Mustafa Kemal, "Atatürk" - Father of the Turks: "Peace at Home, Peace in the World.” REPUBLIC OF TURKEY Often Grouped with: Middle East Western Europe Southeastern Europe Southwestern Asia
REPULIC OF TURKEY Ottoman Empire from 1218-1922 Duration: 640 years Istanbul, Turkey, where two continents meet.
BRIEF HISTORY TURKEY -- a new country in an old land.
Civilizations include Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine
Anatolia, the most productive part of the massive Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople.
The Ottoman Empire dynasty (from 1218-1922) endured for six centuries through the reigns of thirty-six sultans.
Occupation in the aftermath of World War I, prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.
Turkish War of Independence was waged, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander
“Republic of Turkey" was born on October 29, 1923, with the new capital of Ankara.
Mustafa Kemal - first President of Turkey, introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past. Atatürk and his associates regarded both religious rules and traditional cultural practices as hindrances to the creation a modern society.
Ideal society for Turkey was the pattern of personal and family relations that prevailed among the educated upper classes of Europe during the 1920s and 1930s.
Main Cities Istanbul is Turkey’s largest city (approx. 12 million) and the country’s undisputed cultural and financial center Ankara is Turkey’s capital and second-largest city (pop. 4.5 million), Ankara is the seat of government and diplomacy and is also a university town with a large student population. Edirne is one of the oldest settlements in Turkey, dating back to the Neolithic age 7.000-6.000 B.C. and was also the second largest city of the Ottoman Empire. Hence, its rich cultural heritage Izmir, a city on the Aegean coast is Turkey’s third-largest city and second most important port.
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is a historical mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). The mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior.
The Church of the Divine Wisdom (Hagia Sophia in Greek)
in Istanbul is one of the most impressive and important buildings ever constructed.
Events of all kinds have taken their toll on the building
over the centuries, although the surviving main structure is essentially that which was built between 532 and 537. Source http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haso/hd_haso.htm
Gross Domestic Product
HEALTH PERFORMANCE RANK BY COUNTRY Provided by World Health Organization 191 Countries reporting From the World Health Organization, provided by http://www.photius.com/rankings.
Reference to Chart above: Computer Industry Almanac Inc.= Comp. Ind. Almanac International Telecommunication Union= ITU Computer Industry Almanac Inc. http://www.c-i-a.com
WOMEN IN TURKEY 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Women Leaders and Gender Parity The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2010.pdf
EDUCATION LEVEL OF WORKING WOMEN 10/100 Illiterate Workers 15/100 Tertiary Education 60/100 Below High School Workers 15/100 High/Voc. Tech School Foreign Economic Relations Board of Turkey (DEİK) TURKSTAT http://www.turkey-now.org
WOMEN in PROFESSION Urbanization & Decline in agricultural employment are the two main factors that have contributed to decrease the share of women having or seeking jobs in Turkey UNICEF Worldwide http://www.unicef.org/turkey/gr/ge21c.html
EDUCATION Two main changes in 1923 dramatically affected Education in Turkey: secularization change of alphabet. The Ministry of Education has the largest budget of any with an allocation of over 22% of the national budget. Education : Compulsory for 8 years (recently decreed) A special feature of primary schools is that one teacher takes care of all the students in one class, from the first grade and continues with those children for eight years until they finish their compulsory education. High School: 3 years and free unless attending a private school at about $4000 a year. College: Unlike the earlier educational levels, students have to pay a fee of approximately 100-350 US Dollars per year at public higher education facilities. Education: Turkish Education System www.enjoyturkey.com/info/facts/Education.htm
Ankara, Turkey Established on April 15, 1946. Universal Decimal Classification UDC – subject= 027.7(73):024.68
National Library of Turkey
The National Library of Turkey is one of the most recent National libraries in the world. The work of the National Library of Turkey was started on April 15, 1946 and they started serving its users in the new building on August 5, 1983.
LIBRARY AFFILIATIONS http://www.kutuphaneci.org.tr Turkish Librarians’ Association
June 3, 1961, the main charter for this
professional organization for Turkish Librarians
IFLA(The International Federation of
Library Associations and Institutions)
CDNL (The Conference of Directors of National Libraries)
CENL (The Conference of European National Librarians)
LIBER (The Association of European Research Libraries)
Bibliographic sources for Librarians is LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts). / Library Week in Turkey For the past 47 years, the last week in March has been celebrated as Library Week in Turkey with the goal of developing the love of reading and emphasizing the importance of books to students and the awareness of libraries for the general public.
100 public universities
about 50 private, non-profit universities, which are referred to as foundation universities
an additional 20 or so higher education institutions are vocational in nature or are military or police schools.
