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Research and Development as well as scientific contributions to the global stage is one sign of 'health' for a country. How much are the professionals in that country writing--output? How well …

Research and Development as well as scientific contributions to the global stage is one sign of 'health' for a country. How much are the professionals in that country writing--output? How well respected is their work--H-index? How often is their work cited? What funding agencies support the work in each country? This slide presentation offeres an overview of the country, the social, educational, gender equality aspecats as well as the use of internet, the libraries, and etc. in Turkey.

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  • “ Turkey – the name means “strong”, “powerful”. [ Room, A. (2006). Placenames Of The World:] Turkey is a land rich in history and cultural wealth. Ancient sites and ruins scattered throughout the country give sufficient proof of each civilization's unique distinction. The world's first known settlement is found in Turkey. Upon the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century, a young man named Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, led his country towards peace and stability that brought about tremendous economic growth and increasing modernization. Through decades of change and growth, Turkey still boasts growing success, living by Atatürk's motto of "Peace at Home, Peace in the World.”
  • Istanbul, Turkey , where two continents meet. “ One of the world’s most strategic waterways—the strait between Europe & Asia connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara and ultimately to the Mediterranean Sea. Today it splits the city of Istanbul in two.” Notice the countries surrounding Turkey.
  • TURKEY Is a new country in an old land. Known as Anatolia, this part of the empire was the most productive part of the massive Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. The Ottoman Empire dynasty (1218-1922) endured for six centuries through the reign of thirty-six sultans. The occupation of some parts of Turkey by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I, prompted the establishment of the Turkish National Movement. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander, the Turkish War of Independence was waged. “ Republic of Turkey" on October, 1923, with the new capital of Ankara. Mustafa Kemal - first President of Turkey, introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.
  • Istanbul is Turkey’s largest city (approx. 12 million) and the country’s undisputed cultural and financial center Ankara is Turkey’s capital and second-largest city (pop. 4.5 million), Ankara is the seat of government and diplomacy and is also a university town with a large student population. Edirne is one of the oldest settlements in Turkey, dating back to the Neolithic age 7.000-6.000 B.C. and was also the second largest city of the Ottoman Empire. Hence, its rich cultural heritage Izmir, a city on the Aegean coast is Turkey’s third-largest city and second most important port.
  • The Church of the Divine Wisdom (Hagia Sophia in Greek) in Istanbul is one of the most impressive and important buildings ever constructed. Events of all kinds have taken their toll on the building over the centuries, although the surviving main structure is essentially that which was first built between 532 and 537. After conquest of the city in 1453, Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque (Ayasofya Camii), which it remained until the fall of the Ottoman empire in the early twentieth century. It served as Istanbul 's most revered mosque until 1935 when Atatürk , recognizing its world-historical significance, had it proclaimed a museum Source http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haso/hd_haso.htm
  • 17 th in the world in Gross Domestic Product. It grew steadily until a sharp downturn around 2008.
  • Overall Level of Health: A good health system, above all, contributes to good health. WHO assessed overall population health using several indicators to see how well the objective of good health is being achieved in each country. From the World Health Organization Provided by http://www.photius.com/rankings
  • Notice the chart showing Internet Usage statistics from 2000 to 2010.
  • Notice the Gender gap index is well over 100 each year from 2006 -2009. The graph at the top right shows the inequality or near equality females have to them male population. The literacy rate is lower for women, partly because of expected domestic duties.
  • Out of 100 women, 10 will be Illiterate workers 60 will be below high school workers 15 will be High School or Vocational School 15 will have Tertiary education
  • Here you see the percentage of women in profession in Turkey with those in academia the highest, at 36% Civil Service and Medicine at 33%. School Principal is the lowest with 4%. What can be done about the decline in women in the workplace? Sustaining investments on education Affordable childcare Creating job opportunities for first time job seekers
  • Primary education is free with the exception of private schools which accommodate 2% of primary school children. Education : Compulsory for 8 years (recently decreed) A special feature of primary schools is that one teacher takes care of all the students in one class, from the first grade and continues with those children for eight years until they finish their compulsory education. High School: 3 years and free unless attending a private school at about $4000 a year. College: Unlike the earlier educational levels, students have to pay a fee of approximately 100-350 US Dollars per year at public higher education facilities.
