.1.1 The Internet.............................................................................................................................................................9
  2. 2. How Internet help to develop a Business 2.1.2 Internet commerce..................................................................................................................................................9 2.1.3 The Internet and International Marketing................................................................................................................9 2.1.4 Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................10 .....................................................................................................................................................................................11 2.2 The Internet and the e-value chain...............................................................................................................11 2.2.1 Netchising or Virtual value chain..........................................................................................................................11 2.2.2 International value chain.......................................................................................................................................11 2.2.3 International information chain.............................................................................................................................12 2.3 International Marketing Strategy and e-business.........................................................................................13 2.3.1 Internet issue and foreign market entry.................................................................................................................13CHAPTER 3: Electronic Marketplace.................................................................................................15 3.1 “Internet” a virtual market...........................................................................................................................15 3.2 Physical vs. Virtual Value Chain .................................................................................................................15 3.3 Relationship marketing................................................................................................................................18CHAPTER 4: Marketing on the Internet..............................................................................................20 4.1 Internet and Global Business Strategy.........................................................................................................20 4.1.1 Drivers of Internet Adoption in International Marketing.......................................................................................20 4.1.2 Impact of Internet on International Marketing Variables.......................................................................................22 4.2 Advertising on internet.................................................................................................................................23 4.3 Interactive advertising..................................................................................................................................23 4.4 Marketing with push technology..................................................................................................................25 4.5 Corporate identity in cyberspace..................................................................................................................25CHAPTER 5: Analysis and Methodology...........................................................................................27 5.1 Competitive Advantage via Internet.............................................................................................................27 5.1.1 Porter’s three generic strategies for competitive advantage...................................................................................27 5.1.2 Stuck in the middle ..............................................................................................................................................28 5.2 E-business marketing Models and International Competitiveness..............................................................29 5.2.1 Rayport and Sviokla Model..................................................................................................................................29 5.2.2 Dutta and Segev’s Marketspace Model.................................................................................................................31 5.3 SWOT Analysis of Internet .........................................................................................................................33 5.3.1 Strength:................................................................................................................................................................33 5.3.2 Weakness .............................................................................................................................................................34 5.3.3 Opportunity ..........................................................................................................................................................35 5.3.4 Threat ...................................................................................................................................................................36 5.4 Safety tips.....................................................................................................................................................37CHAPTER 6: Case study: eBay...........................................................................................................38 6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................38 6.2 Acquisition of PayPal and Skype.................................................................................................................38 6.2.1 PayPal...................................................................................................................................................................38 6.2.2 Skype....................................................................................................................................................................39 6.3 SWOT Analysis of eBay..............................................................................................................................39CHAPTER 7: Conclusion....................................................................................................................41 7.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................................41 7.2 Replacement of old management technique................................................................................................41Vikas K Viswash .2 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  3. 3. How Internet help to develop a Business 7.3 Increased competition .................................................................................................................................41 7.4 New opportunities .......................................................................................................................................42 7.5 New threats...................................................................................................................................................43 7.6 International marketing via Internet.............................................................................................................43 7.6.1 Potential benefits ..................................................................................................................................................43 7.6.2 Barriers ................................................................................................................................................................44References & Bibliography: ..............................................................................................................45APEENDICS:.....................................................................................................................................47 TABLE 1: .........................................................................................................................................................47 TABLE 2:..........................................................................................................................................................47Vikas K Viswash .3 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  4. 