Although Turkish universities do not typically rank within the top 100 in the world
a number of schools rank in the top 500 including Istanbul University, Middle East Technical University and Bilkent University.
Turkish technology and engineering schools are often considered to provide an equivalent education to schools in the US.
1453 – Istanbul University was founded and is the oldest university in Turkey 1773 – establishment of Istanbul Technical University to provide engineering education in the Western sense 1923 - establishment of Ankara University 1923
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY Established in 1773 during the time of the Ottoman Empire
TURKEY UNIVERSITIES BilkentUniversity enrolls 10840 students in faculties and schools on campus in Ankara, Turkey The HacettepeUniversity has two main campuses. The first is located in the old town of Ankara and hosts the Medical Centre, and the second is the Beytepe Campus, which is 13 km from the city center.
FOUNDATIONS Professor İhsan Doğramacı FOUNDATION (April 3, 1915 – February 25, 2010)
Turkish academic of Iraqi Turkmen descent
Born in Erbil, Iraq, then Ottoman Empire
A pediatric physician and an international
leader of development
Founder of Bilkent University, a leading private university, in Ankara, Turkey
In 1946, he was a Co-ratifier of World Health Organization (WHO's) constitution
First President and the Chairman of its Board of Trustees in WHO (World Health Organization) since 1985.
Founder of the Children's Hospital in Ankara, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, the first College of Nursing and several other universities in Turkey where he also served as the Rector and Chancellor
Started schools and educational facilities across the Middle East Region,
especially in his home country of Israel.
FUNDING AGENCIESThe top 8 funding agencies of 2009 are governmental based.
The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Established in 1963
Leading agency for management, funding and conduct of research in Turkey
Mission is to advance science and technology, conduct research and support Turkish researchers
Declared to be an autonomous institution
Governed by a Scientific Board whose members are prominent scholars from universities, industry and research institutions.
TUBITAK Reports directly to the Prime Minister
Acts as an advisory agency to the Turkish Government on science and research issues,
supports undergraduate and graduate students through scholarships.
The Turkish Academy of Sciences Turkish: TürkiyeBilimlerAkademisi - TÜBA TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. Although it is attached to the office of the Prime Minister and is largely funded by the government, it maintains financial and administrative autonomy. The academy is headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. http://www.interacademies.net
Founded as a service unit of TUBITAK in 1996.
ULAKBIM's main objective is to operate a computer network enabling interaction within the institutional elements of national innovation system
ULAKBIM consists of
National Academic Network Unit: forms the academic
network infrastructure in Turkey at all levels
Cahit Arf Information Center, provides information
and document supply services nationwide TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kentriki, Turkey http://www.mam.gov.tr/english/
OTHER FOUNDATIONS OF TURKEY
The Women’s Library and Information Centre Foundation
was founded April 14,1990 in order to ‘understand the presence of women in history, offer proper information to women researchers and preserve today’s writtendocuments for future generations’. The Foundation resides in a historical building in Fener, Istanbul which was provided by the Istanbul MetropolitanMunicipality.
Community Volunteers Foundation
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture and Tourism
SJR WORLD REPORT 2010 Physical Sciences 2277 Research Institutes reporting SCImago Research Group, Copyright 2010. Data Source: Scopus®
SJR WORLD REPORT 2010 Health Sciences 1,875 Institutes and University Reporting SCImago Research Group, Copyright 2010. Data Source: Scopus®
SUBJECT AREAS OF PUBLICATION Six of 27 subject areas are shown with output by Medicine being the greatest. The four lowest ranking subject areas are listed in red. SCImago. (2007). SJR — SCImago Journal & Country Rank. Retrieved June 25, 2011, from http://www.scimagojr.com
AUTHOR SEARCH The Search performed below is limited by Author in order to find who authored the most during 2009. Available from Web of Science
OUTPUT FROM TURKEY 2005-2009 with 1996 as comparison SJR: SCImago Journal & Country Rank /Country Search /Western Europe/Turkey http://www.scimagojr.com/countrysearch.php?country=TR Total 1996-2009 H Index 158 Documents 199.676 Citable Documents 190.023 Citations 1.110.749 Self Citations 317.389 Citations per Document 5.56
Hirsch Index Rankings SCImago Research Group, Copyright 2010. Data Source: Scopus® http://www.scimagolab.com :: http://www.scimagoir.com This table was ranked by H index which remained flat at 158 from 1996 until present. The Number of documents increased dramatically in the last 5 years - from 19,018 to 27,318 but the citations per document reduced significantly from 5.97 per document in 2005 to .85 in 2009. In fact, looking back to 1996, the citations per document was at 8.33 which seems to indicate that the productivity has increased but the influence of the work has declined.
The Republic of TURKEY
TURKEY . With courage, and determination, they move ahead.