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[Group Design Projects] Sustainability in Engineering
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[Group Design Projects] Sustainability in Engineering Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Engineering Sustainability:Biomimicry in Civil Engineering DesignStylianos YiatrosPhD DIC MEng ACGI A.M.ASCEstylianos.yiatros@cut.ac.cyA presentation to the CI3-311 Group Design StudentsCyprus University of TechnologyDepartment of Civil Engineeringand Geomatics
  • 2. Biomimicryin CivilEngineeringDesign• Introduction• Engineering Sustainability• Biomimicry• Design in nature• Biomimetic examples• Case study: The Load bearing duct• Challenges and Opportunities© SY 2013
  • 3. IntroducingmyselfImperial College, MEng Civil & Environmental Engineering (2006)Imperial College, PhD (DIC) Nonlinear Structural Mechanics (2010)Currently Lecturer of Structural Engineering at Cyprus University of Technology© SY 2013Still in the IC prospectus!
  • 4. Whatis SustainableDevelopment?“development that meets the needs of thepresent without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs.”(Brundtland Report, 1987)© SY 2013ICE Charter for Sustainable Development“Meeting the needs of today withoutcompromising the needs of tomorrow”
  • 5. SustainableDevelopmentSocialEconomicEnvironmentalViableBearableSUSTAINABLEFairEnvironmentSocietyEconomySUSTAINABLE© SY 2013SUSTAINABILITY IS A BUSINESS ISSUE
  • 6. Sustainabilityin CivilEngineeringProjectsA large spectrum of projects and of stakeholders requires acommon understanding© SY 2013insurersinvestorsLocal authorities clientsDesignersContractorsFacilities Managers Demolition ContractorsDemolition ContractorsPlannersNew-buildRefurbishmentBuildingsInfrastructure
  • 7. ViciousCircle of Blame© SY 2013(Cadman, 2000)Occupiers:“We would like to have moresustainable buildings to fulfill ourcorporate policy commitments butthere’s little choice of properties”Constructors:“We could build environmentallyefficient buildings, but thedevelopers don’t ask for them”Developers:“We would ask for environmentallyefficient buildings but the investorswon’t pay for them”Investors:“We would fund environmentallyefficient buildings but there’s notdemand for them”
  • 8. Circleof Virtue© SY 2013Occupiers:We occupy moreenvironmentally efficientbuildings because they arecheaper to run – and theymake us to feel good .Constructors:We build environmentallyefficient buildings becauseour clients demand them.Developers:We demand environmentallyefficient buildings becausethat’s what investors will puttheir money into.Investors:We fund environmentallybuildings because that’swhat the occupiers wantand they give betterreturns.
  • 9. Regulationand Policy© SY 2013Sustainableproduction andconsumptionClimate Changeand EnergyNatural resourcesand enhancing theenvironmentCreatingSustainablecommunities
  • 10. Strategy for SustainableConstruction© SY 2013Aligned with“Securing the future”Committed, skilledand adaptableworkforceSUSTAINABILITY OF THE INDUSTRY ITSELFImproving existingregulation, building onexisting strengthsCreate long-termcertainty
  • 11. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Reduce and ultimatelyeliminate waste inconstructionFrom Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Re-use of existing builtassets and construction ofnew, long lasting, energyconscious and future-proofstructures.• Reduction of environmentalimpact through betterproducts and servicesSustainableproduction andconsumption
  • 12. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Minimize carbonemissions duringconstructionFrom Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Design and constructinnovative engineeringsolutions to tackle climatechange challenges of thefuture• Design and Constructbuildings with lower carbonfootprint in operationClimate Changeand Energy
  • 13. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Facilitate waterresources conservationin new andrefurbishment projectsFrom Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Proactive in creating,managing and enrichingwildlife habitats andnatural landscapes• Importance of the role forGreen InfrastructureNaturalresources andenhancing theenvironment
  • 14. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Employs and nurtures a committed, skilled and adaptableworkforce working in an environment of zero accidents andincidents with arrangements for education and training,employment, health and safetyCreatingsustainablecommunities
  • 15. Strategy’s Priorities© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and MaintenanceNECESSARY KEYIMPROVEMENTSenergywaterbiodiversityenvironmentwastematerialsTO DELIVEROUTPUTSprocurementSupply teamintegrationdesignsimplificationinnovationPeople agenda
  • 16. FutureTrends for legislation and policy© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Increasingly stringent environmental legislation• Continual emphasis on Carbon / climate change• Binding EU Targets on Renewable Energy• Biodiversity• Indoor/Outdoor air quality• Peak Oil• Environmental Performance of Construction
  • 17. SustainableConstruction© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and MaintenanceDelivers the business needFits in its environmentProvides “value for money”Benefits users, stakeholders andcommunitiesDoes not polluteMinimizes consumption ofnatural and non-renewableresources.