4. How Internet help to develop a Business AcknowledgmentI would like to sincerely thank to all those, without their help it would be impossible tocomplete this dissertation. I would like to thank: • Mr Robert Marshal, our dissertation guide, who guides me throughout the completion of dissertation and shared his vast knowledge to improve our writing and understand ability. • Our librarian Ms Moira Sinclair, who helped me finding relevant books, journals and database from the vast collection of University of Glasgow library. • www.scribd.com and those who share scholarly articles and research work online; and help their bit to spread knowledge across the globe. • Yahoo Finance, who shared financial details of top organisations and helped me find relevant data. • All those scholars who have worked on different aspects of this topic and share their knowledge.Vikas K Viswash .4 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  5. 5. How Internet help to develop a Business Executive SummaryThe internet has major impact on the development of businesses. Now a company need not toinvest heavily to become a global company. They just need to have an infrastructure and aproduct with global appeal. The consumers can reach them via internet.The marketspace created by internet give opportunity to the firms to penetrate global market.This marketspace is now the main focus of firm as it grows with high rate and theinfrastructure (i.e. bandwidth etc) is improving. They can now explore this marketspace byinnovative and creative way of marketing and product/service offering.The internet has made increased the market size and hence sales volume; but at the same timeit made the competition even tougher than ever before. Now consumers are better informedand want better value for their money. Apart from this the linkage between other partners ofbusiness has become stronger and complicated giving a better business proposition. All thisraised the standard of product and services and consumers expectations.The internet has allowed the firms to gain competitive advantage through reducing their costsin value chain operations; allowing them to offer fast and efficient service; customizingproduct to suit customer by interacting directly with customer; and helping move themoperation to cost effective place.Vikas K Viswash .5 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  6. 6. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 1: Introduction1.1 The Internet: A technology changing the boundary of the firmThe internet is a network of computers who can share data and communicate between them.Its reach is almost every place in this world (see table 1). Any other technology has neverchanged a business as fast as internet has done. There are many stories of how a businessbeen transformed on internet. EBay, the biggest e-shop was created by his founder to tradeniche goods but now, one can buy or sell almost everything in this world to virtuallyeverywhere. You can transform your business if you are nicely connected to your customers,suppliers and other trade partners. Internet is the best possible connector in a business who isat your service for virtually nothing. There is whole world at your disposal and you don’tneed to open a shop everywhere. Only thing you need is internet connection with somecomputer system. If you are able to offer a better deal you are in business otherwise,irrespective of how big or small you are, you are going to run out of business. The impact ofinternet includes: 1. Less importance of economies of scale. 2. Fewer barriers to internationalization. 3. Lower marketing communication costs. 4. Greater price standardization. 5. Less information floating time. 6. Easy and fast communication between buyer and sellers. 7. Changes in intermediary relationships. The internet lowers transaction costs in three ways: 1. Search costs: The amount of information available to the buyer and the seller can be increased with the help of internet and that can be accessed conveniently and timely. 2. Contracting costs: The internet helps to establish better communication and monitor the performance of partners in business relationship. It is easier to negotiate and compare prices via internet. 3. Co-ordination costs: The cost of sharing information is reduced due to internet and is helpful in integrating business operations.Vikas K Viswash .6 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  7. 7. How Internet help to develop a Business1.2 What is e-business?(Kotler and Keller, 2006) e-business describes the use of electronic means and platform toconduct a company’s business. E-business is short form of electronic business, where internetand related technology is used for normal business operations. Here internet is used toincrease productivity, reduce costs and thus to increase turnover.1.3 The effect of Internet on businessInternet has changed the business immensely. It has made the world come closer and tradeeconomically and efficiently. It has created a virtual market where everything is available, notphysically but virtually. The greatest effect internet has done on business is that it made tradeprice sensitive and more logical. A customer now is able to do the research work orcomparisons before buying a product or services. Not only customer but it has benefited firmas well. Now firm is able to reach distant customer easily and cheaply. They can createawareness about their product and can interact directly with customer to know theirpreference, problem and potential solution. There is lot more to come and has impact onalmost every sector of business. In further chapters we will discuss about these impacts indetail.1.4 Dissertation ObjectiveThe objective of writing this dissertation is as follows: 1. To analyse the role of internet in development of business. 2. To highlight the way a firm can effectively use internet technology to gain competitive advantage over their competitors.1.5 Project StructureThis dissertation is divided in seven chapters with each chapter dealing with a specific topicdealing how internet helps in developing a business. First chapter ‘Introduction’ contains theVikas K Viswash .7 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  8. 8. How Internet help to develop a Businessbasic detail about the internet and their business application. Chapter 2 with heading literaturereview discusses about the internet and its impact on international marketing, the internet andthe e-value chain and international marketing strategy and e-business. Here, the thingsdiscussed are the essence of the academic work of known writers. Chapter three discussesabout the virtual market (marketspace) and their different aspects (like how this market canbe exploited, what the possible pitfall are and where opportunities lies). Chapter four is aboutmarketing on internet. Here some of the important discussions are on interactive marketing,push marketing and advertising via internet. There is also discussion about global businessstrategy and driver that need to be adopted for international marketing via internet. In chapterfive, the academic analysis of internet as a tool for development of business is done. Hereporter’s generic competitive advantage model, Rayport and Sviokla model of marketspaceand Dutta and Segev’s marketspace model has been discussed in brief. Further a SWOTanalysis of inter is done with some suggestions. In chapter sis a very brief case study of eBayis done. Chapter seven is about the managerial implication of the changing scenario due tointernet and in marketplace.Vikas K Viswash .8 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  9. 9. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 2: Literature Review2.1 The Internet and its impact on International Marketing2.1.1 The Internet(Fletcher et al, 2005) The internet is a global network of interlinked computers operating on astandard protocol that allows information exchange. (Carolyn Siegel, 2004) It is the world’slargest network of interconnected distributed computer networks. Thus we can infer that anysystem which is able to share information to other system through a globally acceptedprotocol is part of internet and this whole interconnection may be called as internet.2.1.2 Internet commerce(Kotler and Keller, 2006) e-commerce means that the company or site offers to transact orfacilitate the selling of products and services online. The internet user in the world is growingfast and so is the market scope for the marketers. According to Internet World Stat, 23.8% oftotal world population are active internet user. Thus, a vast population of more than 1.5billion is ready to buy and sell on internet given a better deal. It can be only imagined thevastness and growth of market that within 8 year (2000 – 2008) the world internet users grewby 342% and out of those users, 85% have purchased something on internet (Source, Nielsen,Feb 2008).2.1.3 The Internet and International Marketing(Carolyn Siegel, 2004) Marketing is a collection of activities that bring buyers and sellerstogether to make exchanges that satisfy and give value to all parties. (Carolyn Siegel, 2004)Internet marketing or e-marketing (electronic marketing) is marketing on internet with thehelp of emails, World Wide Web or other means. It also includes production and selling ofinternet related products. According to Fletcher et al, 2005, the introduction of electronicbusiness has changed the fundamental principles of international marketing. He pointed outcertain things that internet has changed are: 1. Size of firm is no longer a barrier to internationalization.Vikas K Viswash .9 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  10. 