Unm

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Unm

  1. 1. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA/GA) is one of the six principal organsof the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equalrepresentation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint thenon-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of theUnited Nations and make recommendations in the form of General AssemblyResolutions.[2] It has also established a wide number of subsidiary organs.[3]The General Assembly meets under its president or Secretary-General in regular yearlysessions the main part of which lasts from September to December and resumed partfrom January until all issues are addressed (which often is just before the next sessionsstart). It can also reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Itscomposition, functions, powers, voting, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of theUnited Nations Charter.The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall inLondon and included representatives of 51 nations.Voting in the General Assembly on important questions – recommendations on peaceand security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion ofmembers; budgetary matters – is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting.Other questions are decided by majority vote. Each member country has one vote.Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment,Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may makerecommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peaceand security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote powerstructure theoretically allows states comprising just eighteen percent of the worldpopulation to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote.During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the North-South dialogue – thediscussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries. Theseissues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup ofthe UN membership. In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193, of which morethan two-thirds are developing countries. Because of their numbers, developingcountries are often able to determine the agenda of the Assembly (using coordinatinggroups like theG77), the character of its debates, and the nature of its decisions. Formany developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influenceand the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives.Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the bindingforces over the member nations(apart from budgetary measures), pursuant to its Unitingfor Peace resolution of November 1950 (resolution 377 (V)), the Assembly may alsotake action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanentmember, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of thepeace or act of aggression. The Assembly can consider the matter immediately with aview to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain orrestore international peace and security.[4]
  2. 2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, abbreviated UNSG, is the head oftheUnited Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.TheSecretary-General also acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the UnitedNations.The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who took office on 1January 2007. His first term expired on 31 December 2011. He was re-elected,unopposed, to a second term on 21 June 2011.[1]RoleThe Secretary-General was envisioned by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a"world moderator", but the vague definition provided by the UN Charter left much roomfor interpretation by those who would later inhabit the position. According to the UNwebsite, his roles are further defined as "diplomat and advocate, civil servant,and CEO".[2]Nevertheless, this more abstract description has not prevented the officeholders from speaking out and playing important roles on global issues to variousdegrees. Article 97 under Chapter XV of the UN Charter states that the Secretary-General shall be the "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, but does notdictate his specific obligations.Responsibilities of the Secretary-General are further outlined in Articles 98 through 100,which states that he shall act as the officer in "in all meetings of the General Assembly,of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council and the TrusteeshipCouncil, and shall perform other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs". Heis responsible, according to Article 99, for making an annual report to the GeneralAssembly as well as notifying the Security Council on matters which "in his opinion maythreaten the maintenance of international peace and security". Other than these fewguidelines, little else is dictated by the Charter. Interpretation of the Charter has variedbetween Secretaries-General, with some being much more active than others.The Secretary-General is highly dependent upon the support of the member states ofthe UN. "The Secretary-General would fail if he did not take careful account of theconcerns of Member States, but he must also uphold the values and moral authority ofthe United Nations, and speak and act for peace, even at the risk, from time to time, ofchallenging or disagreeing with those same Member States."[2]"The personal skills of the Secretary-General and his staff are crucial to their function.The central position of the UN headquarters in the international diplomatic network isalso an important asset. The Secretary-General has the right to place any dispute onthe provisional agenda of the Security Council. However, he works mostly behind thescenes if the members of the council are unwilling to discuss a dispute. Most of his time