  • 18. Sustainable Engineering© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and MaintenanceUse methods thatminimise environmentaldamage to providesufficient food, water,shelter and access/mobility for a growingworld population.Closing the loop:Design products andprocesses that useeach other’s waste asinput or raw materialsIncorporate environmentaland social constraints aswell as economicconsiderations intoengineering decisions.
  • 19. Howdo yougo aboutSustainableEngineering• Things to remember• “one size fits all” solutions usually don’t work in differentenvironments• Look for local solutions• Try to solve the actual problem• Integrate services/processes• Re-invent your business model!• Business Model Canvass© SY 2013
  • 20. Biomimicry© SY 2013
  • 21. Whatis Biomimicry?• Biomimicry:• From the greek words “bios” (life) and “mimesis” (immitation)• It is a design principle that seeks sustainable solutions to humanproblems by consulting and emulating nature’s time testedpatterns and strategies (BFI, 2005).• Also known as• Biomimetics• Bionics© SY 2013
  • 22. Whyapplybiomimicry?• Depletion of naturalresources and ecologicaldisasters from use andextraction.• Running out of space forstoring toxic and hazardouswaste.• Nature builds and lives onsunlight• Natural systems use eachothers’ bi-products as rawmaterials.• Natural systems have survived 3.8bn years of evolution, adaptingand optimizing on the local conditions. © SY 2013
  • 23. Designin nature• Tree growth to fit functionBendingMomentDiagram© SY 2013
  • 24. Designin nature• Structural chemistry• Minimum energy configurations• StabilityOHH104.5˚109.5˚© SY 2013
  • 25. Designin nature• Bee honeycomb• Optimum storage© SY 2013• Termite Mound• Natural ventilation
  • 26. Designin nature© SY 2013• Spider web• Light and flexible• Fabricated at room temperature• Gram to gram three times asstrong as steel
  • 27. Natural DesignForm(Geometry) Process Material© SY 2013
  • 28. Levelsof biomimicry© SY 2013
  • 29. Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013• Greek Mythology• Daedalus & Icarus trying toescape Minoan Crete• Build wings made of waxmimicking bird flying
  • 30. Earlybiomimetics• Ancient arches• Load transfer through pure compression© SY 2013
  • 31. Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013• “… do you know where I found my model? An upright tree; itbears its branches and these in turn the leaves and everyindividual part has been growing harmoniously, magnificentlyever since God, the artist, created it…” A.Gaudí
  • 32. Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013
  • 33. Howdid weforget thisknowledge?Industrial revolution © SY 2013
  • 34. Earlysignsof the (ab)useof IndustrialRevolution• Cholera outbreak in London© SY 2013
  • 35. ModernBiomimicry• Business as usual not as easy as thought in the past.• Energy becomes expensive, resources scarce.• Waste Management a large issue• Whole-life cycle of fabricated materials• Greater appreciation of nature’s complex and highly optimizedprocesses.• Mimicking not just shape but processes too.© SY 2013
  • 36. Literatureon Biomimicry© SY 2013www.asknature.orgWatch Janine’s TEDTalks on www.ted.com
  • 37. BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature runs on sunlight.• Nature uses only the energy it needs.• Nature fits form to function.© SY 2013
  • 38. BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature recycles everything.• Nature rewards cooperation.• Nature banks on diversity.© SY 2013
  • 39. BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature demands local expertise.• Nature curbs excesses from within.• Nature taps the power of limits.• Scale matters© SY 2013
  • 40. Biomimicryin design• Adhesives - Velcro© SY 2013
  • 41. Biomimicryin design• Robotics© SY 2013
  • 42. Biomimicryin design• Facades© SY 2013
  • 43. Biomimicryin integrated buildingdesign• A first attempt in 2006 by a small team at theDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineeringof Imperial College to consider the potential ofbiomimicry in structural design.• Best UG project with Industrial Application in CivilEngineering (2006)• Subsequently published inProc. ICE EngineeringSustainability• Best Paper in EngineeringSustainability for 2007.(Yiatros et al, 2007)© SY 2013
  • 44. ProjectBrief• To explore Biomimicry as a new approach to engineeringdesign• Develop a conceptual structural design for a building thatcould integrate one or more building functions/services© SY 2013
  • 45. BiomimeticDesignprocedureStartDefine the problemAsk the right questionsTranslate your findingsinto a prototypeApply it to your problemTestEndSearch the naturalworld for modelsResearch the work ofother pioneers© SY 2013
  • 46. Askingthe right questions•Design for verbs not for things• How can you create anenvironment for people worksafely and efficiently ?© SY 2013