10. How Internet help to develop a Business 2. No need of overseas intermediaries as it became easier to locate customer and deal directly with them. 3. No longer is traditional way of internationalization (moving from familiar to less familiar country) applicable as information became easily available and the communication medium is interactive. The internet (as a low cost medium) allows small and medium firms to become global marketer at their early stage. This is due to the fact that internet can help establishing better communication among overseas customers, suppliers, agents and distributors. We will discuss more about drivers of internet business model, impact of internet on international marketing in chapter 5.2.1.4 CharacteristicsAccording to Richard Fletcher et al, 2005, the internet is both communication and amarketing intelligence tool. As a communication tool it helps to build and maintain effectivecommunication with overseas suppliers, distributors and customers. The internet has goodinformation processing capability which acts as link between firm and external environment(discussed later). This ability of internet used as marketing intelligence tool. The internet isused as marketing channel and has following characteristics: 1. Ability to store vast amount of data (information) inexpensively at virtually different location. 2. Interactivity and ability to provide information on demand. 3. Relatively low entry and establishment costs for sellers. 4. Serve as distribution medium for goods like software, e-books etc. 5. Powerful and cheap tool for searching, organizing and processing information. 6. The ability to provide better insight of a product than that of other form of printed catalogue.Vikas K Viswash .10 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  11. 11. How Internet help to develop a Business2.2 The Internet and the e-value chain2.2.1 Netchising or Virtual value chainAccording to Beck and Morrison (2000), the physical value chain activity while globalizationhas not seen good results. This is due to the fact that a firm uses their resources in overseasactivity at the expense of opportunities of domestic market. Not only that, there are otherproblem faced by an organisation like coordination of physical operations across the globe,the cultural differences, the cost of expatriates and vulnerability to environmental risk thatcan damage reputation of the firm. Most of these problems can be effectively solved by‘netchising’, a term coined by Beck and Morrison (2000). Netchising is the practice ofhanding over overseas operations to partners (generally overseas) by outsourcing,subcontracting or franchising. Netchising has following advantages: 1. Efficiency: generally overseas partners are more efficient and are specialized in carrying out the outsourced activities than the outsourcing firm. 2. Convenience: exchange of information becomes easy. Now, orders can be directly placed to the firm without any local agent and a firm can also share information to the customers directly. 3. Reduction in Transaction cost: It reduces the cost of carrying business operations which ultimately benefit the profitability of firm.2.2.2 International value chainAccording to Plumley (2000), international e-business value chain is the combination of e-commerce platform and secure transaction support (see figure 2.1). The e-commerce platformbuilds on the countries business rules and language where as secure transaction supportbuilds on currency clearing and legal requirement. According to Gartner Group, internetaffects the supply chain (see figure 2.2). It shows that a customer can buy and pay for theVikas K Viswash .11 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  12. 12. How Internet help to develop a Businessproduct or services easily and at the same time a supplier can also communicate directly withcustomer and with their own other internal departments.2.2.3 International information chainAccording to Karmarkar (2000), internet value chain is closely linked with internationalinformation chain. The language and cultural differences is the main hurdle in the path ofglobalization of a firm. When a firm deals with information product (like music, e-books orVikas K Viswash .12 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  13. 13. How Internet help to develop a Businesssoftware) then it becomes easier to go global. In certain cases when product or services arenot much attached to language or cultural factors (for ex. Technical publishing and industrialsevices), then also it is easy to become global. In production of information product andservices low labour cost is the key as relative cost of hardware and software has come down.Now, firms look for low cost labour market (like India, China) to develop informationproducts. Outsourcing of information services (customer care service such as call centres)and software development cell are some examples. Thus we can say that in information valuechain, the physical infrastructure doesn’t play a vital role.2.3 International Marketing Strategy and e-business2.3.1 Internet issue and foreign market entryAccording to Oxley and Yeung (2000), the e-commerce readiness of a market is determinedby three factors: 1. The rule of law: A customer is not able to see the original product while purchasing online. Therefore, they need to be assured that if they purchase a product or service online; they will get them as they were told or shown online in given time limit. According to survey by e-consultancy in 2008, 84% buyers look for the sign that a website is secure before making a purchase. Thus, a market (country) must be able to provide an environment where property rights are well defines, courts are efficient in resolving disputes and consumer credits and consumer protection regulations are well established and enforced (i.e. strong tradition of the rule of law). 2. The transactional integrity of online business: It is difficult to track a e-business trader by their e-mail address or website. Also, the entry and exit barrier in e-business is low and this is used as a weapon by dishonest e-traders. They can execute fraud and again be able to do it with a new name (as they can entre again in market with new identity). When dispute arises, it is hard to practise legal action in a different country and can be costly.Vikas K Viswash .13 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  14. 14. How Internet help to develop a Business 3. The availability of infrastructure: migration from traditional market to online market is not possible until customers have access to personal computer and internet connection at reasonable price. Apart from these facilities, they do have the facility of credit card or online payment system. Thus, internet related infrastructure and financial infrastructure are essentialVikas K Viswash .14 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  15. 15. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 3: Electronic Marketplace3.1 “Internet” a virtual marketAccording to Garrison, (1996), the internet acts as a catalyst for sociological change. It haschanged the nature of market, the way of business operation and the mode of communicationwith customers and other business partners. It has created a marketspace which has affectedthe traditional marketplace and consumer preferences by providing greater facilities to them.Internet has become the largest market available to mankind where almost everything is beensell or bought. This marketspace doesn’t exist in physical terms but can get everythingavailable in physical market.3.2 Physical vs. Virtual Value ChainValue chain is nothing but a set of value adding activity for the product or services. Rayportand Sviokla, 1996, argued about a new value chain termed as ‘virtual value chain’ whereproduct or services exist as a piece of information and can be delivered through informationbased channel of communication. This virtual value chain is different from physical ortraditional value chain where one can see or touch products. He said the virtual world as‘marketspace’ while the physical world as ‘marketplace’. According to Fletchar et al 2005,the virtual value chain is a realm where products and services exist as digital informationdelivered through information based channel. He also differentiates virtual value chain andphysical value chain on the basis of information used. The virtual value system usesinformation as the source of value while in physical value chain it is used as a supportingelement of value adding process. Thus we can say that now a day a firm has to compete intwo business environment, one is traditional and other is virtual business environment. Thedistinction between the two can be understood by this example. “when consumers useanswering machines to leave a message, they are using an object that is both made and sold inthe physical world, however when they buy electronic answering services from the phonecompany they are using the marketspace — a virtual realm where products and services areVikas K Viswash .15 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  16. 