Identifying the Promise of GIS for Government
 

Identifying the Promise of GIS for Government

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To find more information about this guide go to: http://www.govloop.com/geographic-information-systems-guide

To find more information about this guide go to: http://www.govloop.com/geographic-information-systems-guide

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    Identifying the Promise of GIS for Government Identifying the Promise of GIS for Government Document Transcript

    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE2. WELCOME CONTENTS About GovLooP - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 Executive SummarY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 Benefits of GIS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 5 Overarching Benefits of GIS Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency Improved Decision Making Increased Communication Better Recordkeeping Managing Geographically 5 Strategies for GIS Implementation GIS Runs on Data Integrate Your Team Integrate Your Processes Train Accordingly Make Your Business Case It’s Not Just for Programmers Transforming Emergency Management with GIS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 GIS In Focus: Mobile and Larimer County How GIS is Used in Emergency/Disaster Management GIS to Assist With Planning and Community Analysis Identification of Data Collaboration with Field Operations Situational Awareness Prepare for a Crisis Respond Efficiently Recover Proactively ArcGIS as a System for Emergency/Disaster Management Survey In Focus: What’s Your Greatest GIS Challenge? - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 Restoration and Sustainability with GIS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Planning Maintenance and Restoration GIS In Focus: The National Forest Service
    • 3. STATEOFGISResponse GIS In Focus: US Fish and WildlifeMore Data, Better Planning Mapping for Crime Reduction in Communities - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22Best Practice: Enhance Traditional PracticesBest Practice: Combine Traditional and Non-Traditional Data to Target Crime GIS In Focus: Ogden, UtahBest Practice: Provide Public Access to Data GIS In Focus: Shelby, North CarolinaBest Practice: Targets Deployment of Limited Resources with Predictive Modeling GIS In Focus: Columbia, North CarolinaInvesting in Healthy Neighborhoods Through Emerging Technology - - - - - 28Understanding the Context GIS In Focus: Department of AgricultureMore Informed Decision-Making GIS In Focus: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)Coordinating Across Organizations GIS In Focus: USAIDA Promising FutureBuilding the Base Map for Citizen Engagement - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32Step 1: Begin with Authoritative, High Value Data GIS In Focus: Data.seattle.govStep 2: Push Data to Citizens GIS In Focus: Chicago’s Crime MapsStep 3: Allow Citizen Analysis GIS In Focus: Chesapeake Bay Restoration Step 4: Create a Citizen Feedback Loop GIS In Focus: Montgomery County, MarylandStep 5: Update Authoritative Data GIS In Focus: City of Glendale, CaliforniaStep 6: Increase Operational AwarenessSurvey in Focus: How do you see agencies leveraging GIS in 5 years? - - - - - - 40GIS Resources - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42GovLoop BlogsEsri ResourcesFederal Government Case Studies State GovernmentLocal Governments
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE4. ABOUT GOVLOOP Location GovLoop is headquartered in Washington D.C with a team of dedicated professionals who share a commitment to connect and improve government. GovLoop 734 15th St NW, Suite 500 Washington, DC 20005 Phone: (202) 407-7421 Fax: (202) 407-7501 Our mission is to “connect government to im- academic partners. In brief, GovLoop is the prove government.” GovLoop aims to inspire leading online source for addressing public public sector professionals by serving as the sector issues. knowledge network for government. GovLoop connects nearly 60,000 members, fostering In addition to being an online community, cross-government collaboration, solving com- GovLoop works with government experts and mon problems and advancing government ca- top industry partners to produce valuable re- reers. sources and tools, such as guides, infograph- ics, online trainings, educational events, and The GovLoop community has been widely rec- a daily podcast with Chris Dorobek, all to help ognized across multiple sectors as a core re- public sector professionals do their jobs better. source for information sharing among public sector professionals. GovLoop members come GovLoop also promotes public service success from across the public sector; including fed- stories in popular news sources like the Wash- eral, state, and local public servants, industry ington Post, Huffington Post, Government experts, as well as non-profit, associations and Technology, and other industry publications.