  • 47. Integrationof servicesThink of the building (or the project) as an ecosystem© SY 2013• Efficient structural systems• Minimize energyconsumption• Natural ventilation• Space management• Reduction in waste
  • 48. Natural Models© SY 2013
  • 49. Previouswork• Gaudí• Foster + Partners &ARUP© SY 2013
  • 50. Floorplan• Honey comb• Tessellation• Maximum use of space / Minimaluse of construction material• Modularity• Standardization of elements andconnections© SY 2013
  • 51. Structure: Vertical Alignment• Moment Resisting Frame• Stocky members• High detail connections• Frame with another systemfor lateral stability• Inefficiency• Distracting Views© SY 2013
  • 52. Ventilation Strategy• Dome shaped roof• Reduce drag forces• Light wells in the circumference• Allow air from higher altitude© SY 2013
  • 53. Thespiral tree grain© SY 2013
  • 54. Thespiral tree grain© SY 2013
  • 55. TopDownVentilation• Gage, Hunt and Linden, 2001© SY 2013
  • 56. TopDownVentilation© SY 2013• Recycling Air
  • 57. Structural System• Integration of gravity and lateralload resistance system• Redundancy• Efficiency through standardisation• Virtually columnless© SY 2013
  • 58. Vertical access• Wasp nest© SY 2013
  • 59. Studyresults• Concept tested against biomimetic principles with good, butnot perfect result.• Matrix quantifying compliance with principles• Basic merit of the study is the rethinking of the conceptualdesign stages.© SY 2013
  • 60. Rethinkingthe designprocess• Incorporate Sustainability into the design and constructionright from the beginning• Design integrated systems• Minimize waste by closing the loop not only in constructionbut also operation• Biomimicry can offer solutions• Might be worth consulting a biologist to understand naturalsystems• Learn to ask the right questions© SY 2013
  • 61. BiomimeticDesignSpiral© SY 2013
  • 62. © SY 2013Bhushan, B. 2009
  • 63. Opportunities: Materials• Carbon neutral and carbon negative materials• Hemcrete©• Whole Life Cycle• Structural Stainless steel• Sustainable concrete mix or design© SY 2013
  • 64. Biomimicryin design• SOM Frame structure© SY 2013Plastic deformations
  • 65. IntegratedEngineeringDesignOptimization© SY 2013• Santa Maria Del Pianto, Naples, Italy• Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners• Expedition Engineering Ltd
  • 66. IntegratedEngineeringDesignOptimization• Algorithms with integrated objective functions.• Structural efficiency• Sunlight• Natural ventilation© SY 2013
  • 67. Sustainabilitybeingpartofthedesignalltheway© SY 2013• Bjarke Ingels: Hedonistic Sustainability• “It doesn’t have to hurt to be good”
  • 68. Summary• Biomimicry has always been around• Mimicking shape• Natural ventilation• An alternative to current practice• EU Directive for zero-energy buildings by 2020• Turning a challenge into a creative opportunity• Biomimetic principles to be used for guidance• Plenty of Applications• Design• Finance• Administration© SY 2013
  • 69. Summary• Industrial manufacturing requires high energyprocedures• Nature is based on information• Hierarchy in process or design• Scale effects• Nothing is landfilled• Closing the loop• Local Problems – Local solutions• Celebrate local expertise© SY 2013
  • 70. Conclusion• The depletion of natural resources requires us to cooperateand diversify our current practices.• Creative solutions from where you least expect it• Tapping in Biology research to solve man-made problems• Take a walk in the park• Launch channels of communication between disciplines• Ultimate common goal© SY 2013
  • 71. Thankyoufor listening• Bibliography• Benyus, JM. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovation inspired by Nature.William Morrow, USA.• Braungart, M & McDonough, W. 2002. Cradle to Cradle: Re-makingthe way we make things, USA.• Gage, SA, Hunt, GR & Linden PF. 2001. “Top down ventilation andcooling”. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 18, 4, 286–301.• Ingels, B. “Hedonistic Sustainability”. 2011, TEDxEast Talk (available atwww.ted.com)• Innes, S. “CPD course notes on Sustainable Development: Design,Construction and Maintainance”, Thomas Telford Training, London.• Yiatros, S, Wadee, MA & Hunt GR. 2007. “The load bearing duct:Biomimicry in Structural Design”. Proceedings of the ICE EngineeringSustainability, 160 (ES4), 179-188.© SY 2013
  • 72. SupplementaryMaterial available online• Strategy for sustainable construction• ICE Charter for Sustainable Development• Environmental Impact Assessment: Guide to procedures• Biomimicry Guild (www.asknature.org)• Expedition Workshed (www.expeditionworkshed.org)• Resources from Embedding Sustainability to Engineering Curricula• Granta Design CES: Materials selection (www.grantadesign.com)• Business Model Canvass by Alex Osterwalder© SY 2013