16. How Internet help to develop a Businessdigital information and are delivered through information-based channels.” (Rayport andSviokla, 1996)Vikas K Viswash .16 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  17. 17. How Internet help to develop a BusinessFigure 2: The Virtual Value Chain in relation to The Physical Value Chain (source: Hollensen,2001).Adoption of Value Adding Activities: Company adopts value adding information activitiesin the following three stages: 1. Visibility: Here large scale information systems are used to coordinate activities in the physical value chain. 2. Mirroring Capability: It is the capability of substituting physical activities with virtual and thus creating a parallel virtual value chain in the marketspace (see figure 2). 3. New Customer Relationship: This is the flow of information to customer to deliver value in new ways. This parallel physical and virtual value chain operation allow firms to deliver value to their customer in both marketspace and marketplace. These operations create marketspace based relationship with customers.The virtual value chain consists of five steps, say, gathering, organising, selecting,synthesizing and distributing information. These value adding activity allow company toidentify customers desires more effectively and fulfil them more efficiently. This happens, forVikas K Viswash .17 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  18. 18. How Internet help to develop a Businessexample, when a car manufacturer shifts its R&D from the physical to the virtual value chain.By doing so, they involve customers of different locations in the new product developmentprocess. The physical value chain is linear (a sequence of activities with defined input andoutputs), whereas the virtual value chain is non-linear (a matrix of potential inputs andoutputs that can be accessed and distribute by a wide variety of channels).3.3 Relationship marketingIt is a way of marketing where marketers or firm try to attract, maintain and enhancerelationship with customers and other business partners. Internet (or website) acts as the bestmedium to communicate with people related to business. Firms now focus on relationshipmarketing to gather information from customers, to develop customized product or servicesfor a focussed customer group.The internet helps firms to improve relationship with their customers and suppliers; and helpthem to work effectively. Now a firm doesn’t need a middleman or a agent as they can selldirectly to the customer via internet. Thus the distance with customer is decreasing and a firmneed a smaller supply chain which can increase their profitability. The lesser distance alsoallows firms to establish a close relationship with customer and provide those customizedproducts or services as per their need.The firms (like eBay, Google etc) involved in innovative business have always realized thepower of customer relationship. They bank on the ability to process large relationshipdatabase. With the help of this relationship database they formulate their strategy and developinnovative way of marketing. The relationship marketing not only benefit the firm but alsothe customers. The customers are benefitted because firm can develop customized andfocussed marketing message.Mattsson, (1996), has described a relationship as combination of three main components,which affect the parties involved in a business. Those components are legal(L),behavioural(P), and atmospheric (E). These three factor determines the success and failure ofa relationship marketing in a particular market. Thus it is possible to have a successful buyer-seller relationship in domestic market totally failure in overseas market. Finally we can sayVikas K Viswash .18 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  19. 19. How Internet help to develop a Businessthat relationship marketing includes the management of a firm and thus it must be included inthe business planVikas K Viswash .19 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  20. 20. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 4: Marketing on the Internet4.1 Internet and Global Business Strategy(Kotler and Keller, 2006) e-marketing describes company offers to inform buyers,communicate, promote and sell its products and services over the internet.4.1.1 Drivers of Internet Adoption in International MarketingOnce a firm establishes a internet portal (website), they automatically become a MNC (MultiNational Company). Quelch and Kelvin (1996) describe two evolutionary paths of a website: 1. Information to Transaction Model (figure 4.1) adopted by existing MNCs where they offer information to address the needs of existing customers. 2. Transaction to Information Model (figure 4.2) adopted by internet start-up companies where they begin with transaction and use the medium to build brand image and secure repeat orders.Vikas K Viswash .20 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  21. 21. How Internet help to develop a Business The basic purpose of these models is either to reduce cost or to increase revenue. According to Quelch and Kelvin (1996), these drivers fall into four quadrant as given in figure 4.3. 1. Internal customers focus/ cost reduction (quadrant 1): This is applicable to the companies who use website as a tool to communicate with their customers. TheirVikas K Viswash .21 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  22. 22. How Internet help to develop a Business main focus is to provide customer services for domestic market. They just happen to attract international traffic. 2. Internal customer focus/ revenue generation (quadrant 2): This is applicable to the companies who use website not only to communicate with their domestic customers but also offer transactions online. This enables a firm to reach those international customers who might be inaccessible via other media. 3. External customer focus/ cost reduction (quadrant 2): This is applicable to the companies whose main aim is to attract international audience through their website. This happens to benefit all customers because of the international scope of operations. 4. External customer focus/ revenue generation (quadrant 3): This is applicable to the firms who not only focus on attracting international audience but also offer transactions worldwide. Here transaction involves connecting buyers and sellers. Company target providing services to existing customers and attract new customers from global market.4.1.2 Impact of Internet on International Marketing VariablesThe modification in marketing mix variables is necessary while using internet forinternational marketing. The impacts of internet on application of marketing mix while goingto international market are as follows: 1. Pricing: Due to internet customers are more aware of prices in different countries and thus there is increase in price standardization across borders and price differential become narrow. One advantage of this is that price can be customized easily with customers need and their profile (segment). 2. Distribution Channels: Internet has dramatically reduced the number of intermediaries earlier needed for worldwide distribution channels. As now, less capital is needed for inventory and thus the role of intermediaries has been changed. The new roles ofVikas K Viswash .22 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  23. 23. How Internet help to develop a Business intermediaries include collection, spreading, interpretation and distribution of information rather than traditionally handling and distribution of products. 3. Creation of new Market: Internet offers new opportunities for firms to create market by helping buyers and sellers to locate and negotiate trade terms with each other (ex. eBay etc). There is also a market developed for executing transaction between traders (ex. PayPal etc). 