    • 5. STATEOFGIS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY “A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and dis- playing all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visual- ize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared.” – EsriIn the report, Maps Improve Gov 2.0, Esri Presi- reached out to GovLoop members to take partdent Jack Dangermond states, “Citizens become in a survey. Participants were asked to discussmuch more engaged when a map shows them their greatest challenges with GIS, highlightwhat’s happening in their own neighborhoods. best practices, share interesting case studies,GIS makes that possible. People easily under- and describe what they believe the future ofstand maps, which leads to better discussion GIS looks like. The results of the survey are dis-around an issue. With GIS, citizens can see how cussed throughout this report and provide firstgovernment is performing and use that informa- hand insights on GIS from those in the trenches.tion for better decision-making,” he continues,“GIS allows data to be analyzed, shared and dis- As one respondent noted, “GIS provides spatialcussed in ways that were never possible before.” awareness leading to information empower- ment – [it’s] moving our language into spatialAt GovLoop, our mission is to share best prac- dimensions.” GIS now extends across govern-tices, facilitate knowledge sharing, and con- ment and is no longer accessible to only pro-nect government employees. This report is at grammers and coders. There is tremendousthe heart of our mission. This report serves as value in integrating GIS with mission-ori-a collection of case studies, best practices, and ented programs to realize its many benefits.resources for the GIS community. In this report,we have attempted to show the power and This report is by no means a finished project.value of GIS for government entities. We have This guide is intended to point you to thedecided to focus on five strategic areas for GIS proper resources, spur discussions on Gov-in government: emergency management, citi- Loop, and help build community awarenesszen engagement, health and human services, on GIS. Please be sure to visit GovLoop andenvironmental policy and crime prevention. engage with the community, as we hope to continue a dynamic conversation throughAs part of the research process for this guide, we GovLoop’s blogs, forums and discussions.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE6. BENEFITS OF GIS “GIS is a technology which is about condensing down all of our data, all of our information into a language that is understood by everyone.” - Jack Dangermond, President and Founder of Esri Geographic information systems (GIS) allow an understand easily” is part of the utility of GIS organization to display enterprise information software. geographically. GIS integrates seemingly dis- parate data, software, and hardware to display GIS has been used to map locations of infra- information visually. GIS allows government structure, resource quantities, population den- entities to understand the complexity of proj- sities, and changes in communities. A survey ects they are working on and reveal new rela- participant cited several additional benefits, tionships, patterns, and trends through maps namely “Identifying relationships and trends and reports. A respondent from GovLoop’s GIS that aren’t always clear in graphs, charts, and survey commented, “There are so many things spreadsheets. I never underestimate the power that GIS can provide. Detailed maps, ability to of the ‘where’ aspect of data.” Throughout the perform analysis for specific questions, ability guide, there are many case studies highlight- to provide information quickly, especially in ing how GIS can be applied to different areas of emergency situations.” The respondent added, government to realize these benefits. “most people are visual and as it has been said ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’; getting Recently, data visualization has been gaining a information to the citizen in a way they can lot of traction in government. As the open data
    • 7. STATEOFGISmovement progresses and raw especially in terms of opera- that improves communica-data is made available in a vari- tional expenses. A great case tion between different teams,ety of formats, the data needs study comes from the City of departments, disciplines, pro-to be presented in a way users Woodland, which found new fessional fields, organizations,can easily interpret. For some, efficiencies using GIS to cut and the public.”the raw data is quite useful for costs on fleet schedules, sav-building applications and sup- ing on fuel and labor costs. A Better Recordkeepingporting systems; for others, the GovLoop survey respondentneed is to quickly understand noted this benefit as well, stat- Better recordkeeping is an ad-data visually. One of survey ing that GIS assists cities in ditional benefit of GIS. Gov-participants highlighted this “Providing better municipal ernment agencies collect largeneed, stating, “The benefits are services at a lower cost, saving volumes of data and records,almost unlimited and as the the city money.” and GIS is one of the manytools in GIS expand, so do the tools that agencies use to