  • Universal Decimal Classification The code itself is independent of any particular language or script (consisting of Arabic numerals and common punctuation marks), and the accompanying class descriptions have appeared in many translated versions. UDC is in worldwide use, and has been published in whole or in part in 40 different languages. UDC is used in bibliographic services, documentation centers and libraries in around 130 countries world-wide. The National Library of Turkey has joined The European Library,   http://www.publiclibraries.com/world.htm
  • SCREEN-The National Library of Turkey is one of the most recent libraries in the world. The work of the National Library of Turkey was started on April 15, 1946. National Library of Turkey started serving its users in the new building on August 5, 1983. Adnan Ötüken sent to Germany to study librarianship as a result of the efforts taken the first step in a modest ceremony in the National Library's anniversary was celebrated with various activities. On April 15, which will be held at the Conference Hall of National Library activities within the scope National Library for Turkey's national memory of the 65-year period occurred in 39 thousand square meters, has managed to become integrated into the services, the European Library network. 2 million 919 thousand 725 increases the number of works each day with a collection of the National Library in 2002, 297 thousand 349 in 2010 an average 160 percent increase in the number of users rose to 331 771 thousand. NEWS STORY: TOP TEN LIBRARIES OF TURKEY - http://www.mkutup.gov.tr/menu/84
  • One of the important professional bibliographic sources for Librarians is LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts . http://www.kutuphaneci.org.tr/ Turkish Librarians’ Association http://www.kutuphaneci.org.tr/
  • They produce two professional publications: Information World a per-reviewed journal published every 6 months Turkish Librarianship – every 3 months
  • Most of the schools of higher learning in Turkey, were established after the Republic was established. 100 public universities about 50 private, non-profit universities, which are referred to as foundation universities 1453 – Istanbul University was founded and is the oldest university in Turkey 1773 – establishment of Istanbul Technical University to provide engineering education in the Western sense 1923 - establishment of Ankara University 1923
  • Istanbul University, as one of the oldest educational institutions, not only of Turkey, but also of the world founded when Mehmet the Conqueror conquered Istanbul Education began to be available in theological schools ("medrese/madrasah" as they were then called) and, until the end of the 16th century, these schools were instrumental in educating the ruling cadres of the Ottoman society When the Turkish Republic was founded, Istanbul University was the only institution of higher education. 1924-As a first step in modernization, the Istanbul University in the style of European universities, rather than the madrasahs. It comprised the departments of medicine, law, literature, theology, and science. The institution was renamed “Istanbul University”.
  • The Hacettepe University has two main campuses. The first is located in the old town of Ankara and hosts the Medical Centre, and the second is the Beytepe Campus, which is 13 km from the city centre
  • Professor İhsan Doğramacı FOUNDATION (April 3, 1915 – February 25, 2010) Turkish academic of Iraqi Turkmen descent born in Erbil, Iraq, then Ottoman Empire A pediatric physician and an international leader of development Founder of Bilkent University, a leading private university, in Ankara, Turkey In 1946, he was a Co-ratifier of World Health Organization (WHO's) constitution First President and the Chairman of its Board of Trustees in WHO (World Health Organization) since 1985. Founder of the Children's Hospital in Ankara, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, the first College of Nursing and several other universities in Turkey where he also served as the Rector and Chancellor Started schools and educational facilities across the Middle East Region, especially in his home country of Israel
  • The top 8 funding agencies of 2009 are governmental based; TUBITAK And many arms of that agency Turkey Prime Ministry: State Planning Organization (DPT)=http://www.dpt.gov.tr/ing/ Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) --Supporting R&D and technological innovation projects of the private sector in Turkey since 1991, What is TTGV? Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) is a foundation established by 26 private sector companies, 6 public institutions and 10 umbrella organizations and 14 individuals. Since TTGV is established in accordance with the international loan agreement signed between Turkish Republic and the World Bank, it is considered one of the three foundations established by law in Turkey.TTGV is subject to all the regulations on the foundations of Turkish Republic. =http://www.ttgv.org.tr/en
  • TÜBA - The Turkish Academy of Sciences / TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. Although it is attached to the office of the Prime Minister and is largely funded by the government, it maintains financial and administrative autonomy. The academy is headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. “ TÜBA - The Turkish Academy of Sciences” iap: the global network of science academies http://www.interacademies.net/Academies/ByRegion/MiddleEastCentralAfrica/Turkey.aspx
  • http://www.scimagolab.com :: http://www.scimagoir.com This slide shows the top 5 Universities in PSHYSICAL SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS. It shows world rank, region, and rank in the country. Output of pblications and the International collaboration is listed. CHART
  • O::Output An institution's publication output reveals its scientific outcomes in terms of published documents in scholarly journals. IC::International Collaboration This value shows the institution's output ratio that has been produced in collaboration with foreign institutions. The values are computed by analyzing the institution's output whose affiliation includes more than one country
  • NOTES
  • Author Search—
  • NOTES
  • Cites per Document vs. External Cites per Document At one time, Turkey was cited more than today, it has declined dramatically.