4. New Product Diffusion: The traditional ‘test as you go’ practice where shifting products from one country to another is now outdated. Now, new product announcement or launch generates immediate demand (as information travel faster on internet) and that requires immediate availability of goods. 5. Customization: Due to internet, getting demographic and purchasing profile of customer became easy. This allows firms to customize products for local adaption as per local market demand.4.2 Advertising on internetInternet is a low cost advertising medium having reach to global audience. Advertising oninternet includes banner advertising on website, email, blogs and links to search engines. Astraditional media of advertising is quite expensive and at the same time internet infrastructureis improving day by day and able to prove support to video and graphics on web. With thisimprovement a firm can successfully launch an online advertisement campaign.4.3 Interactive advertisingAccording to Haeckel, “Marketing interactivity is a person-to-person or person-to-technologyexchange designed to effect a change in the knowledge or behaviour of at least one person.”He also point out that interactivity is function of certain dimensions, which is given as:I = ƒ(N, C, F, SI, CI, T, CT, SY, M) Where,I = impact of interaction,M = Type of media involvedVikas K Viswash .23 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  24. 24. How Internet help to develop a Business(Other factors not discussed as not relevant to current topic).Now, as a technology, internet is the strongest media for interactivemarketing. The reason for that is 1. Internet is used by almost a quarter of the total world population. 2. It is not limited to a particular geographic reason. 3. The growth of user is fast. 4. Cheapest and fastest way of interacting with majority of population (both for customer and marketers).Haeckel also pointed out that there is going to be much more businessand marketing use through internet. He made a graph which shows howwe find usage of a new technology with time (see graph below) and thuswe can say there is more in store than what we are seeing and usingpresently. Even interactive marketing may see turnaround with thistechnology.Vikas K Viswash .24 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  25. 25. How Internet help to develop a Business4.4 Marketing with push technology(Wetzel, 2008) defined push marketing as, “customers are provided information by receivingor viewing advertisements digitally, such as: e-mail, SMS, RSS, phone calls, etc., assubscribers of the latest product and service information provided by the company”. Theinternet is the cheapest and most effective media that is used for push marketing.Advantages of Push Marketing via Internet 1. Tracking of Customer Preference: It is easier to track user preference with the help of push technology (internet) and customize according to their preferences. A good example of this is Google AdSense that tracks the users visited website or keywords in mail and according to those criteria it shows advertisement (related link). 2. Increase Accessibility: With the help of push marketing a firm can increase customer accessibility by the firms marketing and advertisement of the products. Subscribers get pushed by built in developed software called PointCast that enable users to receive automatic content updates via their internet connection and web presence as the channel to get information when their computers are not in use.4.5 Corporate identity in cyberspaceFirms are now using web to extend and reinforce their companies brand image in a costefficient manner. This serves as a complementary media device that re-establishes a firm inconsumers mind. By providing valuable information to users a firm can expand their brandimage. The regular updating of information may attract customers to visit website regularly,which will reinforce firm’s image and provide them a chance to create a new and extendedcyber image.Vikas K Viswash .25 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  26. 26. How Internet help to develop a BusinessVikas K Viswash .26 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  27. 27. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 5: Analysis and Methodology5.1 Competitive Advantage via Internet5.1.1 Porter’s three generic strategies for competitive advantageAccording to Porter (1985), a firm can earn high return if they are able to position themselveswell enough, irrespective of the structure of the industry and profitability of the industry. Hepointed out the fundamental basis for above average performance is ‘sustainable competitiveadvantage’ in long run. For that sustainable competitive advantage he gave three genericcompetitive strategies. 1. Cost Leadership: According to porter (1985), a firm is having cost advantage over his competitors if the cumulative cost of performing value activity is less than the competitors. He further discussed that a firm’s cost position is a function of; (a) the composition of their value chain to their competitors, (b) their relative position in cost drivers. Now, we see that how internet helps them to achieve them cost leadership by affecting the above two functions. 2. Differentiation: Porter (1985) describes another strategy for competitive advantage is to differentiate their product with competitor’s products. This means raising the quality with ignoring the cost for the sake of quality. Now internet can help them to do that by interacting directly with customer and customizing products according to target group. Many firms now use blog site to interact with customers and promoting their new or customized product. 3. Focus: Porter describe this as customizing products or services to suit a focused or small segment of consumer group. The internet helps firms to focus on different aspects of the products and customer group. Internet even allow firm to receive specification from each and every customers and according to them they can produce customized products or services.Vikas K Viswash .27 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  28. 28. How Internet help to develop a BusinessAs discussed in chapter 3, the relation of physical and virtual value chain (Hollensen, 2001),we find there is virtual value chain corresponding to each physical value chain. By applyingthis value chain a firm can become cost leader as it depends on two factors discussed above.A firm can shift to virtual value chain to gain cost advantage over their competitor’s physicalvalue chain. For example Federal Express (FedEx), a shipment company allows consumer totrack their parcels. This tracking system via internet is very efficient and economical. TheFedEx has now reduced more than a million query calls per month by providing onlineshipment tracking system. This is one of the way of reducing cost and step towards costleader position and at the same time it differentiate FedEx from their competitors. But this isnot enough as sooner or later others will follow same practice and FedEx lose the competitiveedge. The real edge lies on the innovative and creative way of finding or changing physicalvalue chain to virtual value chain. So now apart from technology, innovative idea of usingtechnology is the key for success of a firm.5.1.2 Stuck in the middlePorter (1985) points out a situation, where a firm try to achieve both generic strategy (costleadership and differentiation) but fails to achieve any of them. He calls this situation as stuckin the middle. According to him, a firm stuck in the middle will compete at disadvantage asVikas K Viswash .28 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  29. 29. How Internet help to develop a Businessothers competitors (cost leader, differentiators) will be better positioned to compete in anysegment. In case of Google AdSense, Google is offering a differentiated advertising tool atvery low cost (usually one get this via auction, where price is driven by customer notproducer) is offering a differentiated (highly unique and effective) advertisement. Here bothcost leadership and differentiation is achieved by Google with the help of technology.Johnson et al (1998) discuss about the core competency of a firm may be difficult to imitatebecause they are complex. The google is doing the same thing by making the internalstructure complex, which is hard to imitate by competitors. Thus, they can put themselves ina position where for an advertisement position (ex. Out of five position or space, advertisersbid for first position then second and so on), firms bid among themselves.Thus, it is possible to achieve a position where a firm can achieve cost leadership anddifferentiation without compromising one for the other with the help of technology (sayinternet) and their own creativity (say way of using internet).5.2 E-business marketing Models and International Competitiveness5.2.1 Rayport and Sviokla ModelAccording to Rayport and Sviokla (1995), the internet has changed the nature of trade.Internet has made both physical location of inventory and the actual place (marketplace) oftrade irrelevant. They argued that traditional marketplace (the physical market) transactionhas been replaced by marketsplace (virtual market or e-market) transaction. They concludedthat brand equity is created in marketplace through content (i.e. the product offering), context(the communication programmes) and infrastructure (i.e. the pricing and value chain activityrelated to distribution). While in marketspace (internet marketing); content, context andinfrastructure has been transformed to innovate new ways of creating value. The changes are: 1. Content: Now, everything possible is delivered electronically whether it is product, service or information. Even though operating system (Microsoft window) are available online. They time to time update your system online without your request. But here is a challenge for a firm on deciding what information and service should beVikas K Viswash .29 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  30. 