helpuses for it. People, especially in Improved Decision improve recordkeeping. Esritoday’s world, are very visual. Making states, “GIS provides a strongGIS not only provides those framework for managing thesevisuals but it solves problems. Improved decision-making is types of records with full trans-Sorting through spreadsheets another benefit of integrat- action support and reportingmakes it hard to detect pat- ing GIS with enterprise data. tools.” Montana’s GIS-Basedterns but looking at it through Across many areas of gov- Cadastre Layered with RichesGIS begins to make sense of ernance, GIS can improve is a case study provided by Esriwhere and why.” decision-making by helping to illustrate how GIS facilitates leaders to understand and vi- improved recordkeeping.5 Overarching Benefits of sualize complex data and theirGIS relationships. A survey respon- Managing Geographi- dent stated, “It turns reams of callyIn addition to user-identified spreadsheets and lists of databenefits, Esri presented five into a visual tool that is under- Finally, managing geographi-overarching benefits for GIS, standable by many.” cally is the distinguishingalong with accompanying il- benefit of GIS. Esri states, “GISlustrative case studies. Below, Increased Communica- is becoming essential to un-we have highlighted these five tion derstanding what is happen-benefits, providing a context ing and what will happen infor how GIS can be leveraged A third benefit that can be geographic space. Once weby agencies across govern- realized within agencies is understand, we can prescribement. increased communication action. This new approach to among teammates. GIS and managing geographically isCost Savings and In- maps allow people to com- transforming the way that or-creased Efficiency municate with a new medium, ganizations operate.” Kuwait also allowing interdisciplin- University is another greatOne of the first benefits iden- ary communication across case study, exploring how thetified is cost savings and in- the agency. Esri states, “GIS- University uses GIS to designcreased efficiency. GIS can be based maps and visualizations and build as they embarked onused to find new efficiencies greatly assist in understanding a multibillion-dollar expansionwithin a government agency, situations and in storytelling. project. They are a type of language
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE8. These five overarching bene- like Oracle or SQL Server. That’s interests.” fits of GIS are seen in agencies where the really work is hap- across departments and levels pening. You better be think- Another participant followed within government. ing about web development up, stating, “All employees as well. Silverlight, FLEX, and in your organization need to 5 Strategies for GIS Imple- HTML5 are the tools of choice understand their corporate/ mentation regarding the integration of agency mission and identify GIS and web-based technolo- key information categories The GIS case studies through- gies. that are of highest priority to out this report offer many collect uniformly across the lessons learned for the GIS Even small-scale local govern- organization and who the community. Through the case ments are pushing GIS servic- subject matter experts are for studies and resources provid- es online. Everyone can make each category.” ed, five lessons learned and their own maps, do their own strategies emerge that can analysis, and even create their Integrate Your Pro- be immediately implemented own data. And they want to do cesses within an agency. Most agen- it on their phones and tablets, cies that have a GIS initiative not on some 12lbs notebook. Integration is key, and with have thought through these And it is becoming all about GIS, it is critical that data man- elements, but it never hurts to development. GIS people used agement and data collection take a step back and critically to make maps or other infor- are integrated with GIS. A sur- evaluate your current initia- mation products and serve vey respondent stated, “I think tives. that to consumers. Now we that the greatest benefit is the create apps and services for ability to obtain business in- GIS Runs on Data the user, who in turn creates telligence by looking at corpo- their own maps or information rate or agency data in a new In order to fully leverage GIS, products.” way (helps the brain process the proper data must be acces- these complex associations sible, shared and integrated Integrate Your Team or relationships much faster with GIS software. One of sur- when it is part of a visual dis- vey respondents stated: The cloud and GIS is integral play). You can see trends and to improved collaboration. patterns across a geographic “Maps, maps, maps. All they GIS works when all the stake- area, which might be harder ever talk about are maps. Let’s holders can access informa- to determine if forced to look talk about data. Let’s talk about tion and are engaged in the at separate charts or graphs real analysis where we’re tak- process. This is no different (based on tabular data alone).” ing disparate data sets and do- than any other program, tool, ing the analysis to turn them or process for an organiza- Within the survey, we asked into readily consumable infor- tion. Be sure that the team has how GIS officials were inte- mation that may or may not bought into the GIS initiative, grating GIS into existing pro- have a spatial component. and has access to all the right cesses; one fascinating answer information. One of the sur- explained, “We are currently A lot of people forget that to vey respondents stated, “In an designing our GIS and are rely- really get into GIS these days inherently spatial agency like ing on our current systems to you have to be very conversant mine, location has the power make the most use of it as well regarding database software to provide the necessary com- as leveraging those current mon denominator for diverse systems to assist in getting