  • This table was ranked by H index which remained flat at 158 from 1996 until present. The Number of documents increased dramatically in the last 5 years - from 19,018 to 27,318 but the citations per document reduced significantly from 5.97 per document in 2005 to .85 in 2009. In fact, looking back to 1996, the citations per document was at 8.33 which seems to indicate that the productivity has increased but the influence of the work has declined.
  • With the support of departments in government, foundations, and other funding agencies, the output from Turkey will continue. Like every country, Turkey has a unique place in the world. The country is strong and proud of their long history. They realize there are many challenges as well as possibilities ahead and move forward.

Transcript

  • 1. REPUBLIC OF TURKEY Often Grouped with: Middle East Western Europe Southeastern Europe Southwestern Asia Mustafa Kemal, "Atatürk" - Father of the Turks: "Peace at Home, Peace in the World.”
  • 2. REPULIC OF TURKEY Ottoman Empire from 1218-1922 Duration: 640 years Istanbul, Turkey , where two continents meet.
  • 3. BRIEF HISTORY
    • TURKEY -- a new country in an old land.
    • Civilizations include Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine
    • Anatolia, the most productive part of the massive Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople.
    • The Ottoman Empire dynasty (from 1218-1922) endured for six centuries through the reigns of thirty-six sultans.
    • Occupation in the aftermath of World War I, prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.
    • Turkish War of Independence was waged, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander
    • “ Republic of Turkey" was born on October 29, 1923, with the new capital of Ankara.
    • Mustafa Kemal - first President of Turkey, introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past. Atatürk and his associates regarded both religious rules and traditional cultural practices as hindrances to the creation a modern society.
    • Ideal society for Turkey was the pattern of personal and family relations that prevailed among the educated upper classes of Europe during the 1920s and 1930s.
  • 4. Main Cities Istanbul is Turkey’s largest city (approx. 12 million) and the country’s undisputed cultural and financial center Ankara is Turkey’s capital and second-largest city (pop. 4.5 million), Ankara is the seat of government and diplomacy and is also a university town with a large student population. Edirne is one of the oldest settlements in Turkey, dating back to the Neolithic age 7.000-6.000 B.C. and was also the second largest city of the Ottoman Empire. Hence, its rich cultural heritage Izmir, a city on the Aegean coast is Turkey’s third-largest city and second most important port.
  • 5.
    • The Church of the Divine Wisdom (Hagia Sophia in Greek)
    • in Istanbul is one of the most impressive and important
    • buildings ever constructed.
    • Events of all kinds have taken their toll on the building
    • over the centuries, although the surviving main structure
    • is essentially that which was built between 532 and 537.
    • Source http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haso/hd_haso.htm
    The Sultan Ahmed Mosque is a historical mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). The mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior.
  • 6. Gross Domestic Product
  • 7. HEALTH PERFORMANCE RANK BY COUNTRY Provided by World Health Organization 191 C ountries reporting From the World Health Organization, provided by http://www.photius.com/rankings. Member Level of Health Overall Health System Performance Ranking in Health Expenditure Capital in International Dollars SAUDI ARABIA   10 26 61 ISRAEL   40 28 19 EGYPT   43 63 115 TURKEY   33 70 82 IRAN   58 93 94 IRAQ   75 103 117
  • 8. Reference to Chart above: Computer Industry Almanac Inc.= Comp. Ind. Almanac International Telecommunication Union = ITU Computer Industry Almanac Inc. http://www.c-i-a.com
  • 9. WOMEN IN TURKEY 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Women Leaders and Gender Parity The Global Gender Gap Report 2010 www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_ GenderGap _ Report _ 2010 .pdf
  • 10. Foreign Economic Relations Board of Turkey (DEİK) TURKSTAT http://www.turkey-now.org Illiterate Workers Tertiary Education Below High School Workers 60/100 10/100 15/100 High/Voc. Tech School 15/100 EDUCATION LEVEL OF WORKING WOMEN
  • 11. UNICEF Worldwide http://www.unicef.org/turkey/gr/ge21c.html WOMEN in PROFESSION
    • Urbanization &
    • Decline in agricultural employment
    • are the two main factors that have
    • contributed to decrease the share of women having or seeking jobs in Turkey
    Profession Women Members of Parliament 4% Civil Service 33% Academia 36% Law 19.7% Medicine 33.8% School Principals 4%
  • 12. EDUCATION
    • Two main changes in 1923 dramatically affected Education in Turkey:
    • secularization
    • change of alphabet.
    • The Ministry of Education has the largest budget of any with an allocation of over 22% of the national budget.