30. How Internet help to develop a Business provided. How much access should be given to customers to the firm’s database? The success of a firm will depend on the nature of the firm and the answer to these questions. 2. Context: now, information is accessed through mobile phone or computers. Whatever information you want, from your bank account details to horoscope, all available electronically. The challenge here to identify who and where the potential customers are connected electronically. If there is any compatibility between computers and other mode of access information. 3. Infrastructure: The internet provides the backbone for connection and delivery of value. Here the main question arises is about the reach, capability and potential of value creation via internet. Although this framework defines impact of e-business marketing but there is lot more to be done in terms of content, context and infrastructure. For a international market, the product (content) need to be customized as per local demand. This means, information delivered (context) should also be customized (i.e. need to be given in local language) and finally infrastructure is about transaction. Since there is no common currency in the world and it is also not easy to transact one currency to other and moreover suspicion remains in customers mind for foreign firms (especially for small firms).Vikas K Viswash .30 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  31. 31. How Internet help to develop a Business5.2.2 Dutta and Segev’s Marketspace ModelDutta and Segav (1998) has done a lot of research on market space and found that it has twodimension; technological capability and business strategy. The technological capability isfurther divided in two dimensions given below; 1. Interactivity: according to Dutta and Segav (1998), internet is able to establish a interactive relationship between a firm and customers. Due to this there is a paradigm shift in customer services and product design. 2. Connectivity: As internet can be accessed globally, so it creates a global marketspace. The growth in connectivity increases coordination and communication between a firm and consumers. These two aspects are transforming business model of organisation when applied to marketing mix of that firm. In this model one more element ‘customer relationship’ has been added. 1. Transformation of product: This transformation is due to customization of products for a customer or a segment of customers. This is done with the help of active participation of customers in the specification and design of the products. 2. Transformation of promotion: This transformation is a result of the use of online promotions (like sales and discount), online advertising, participation of customers in online promotion (like blogs), customization of online promotion and links with search engines or other related websites. 3. Transformation of pricing: This transformation is a result of online availability of pricing information, pricing negotiation, and/or charging for the actual product consumed not for the whole product (ex. Internet service provider charges only for the amount of download not for staying online).Vikas K Viswash .31 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  32. 32. How Internet help to develop a Business 4. Transformation of place: This transformation is due to facility of online ordering, real time processing of orders, online distribution of product and secured online payment facility. 5. Transformation of customer relationship: this transformation is a result of online communication with customers. They are also offering online customer service, online customized service and processing of online feedback from customers. Figure 5.4 illustrate the new customer relationship. It was found that that internet transform the marketing mix variable to different degrees. According to their research the transformation in customer relationship is 62%, product 39%, placement 38% promotion 29% and price 12% due to use of internet. His research revealed that the firm using internet for customer relationship (such as using website to provide customer services) has done well compare to their competitors. The online customer service include providing product guides online, creating blog to share experience after using a product or service and providing online chat services.Vikas K Viswash .32 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  33. 33. How Internet help to develop a Business5.3 SWOT Analysis of Internet5.3.1 Strength: • Expand Reachable Market: Internet allows you to reach to the markets which were previously unreachable to you without too much expenditure on it. Your potential and existing customers can now access you at any point of time without much fuss, irrespective of their location (home, office, park, café, any where). • Information Distribution: You can now provide information about your product and services to the audience without hassle. One can have a look of your store without physically reaching the store. • Value Added Service: It is now easy to provide value added customer services online, such as providing technical publications, examples of product use, instructions and other value added bits of information. • User Information Request: Customer can easily access information of a firm and their product or services via internet. They are now able to place a order andVikas K Viswash .33 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  34. 34. How Internet help to develop a Business communicate with the firm for a customized product. A firm can get valuable information about their customer profile by exchanging information. • Easy Location of Data: Users can easily access the information in the site by using a search engine. Firms also provide links as a form of advertisement to popular sites and search engines. • Consistent Marketing: Utilize your existing communication, marketing and outreach strategies on the internet to establish a consistent communications approach. Integrating current or existing marketing assets like logos and customer artwork, can help save on web development costs. • Utilize Existing Networks: Very effective and cheap way to reach your potential customers through links from related site or search engines or internet catalogs. The changes and addition to the site can be notified via e-mail to the customer. • Save Mailing Costs: Once you are on internet, your lots of paper work and mailing costs vanished. • Changing Content Is Easy: It is easy and cost effective to change contents after the design and architecture of a web site has be established and produced. • Project and Work Sharing: now distance is not an obstacle to assist your boss or subordinate as you can share your work and help them through internet. Software like TeamViewer4 (will be discussed later) allows you to control others system through your system via internet.5.3.2 Weakness • Existing infrastructure is unsuited to future requirements of mass market interactive multimedia communication. • Many users do not trust the security of internet.Vikas K Viswash .34 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  35. 