  3. 3. is spent on good offices missions and mediation, sometimes at the request ofdeliberative organs of the UN, but also frequently on his own initiative. His function maybe frustrated, replaced or supplemented by mediation efforts by the major powers. UNpeacekeeping missions are often closely linked to mediation (peacemaking). The recentimprovement in relations between the permanent members of the Security Council hasstrengthened the role of the Secretary-General as the worlds most reputableintermediary."ResidenceThe official residence of the Secretary-General is a five-story townhouse in SuttonPlace, Manhattan, in New York City, United States. The townhouse was built for AnneMorgan in 1921, and donated to the United Nations in 1972.[3]United NationsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor a list of United Nations member states, see Member states of the United Nations.For other uses, see United Nations (disambiguation)."UN" redirects here. For other uses, see UN (disambiguation).The United Nations (abbreviated UN in English, and ONU in French and Spanish), isan international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperationininternational law, international security, economic development, social progress,human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 afterWorld War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and toprovide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry outits missions.The UN currently has a total of 193 member states. From its offices around the world,the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues inregular meetings held throughout the year. The organization has six principal organs:the General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly); theSecurity Council (fordeciding certain resolutions for peace and security); theEconomic and SocialCouncil (for assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation anddevelopment); the Secretariat (for providing studies, information, and facilities neededby the UN); the International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ); and the UnitedNations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive). Other prominent UNSystem agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World FoodProgramme (WFP) and United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF). The UNs most
  4. 4. prominent position is Secretary-Generalwhich has been held by Ban Ki-moon of SouthKorea since 2007.The United Nations Headquarters resides in international territory in New York City, withfurther main offices at Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed fromassessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, and has six officiallanguages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.[3]HistoryMain article: History of the United NationsThe Chilean delegation signing the UN Charter in San Francisco, 1945The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II (1939–1945). Because of thewidespread recognition that humankind could not afford a third world war, the UnitedNations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order tomaintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic,social and humanitarian problems. The earliest concrete plan for a new worldorganization was begun under the aegis of the U.S. State Department in 1939. FranklinD. Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations as a term to describe the Alliedcountries.[4] The term was first officially used on 1 January 1942, when 26 governmentssigned the Atlantic Charter, pledging to continue the war effort.[5] On 25 April 1945,the UN Conference on International Organizationbegan in San Francisco, attended by50 governments and a number of non-governmental organizations involved in draftingthe United Nations Charter. The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945upon ratification of the Charter by the five then-permanent members of the SecurityCouncil—France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and theUnited States—and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. The first meetings of
  5. 5. the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, and the Security Council, tookplace in Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London beginning 6 January 1946.[6]The organization was based at the Sperry Gyroscope Corporations facility in LakeSuccess, New York, from 1946–1952, before moving to the United NationsHeadquarters building in Manhattan upon its completion.Since its creation, there has been controversy and criticism of the United Nations. In theUnited States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a"get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UNs aim was to establish a"One World Government". After the Second World War, the French Committee ofNational Liberation was late to be recognized by the US as the government of France,and so the country was initially excluded from the conferences that aimed at creatingthe new organization. Charles de Gaulle criticized the UN, famously calling ita machin ("contraption"), and was not convinced that a global security alliance wouldhelp maintain world peace, preferring direct defence treaties between countries. [7]Legal basis of establishmentShortly after its establishment the UN sought recognition as an international legalperson due to the case of Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the UnitedNations[8] with the advisory opinion delivered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).The question arose whether the United Nations, as an organisation, had "the capacity tobring an international claim against a government regarding injuries that theorganisation alleged had been caused by that state".[9]The Court stated: the Organization was intended to exercise and enjoy, and is in factexercising and enjoying functions and rights, which can only be explained on the basisof the possession of a large measure of international personality and the capacity tooperate upon an international plane ... Accordingly, the Court has come to theconclusion that the Organization is an international person. That is not the same thingas saying that it is a State, which it certainly is not, or that its legal personality and rightsand duties are the same as those of a State ... What it does mean is that it is a subjectof international law and capable of possessing international rights and duties, and that ithas capacity to maintain its rights by bringing international claims.[10]