    Education : Compulsory for 8 years (recently decreed) A special feature of primary schools is that one teacher takes care of all the students in one class, from the first grade and continues with those children for eight years until they finish their compulsory education. High School: 3 years and free unless attending a private school at about $4000 a year. College: Unlike the earlier educational levels, students have to pay a fee of approximately 100-350 US Dollars per year at public higher education facilities. Education: Turkish Education System www.enjoyturkey.com/info/facts/ Education .htm
  • 13. Ankara, Turkey Established on April 15, 1946. Universal Decimal Classification UDC – subject= 027.7(73):024.68   National Library of Turkey
  • 14. The National Library of Turkey is one of the most recent National libraries in the world. The work of the National Library of Turkey was started on April 15, 1946 and they started serving its users in the new building on August 5, 1983.
  • 15.
    • LIBRARY AFFILIATIONS
    • http://www.kutuphaneci.org.tr
    • Turkish Librarians’ Association
    • June 3, 1961, the main charter for this
    • professional organization for Turkish Librarians
    • IFLA (The International Federation of
    • Library Associations and Institutions)
    • CDNL (The Conference of Directors of National Libraries)
    • CENL (The Conference of European National Librarians)
    • LIBER (The Association of European Research Libraries)
    • Bibliographic sources for Librarians is
    • LISA (Library and Information
    • Science Abstracts) .
    • /
                              Library Week in Turkey For the past 47 years, the last week in March has been celebrated as Library Week in Turkey with the goal of developing the love of reading and emphasizing the importance of books to students and the awareness of libraries for the general public.
  • 16. PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS
  • 17. TURKISH UNIVERSITIES
    • 100 public universities
    • about 50 private, non-profit universities, which are referred to as foundation universities
    • an additional 20 or so higher education institutions are vocational in nature or are military or police schools.
    • Although Turkish universities do not typically rank within the top 100 in the world
    • a number of schools rank in the top 500 including Istanbul University, Middle East Technical University and Bilkent University.
    • Turkish technology and engineering schools are often considered to provide an equivalent education to schools in the US.
    1453 – Istanbul University was founded and is the oldest university in Turkey 1773 – establishment of Istanbul Technical University to provide engineering education in the Western sense 1923 - establishment of Ankara University 1923
  • 18. ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY Established in 1773 during the time of the Ottoman Empire
  • 19. Bilkent University enrolls 10840 students in faculties and schools on campus in Ankara, Turkey TURKEY UNIVERSITIES
  • 20.
    • FOUNDATIONS
    • Professor İhsan Doğramacı FOUNDATION
    • (April 3, 1915 – February 25, 2010)
    • Turkish academic of Iraqi Turkmen descent
    • Born in Erbil, Iraq, then Ottoman Empire
    • A pediatric physician and an international
    • leader of development
    • Founder of Bilkent University, a leading private university, in Ankara, Turkey
    • In 1946, he was a Co-ratifier of World Health Organization (WHO's) constitution
    • First President and the Chairman of its Board of Trustees in WHO (World Health Organization) since 1985.
    • Founder of the Children's Hospital in Ankara, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, the first College of Nursing and several other universities in Turkey where he also served as the Rector and Chancellor
    • Started schools and educational facilities across the Middle East Region,
    • especially in his home country of Israel.
  • 21. FUNDING AGENCIES The top 8 funding agencies of 2009 are governmental based.
  • 22.
    • The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
    • Established in 1963
      • Leading agency for management, funding and conduct of research in Turkey
      • Mission is to advance science and technology, conduct research and support Turkish researchers
      • Declared to be an autonomous institution
      • Governed by a Scientific Board whose members are prominent scholars from universities, industry and research institutions.
      • TUBITAK Reports directly to the Prime Minister
      • Acts as an advisory agency to the Turkish Government on science and research issues,
      • supports undergraduate and graduate students through scholarships.
  • 23. The Turkish Academy of Sciences Turkish: Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi - TÜBA TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey . Although it is attached to the office of the Prime Minister and is largely funded by the government, it maintains financial and administrative autonomy. The academy is headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. http://www.interacademies.net
  • 24.
      • Founded as a service unit of TUBITAK in 1996.
      • ULAKBIM's main objective is to operate a computer network enabling interaction within the institutional elements of national innovation system
        • ULAKBIM consists of
            • National Academic Network Unit: forms the academic
            • network infrastructure in Turkey at all levels
            • Cahit Arf Information Center, provides information
            • and document supply services nationwide
    Kentriki, Turkey http://www.mam.gov.tr/english/ TUBITAK Marmara Research Center , TUBITAK ULAKBIM
  • 25.