35. How Internet help to develop a Business • E-mail which is the cheapest and fastest medium to send and receive information is often used to spread viruses, which can destroy data of system. • Cookies, which are used by website to track your movement on that site, can also be used to track your movement to other sites, where you give your details while purchasing via credit card. This information can be used for malicious purpose. • Internet is overloaded with information, much of it useless to most people.5.3.3 Opportunity • The internet become faster and is able to provide large bandwidth which can support worldwide communication via video, audio and multimedia services. • Demand for internet services and application will increase, justifying improvements in software and infrastructure. • Internet users will demand faster and more powerful computers. • Demand for simplified computer system may develop, so that non PC literate consumer can gain internet access. • Traditional PC software will be improved to take advantage of internet opportunities. • Demand for internet servers and other communication hardware will continue to rise. • Increased home computer use may create demand for home-service computer maintenance. • Commercial advertising will discover new approaches to communicating with customers. • Enhanced universal education opportunities for the whole population.Vikas K Viswash .35 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  36. 36. How Internet help to develop a Business5.3.4 Threat • Spam: It is basically unwanted e-mails and popup, usually in the form of advertising for a product or service. They not only waste your time but also uses up considerable bandwidth on internet. • Malware: These are software made with wrong intention of damaging your system or to get information such as viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, adware, etc. • Computer viruses (includes Virus hoaxes, Computer worms, Trojans): It is a programme made with wrong intention of destroying a system or data stored in the system. • Phishing: According to Financial Services Authority (FSA), the phishing has risen by 8000% by 2005 to 2008. According to an estimate by APACS, £45.7 million will be lost to phishing scams in 2006, compared to £4.5 million in 2003/2004. It is the practice where fraudsters acting as a legitimate organisations such as banks, online payment services etc., send misleading e-mails requesting personal and financial details (which includes credit cards, bank accounts, social security numbers, security codes, names & addresses, login names & passwords and phone number etc.) from unsuspecting recipients. They further use these information to transfer money into their own account from someone else account. • Adware and Spyware: It is a software application, in which advertising is displayed while the programme is running, which often run without knowledge of users. These are in the form of banners or pop-ups that appear on the computer monitor. They reduce computer performance and disturb user. Some adware used for collecting information about users, they are called Spyware. • Identity theft: Fraudsters are not only interested in your credit card details but also information about your credit reports, passwords and PIN, social insurance numbers, driving license numbers, mortgage details, addresses and phone numbers. Computer criminals realized the power of information and they eye robbing databanks. ThisVikas K Viswash .36 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  37. 37. How Internet help to develop a Business crime is growing rapidly and if they use remote computers they are hard to catch. According to internet statistics compendium, 2008, U.S. alone loses $53 billion per year.5.4 Safety tips • Installing a fire-wall can reduce the risk of hackers gaining access to your computer. It also protects the system from Internet-borne threats such as spyware. • Install anti-virus software to eliminate any infected data received. • Install anti-spyware software to eliminate any spyware which will get through. • Be cautious about giving your personal data online. • While sending sensitive data, encrypt (encode) it, so that only desired recipients can decode it and access it.Vikas K Viswash .37 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  38. 38. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 6: Case study: eBay6.1 IntroductionNo one ever thought of the idea that a complete strangers bidding for a thing which is held bya stranger at some unknown place. This idea with the help of internet technology created amagic for Pierre Omidyar, the founder of eBay. Although he never attended any auction in hislife, yet he decided to do that for people who want to sell his used stuff at a minimum pricedecided by him. And if more people are interested, he decided to let them bid for it. When hestarted this website called AuctionWeb in 1995, it was free and thus started attracting visitors.By the end of 1995, there were more than ten thousand bids hosted by AuctionWeb. After thathe decided to charge some percentage of final sales prices from the sellers. The revenuecontinued to grow every month. This small idea of Pierre Omidyar of connecting buyer andsellers now become a promising business and currently eBay (as it is now called) is thelargest e-commerce site with 81 million average monthly unique visitors to eBay. More than$100 billion worth of used items sold on eBay making it world’s largest engine for sellingused goods. EBay has invested heavily in the market to diversity itself by acquisition ofSkype and PayPal.6.2 Acquisition of PayPal and Skype6.2.1 PayPal PayPal is an e-commerce business who provides facility to transfer money and makepayments through the Internet. It is nothing but electronic version of traditional way ofsending money (like money order, cheque etc). EBay has bought PayPal on October 2002 in astrategic move to gain market share in online fund transfer and to control transactions oneBay. As eBay has more than 81 million unique visitors and most of them buy and sellthrough PayPal. According to eBay annual report, 2008, PayPal manages more than 175million accounts in 190 markets and over 60 billion volume transacted in 2008. PayPalsupport transactions in 19 currencies worldwide and allows customers to send, receive, andhold funds electronically.Vikas K Viswash .38 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  39. 39. How Internet help to develop a Business6.2.2 SkypeEBay purchased Skype in October 2005 in a strategic move to diversify them. Skype is asoftware application which helps users to make VoIP calls (i.e. voice calls over the Internet)either free or at very low price. Skype has currently more than 405 million users in over 220countries and is leader in VoIP call providers. It allows user to make and receive video oraudio calls through internet and now its application can be accessed on mobile phone as well.6.3 SWOT Analysis of eBay 1. Strength • It is the largest online auction forum with more than 100 billion value of pre- owned item sold. • Active users in millions (81 million unique monthly visitors). • Recognizable brand name (eBay becomes synonym of online auction) • Over 27000 different catalogues. • Majority (82%) of top 100 US retailers are in shopping.com (eBay’s online shopping portal) • Strong customer relationship (both buyer and seller have to register on eBay and they leave feedback for each other which helps to find genuine user). 2. Weakness • Technological malfunction (there are times when both eBay and the payment system PayPal have encountered shutdowns and outages). • Illegal activity on site • There are some fake auctions found. 3. OpportunityVikas K Viswash .39 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  40. 40. How Internet help to develop a Business • Rapid growth in internet use • Acquisition of PayPal and Skype • Time honoured brand name. • New and emerging market (like china and India) is an opportunity as the consumer here becoming rich. • Opportunity in current market (i.e. market penetration), as there are potential customer yet to understand the benefits of eBay. 4. Threat • Increase in online trading sites (like amazon.com, ubid.com, epier.com etc). • Rapid growth of amazon.com • Some charges are not in control (like delivery charges and credit card charges). • Attack by illegal practice (online fraud, trading counterfeit goods etc) may earn bad name for eBay. 5. Suggestion: • Block fake auction • Use digital signatureVikas K Viswash .40 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  41. 