  6. 6. OrganizationMain article: United Nations SystemThe United Nations system is based on five principal organs (formerly six –the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994, upon the independenceof Palau, the last remaining UN trustee territory);[11] the General Assembly, the SecurityCouncil, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, andthe International Court of Justice.Four of the five principal organs are located at the main United NationsHeadquarters located on international territory in New York City.[12] The InternationalCourt of Justice is located in The Hague, while other major agencies are based in theUN offices atGeneva,[13] Vienna,[14] and Nairobi.[15] Other UN institutions are locatedthroughout the world.The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetingsand documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. [3] TheSecretariat uses two working languages, English and French. Four of the officiallanguages are the national languages of the permanent members of the SecurityCouncil (the United Kingdom and the United States share English as a de facto officiallanguage); Spanish and Arabic are the languages of the two largest blocs of officiallanguages outside of the permanent members (Spanish being official in 20 countries,Arabic in 26). Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded;Arabic was added later in 1973. The United Nations Editorial Manual states that thestandard for English language documents is British usage and Oxford spelling,the Chinese writing standard is Simplified Chinese. This replaced Traditional Chinese in1971 when the UN representation of China was changed from the Republic of China tothe Peoples Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details).United NationsThe United Nations is an international organisation of countries. Itwas created for many reasons: There should be peace and security in the world after the Second World War Countries should be friendly to each other Countries should help each other solve problems
  7. 7. Human rights should be respected everywhere in the world. After the Second World War theallied countries got together to discuss in which ways such an organization could be created. In 1945 50 countries got together in San Francisco and signed an agreement that created the United Nations. The United States invited the new UN to set up its headquarters in New York. The building was finished in 1952 and has been the permanent seat of the UN until today.MembershipMembership is open to all peace - loving nations. Today there are about200 countries in the UN - only very few have not become members.Switzerland joined the UN in 2002 because the Swiss always wanted tobe neutral.The main parts of the UNThere are 5 main parts in this organisation The General Assembly The Security Council The Economic and Social Council The International Court of Justice The Secretariat"Security Council" and "UNSC" redirect here. For other uses, see Security Council(disambiguation) and UNSC (disambiguation).
  8. 8. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of theUnited Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment ofpeacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action. Its powers are exercised through United Nations Security Council resolutions. There are 15 members of the Security Council. This includes five veto-wielding permanent members—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—based on the great powers that were the victors of World War II.[1] There are also 10 non-permanent members, with five elected each year to serve two-year terms. This basic structure is set out in Chapter V of the UN Charter. The current non- permanent members are Argentina,Australia, Azerbaijan, Guatemala, Luxembourg, Morocco, Pakistan, Rwan da, South Korea, and Togo. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 at Church House, Westminster, London. Since its first meeting, the Council, which exists in continuous session, has travelled widely, holding meetings in many cities, such as Paris and Addis Ababa, as well as at its current permanent home at the United Nations Headquarters inNew York City. Security Council members must always be present at UN headquarters in New York so that the Security Council can meet at any time. This requirement addresses a weakness of the League of Nations: that organization was often unable to respond quickly to a crisis. ember State Date of Admissiono Afghanistan19-11-1946o Albania 14-12-1955o Algeria 08-10-1962o Andorra 28-07-1993o Angola 01-12-1976o Antigua and Barbuda 11-11-1981o Argentina 24-10-1945o Armenia 02-03-1992o Australia 01-11-1945o Austria 14-12-1955o Azerbaijan 02-03-1992o Bahamas 18-09-1973o Bahrain 21-09-1971o Bangladesh 17-09-1974o Barbados 09-12-1966o Belarus* 24-10-1945o Belgium 27-12-1945o Belize 25-09-1981
  9. 9. o Benin 20-09-1960o Bhutan 21-09-1971o Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 14-11-1945o Bosnia and Herzegovina* 22-05-1992o Botswana 17-10-1966o Brazil 24-10-1945o Brunei Darussalam 21-09-1984o Bulgaria 14-12-1955o Burkina Faso 20-09-1960o Burundi 18-09-1962o Cambodia 14-12-1955o Cameroon 20-09-1960o Canada 09-11-1945o Cape Verde 16-09-1975o Central African Republic 20-09-1960o Chad 20-09-1960o Chile 24-10-1945o China 24-10-1945o Colombia 05-11-1945o Comoros 12-11-1975o Congo 20-09-1960o Costa Rica 02-11-1945o Côte DIvoire 20-09-1960o Croatia*22-05-1992o Cuba24-10-1945o Cyprus20-09-1960o Czech Republic*19-01-1993o Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea17-09-1991o Democratic Republic of the Congo *20-09-1960o Denmark24-10-1945o Djibouti20-09-1977o Dominica18-12-1978o Dominican Republic24-10-1945o Ecuador21-12-1945o Egypt*24-10-1945o El Salvador24-10-194o Equatorial Guinea12-11-1968o Eritrea 28-05-1993o Estonia17-09-1991o Ethiopia13-11-1945o Fiji13-10-1970o Finland 14-12-1955o France24-10-1945o India 30-10-1945

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