    • The Women’s Library and Information Centre Foundation
    • was founded April 14,1990 in order to ‘understand the presence of women in history, offer proper information to women researchers and preserve today’s written documents for future generations’. The Foundation resides in a historical building in Fener, Istanbul which was provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality.
    • Community Volunteers Foundation
    • Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture and Tourism
    • Deutsche Bank A.Ş.
    • Finansinvest
    • Fortis Bank A.Ş.
    • Horizon Investment SA
    • Western Union Foundation
    • http://media.library.ku.edu.tr/KITAP/5-Ana%20metin.pdf
    OTHER FOUNDATIONS OF TURKEY
  • 26. SJR WORLD REPORT 2010 Physical Sciences 2277 Research Institutes reporting SCImago Research Group, Copyright 2010. Data Source: Scopus® World Rank Region Rank Rank in Country Institution City Output IC% 375 120 1 Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Tr 3,325 26.26 396 133 2 Middle East Technical University Ankara, Tr 3,191 26.48 590 214 3 Gazi University Ankara, Tr 2,006 10.62 693 244 4 Hacettepe University Ankara, Tr 1,705 22.99 779 268 5 Ankara University Ankara, Tr 1,490 22.75
  • 27. SJR WORLD REPORT 2010 Health Sciences 1,875 Institutes and University Reporting SCImago Research Group, Copyright 2010. Data Source: Scopus® World Rank Region Rank Country Rank Institution City in Turkey Output IC% 104 30 1 Istanbul University Istanbul,Tr 4,527 11.69 122 39 2 Hacettepe University Ankara,Tr 4,216 13.69 287 115 4 Baskent University Ankara,Tr 2,374 3.33 313 126 5 Ege University Ankara,Tr 2,215 33.23 317 128 6 Gazi University Ankara,Tr 2,181 6.10
  • 28. SUBJECT AREAS OF PUBLICATION Six of 27 subject areas are shown with output by Medicine being the greatest. The four lowest ranking subject areas are listed in red. SCImago. (2007). SJR — SCImago Journal & Country Rank. Retrieved June 25, 2011, from http://www.scimagojr.com Subject Area of Publication 1996 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Medicine 2.344 8.524 8.871 8.847 9.365 10,093 Agricultural and Biological Sciences 490 1.532 1.998 2.026 2.252 2,773 Engineering 530 1.375 1.647 2.099 2.076 2,375 Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology 470 1.806 1.948 2.086 1.938 2,222 Chemistry 349 1.143 1.243 1.497 1.577 1,690 Multidisciplinary 3 39 127 121 141 224 Nursing 3 52 109 145 169 179 Arts and Humanities 9 42 50 71 128 173 Health Professions 45 159 155 171 173 172
  • 29. AUTHOR SEARCH The Search performed below is limited by Author in order to find who authored the most during 2009. Available from Web of Science
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. OUTPUT FROM TURKEY 2005-2009 with 1996 as comparison SJR: SCImago Journal & Country Rank /Country Search /Western Europe/Turkey http://www.scimagojr.com/countrysearch.php?country=TR Year Documents % International Collaboration % Region % World 1996 5,580 18.96 1.66 0.49 2005 19,018 19.23 3.93 1.09 2006 21,239 18.56 4.15 1.16 2007 23,029 18.70 4.36 1.2 2008 23,888 18.96 4.35 1.21 2009 27,318 18.36 4.69 1.34
  • 33. Hirsch Index Rankings SCImago Research Group, Copyright 2010. Data Source: Scopus® http://www.scimagolab.com :: http://www.scimagoir.com This table was ranked by H index which remained flat at 158 from 1996 until present. The Number of documents increased dramatically in the last 5 years - from 19,018 to 27,318 but the citations per document reduced significantly from 5.97 per document in 2005 to .85 in 2009. In fact, looking back to 1996, the citations per document was at 8.33 which seems to indicate that the productivity has increased but the influence of the work has declined. Rank Year Documents Citable documents Citations Self-Citations Citations per Document H index 37 / 225 2009 27,318 25,818 23,114 7,724 0.85 158 37 / 218 2008 23,888 22,658 52,423 15,317 2.19 158 37 / 223 2007 23,029 21,953 86,257 23,940 3.75 158 37 / 219 2006 21,239 20,155 100,320 28,017 4.72 158 37 / 215 2005 19,018 18,117 113,480 31,234 5.97 158                 37 / 207 1996 5,580 5,398 46,468 14,031 8.33 158
  • 34. The Republic of TURKEY
  • 35. TURKEY . With courage, and determination, they move ahead.