41. How Internet help to develop a Business CHAPTER 7: Conclusion7.1 IntroductionInternet technology provides a huge market space for you to explore and exploit it. It is left toyour creativity and innovation that how you are going to use this technology for thebetterment of your organisation. If it poses threat of increased competition and well informedconsumer then at the same time it also save you from unnecessary cost overhead. It teachesmanagers new marketing technique, innovation, creation and cooperation among otherbusiness. There is limitless opportunity for new ventures with bright idea as we have seen thecase of eBay, Google and others. Finally, we can say that internet is benefiting both buyersand sellers, and is able to make life better than ever. As a technology, the use and applicationof internet will grow and one can only imagine about the next big thing which is going tohappen in next few decades.7.2 Replacement of old management techniqueInternet has made old management techniques outdated. You cannot rely on traditionalmarketing mix of 4-P (Product, Price, Place and Promotion) as the definition of market ischanging itself. As internet provides you virtually the world at your desk as market, and thusyou need new strategy, new business model and creativity to cash on. They need to createnew marketing mix with insight into customer and suppliers that can be integrated withinternet capabilities.7.3 Increased competitionInternet is a great source of information and the information gives a customer the power tochoose between alternatives. This power of customer increased the competition in this levelmarket where both large and small firms compete with each other. The market on internet ishighly price sensitive as the customer can compare your price with your competitor withinminutes. This power of customer forces marketers to find innovative and creative way toVikas K Viswash .41 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  42. 42. How Internet help to develop a Businessmaintain their customer base (either by reducing price or increasing quality or valueperception) and to penetrate into competitor’s base. All this is creating a competitiveenvironment which was never been experienced before in real market.This competitive environment brings new things in the market as cooperation between two ormore different organization to get competitive advantage over others. There is morecooperation between the company, the suppliers and the distributors in order to getcompetitive advantage and to maximize their profits. As Jack A. van der Veen et al, pointedout in his book win-win situation in supply chain partnership that how by sharing informationboth manufacturer and retailer maximize their profit. That is now become a reality, as everyparty in business (manufacturer, retailer and supplier) are connected to a common goal ofmaximizing their profit, by offering consumer best possible deal without expense of anyoneprofit margin.7.4 New opportunitiesIn chapter 5, we have already discussed about the surprise index of a technology. With timeand creativity and innovation, the utility of the technology grows to a unthinkable position.We have seen a lots of internet usages (from interactive marketing to ad-sense) and there islot more to come in future. With rapid growth in internet user (1.17 billion till 2007, source:internet world stat), the focus of firms moved to internet marketing and usage in differentfield. There is no wonder that internet has become the most powerful tool for marketing andselling available to businesses. In future the marketers are not only involved in marketing viainternet but also in its development. They will have to innovate new ways to exploit thepotential of internet. The success will depend on their level of understanding to correlatebetween their customer and the potential of internet. The success of a firm will depend on: 1. Their quick reaction time. 2. Their strong relationship with customers, suppliers and distributors. 3. Their innovative products, services and operations.Vikas K Viswash .42 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  43. 43. How Internet help to develop a Business 4. Exploiting new opportunities offered by internet.7.5 New threatsWith new opportunity, there are also new threats posed by internet. The internet gives acustomer a new power that enables them to conduct extensive research and cost comparisonbetween the firms, their products and services. Also, the threat of information overload willreduce the ability of marketing with new push technology of the internet. Overuse of e-mails,adware and other marketing methods will make customer insensitive toward them andmarketing with push technology will not be effective. Security while transaction via internetis another issue that scare customers. The increase in cyber crime pulls back customers anduntil the offer is really lucrative they are not willing to take chance. As 12% of Britishinternet users (or 3.5m people) fall victim to online fraud last year, with around half of themlosing out while shopping. [Source: internet statistics compendium, March 2007]. Firms areleft with a challenge to find totally secured transaction method and that to make a customerbelieve it.7.6 International marketing via Internet7.6.1 Potential benefits • Increased sales • Increased profit • Corporate Image • Visibility to wider market • Speed of business • Ability to customize products or services • Low resource market entry • Interaction with customersVikas K Viswash .43 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  44. 44. How Internet help to develop a Business • Global niche strategy7.6.2 Barriers • Increased competition • Low penetration of internet • Price transparency • Cultural barrier • Language barrier • Legal complexity • Market offering customization required • Logistics of serving global market • Costs of serving international market • Need to create awareness of websiteVikas K Viswash .44 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  45. 45. How Internet help to develop a Business References & Bibliography: 1. Kent, Peter & Finlayson, Jill K. (2006), How to make money online with eBay, yahoo And Google. 2. Porter, Michael E., 1985, Competitive advantage. 3. Johnson, Gerry, Schols, Kevan and Whittington, Richard (1998), Exploring Corporate Strategy. 4. Dutta, S. and Segev, A. (1998), The global Internet 100 Survey 1998. 5. Quelch, J. A. And Kelvin, L. R. (1996), The internet and international marketing, Sloan Management Review. 6. Oxley, J. and Yeung, Y. (2000), E-commerce readiness – institutional environment and international competitiveness. 7. Johnston, W. (1999), Electronically wiring the network: the case of electronic data interchange. 8. Fletcher, Richard, Bell, Jim, and McNaughton, Rod (2004), International e-business marketing 9. Kotler, Philip and Keller, Kelvin L., 2006, Marketing Management 10. Comm, Joel, (2006), what Google never told you about making money with ad-sense. 11. Haeckel, Stephen H., (1998), JOURNAL OF INTERACTIVE MARKETING, VOLUME 12 / NUMBER 1 / WINTER 1998 12. Sisson, Dan, (2006), Google SEO secrets 13. Siegel, Carolyn, (2004), Internet marketing: Foundations and applications 14. http://www.scribd.com/doc/396845/Developing-BusinessIT-Strategies (20/07/09) 15. http://www.scribd.com/doc/7047213/MIS-Chapter-03-Strategic-Information-Systems- for-Competitive-Advantage (20/07/09) 16. http://www.scribd.com/doc/7047246/MIS-Chapter-07-Transaction-Processing- Functional-Applications-CRM-And-Integration (20/07/09) 17. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm (20/07/09) 18. http://internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/internet-pornography-statistics.html (20/07/09) 19. http://www.scribd.com/doc/7047252/MIS-Chapter-08-Supply-Chain-Management- and-Enterprise-Resource-Planning (29/07/09) 20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5235332.stm (03/08/2006) (accessed on 19/07/09) 21. Mitchell Levy, (2000), E-Volve-or-Die.com: Thriving in the Internet Age Through E- Commerce Management, (New Riders Publishing, 2000, ISBN 0-7357-1028-7)Vikas K Viswash .45 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  46. 46. How Internet help to develop a Business 22. Vise, david, Malseed, Mark, (2005), The Google Story. 23. Internet Statistics compendium, 28th April 2008, source: e-consultancy 24. ebay Inc. Annual report, 2008 (courtesy yahoo finance) 25. Brin, Sergey, Page Lawrence, The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hyper-textual Web Search Engine, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University 26. Rayport, Jeffrey F., Sviokla, John J., 1995, Exploiting the Virtual Value Chain, Harvard Business Review. 27. Ferreri, J. 2001, Knock-Out Marketing: Powerful Strategies to Punch Up Your Sales, Entrepreneur Press. 28. Holden, Trina L., (1997), The Internet: Competition and Opportunity of the new Marketspace. 29. Wetzel, D. 2008, Digital Marketing Strategies: Using all Media Channels for Informing Customers about Products. 30. Kendall, J.E. & Kendall, K.E., 1999, "Information Delivery Systems: An Exploration of Web Pull and Push Technologies", 31. Beck, J.C. and Morrison, A. (2000), Netchising: the next global wave. 32. Plumley, J.F, 2000, Global e-commerce: a guide for managers in developing countries. 33. Gartner Group, 2000, www.gartner.comVikas K Viswash .46 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  47. 47. How Internet help to develop a Business APEENDICS:TABLE 1:TABLE 2:Vikas K Viswash .47 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009
  48. 48. How Internet help to develop a BusinessTABLE 3:TABLE 4:Vikas K Viswash .48 of 48 MSc Dissertation 2009

×