    • 9. STATEOFGISGIS up and running. To make It’s Not Just forthis integration as seamless as Programmerspossible, we are thorough inour research to determine all GIS is no longer just for thosesoftware and hardware that is who code and program. Soft-needed for these connections ware has become much moreto be successful. GIS is a great intuitive to use. There is enor-tool but if you can leverage mous value in GIS, and by un-it across existing systems, its derstanding the value of GIS,uses are even broader.” and with proper training and identification of resources,Make Your Business there is a lot of value that canCase be derived from GIS for gov- ernment agencies.GIS professionals need to beable to speak the business Building greater context to in-language to push their ideas form policy decisions, manag-forward. While GIS holds great ing strategic planning, and co-promise for government in ordinating the deployment ofhelping to tackle the complex resources are just a few of thesituations with which agencies applications for GIS programs.are confronted, the benefits To fully leverage GIS to furtherneed to be communicated in agency missions, the technol-quantifiable terms. GIS adop- ogy should be used by moretion will not receive buy-in if than just programmers andvalue is not clearly communi- coders.cated in terms senior leaderscan understand, These lessons learned are criti-A survey respondent stated, cal for government agencies.“Once people understand Along with the lessons learned,what the colors (i.e. demo- GIS has numerous benefits forgraphic metrics) and shapes agencies, which extend far be-(i.e. neighborhoods) mean, it yond just emergency manage-can have a powerful impact ment. “The benefits are almoston arguing for change. I find unlimited and as the tools inthough that for many it cannot GIS expand, so do the uses forbe presented passively and let it. People, especially in today’sthem figure it out for them- world, are very visual. GIS notselves. It can be formatted in a only provides those visualsself guided fashion for individ- but it solves problems. Sortingual discovery but people often through spreadsheets makesdon’t get the full impact unless it hard to detect patterns butsome one points out the rela- looking at it through GIS be-tionships.” gins to make sense of where and why,” stated a survey re- spondent.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE10. TransformingE M E R G E N C Y MAN AG E M E N T with GIS “GIS provides the ability to monitor the crisis and react in real time. GIS connects people, resources, and information geographically to help decision makers understand the full scope of a dynamic situaion.” GIS is continuing to evolve and users are con- pacts on communities. Most disasters are char- tinually finding new applications for GIS across acterized by short reaction/response times, government. Implementing GIS is becoming overwhelming devastation to infrastructure, increasingly important for agencies as pub- and a strain on the tangible and intangible re- lic services become more complex. Often, GIS sources of the affected community. Decision is the backbone of public programs, running makers at the local, state, and federal levels behind the scenes, powering many different are expected to quickly implement plans to re- kinds of technology and services upon which store order and mitigate the aftermath of the government and citizens rely. disaster.” Throughout the last decade, technology has At the core of emergency management and helped to facilitate a better understanding of preparedness is GIS. GIS technology allows de- the complexity of natural disasters. The Esri cision makers to grasp the social, physical, and website states, “Disasters in the form of earth- economic forces of a disaster. GIS plays a criti- quakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes cal role during all aspects of a disaster, from have severe economic, financial, and social im- proper planning and preparedness initiatives,
    • 11. STATEOFGISto continuing on after the crisis area, families looked to social one of the strongest ever re-to mitigate the affects of a di- media to track down loved corded, struck the coast of Ja-saster. During the emergency, ones, check-in on neighbor- pan, it sent a tsunami Hawaii’sGIS also allows first responders hoods, and learn about the way. In a sense, Hawaii hadand crisis center managers to condition of their communities dodged a bullet. The March 11,quickly communicate and ad- through social media. With 2011, earthquake transferreddress needs. the use of geo-location tags most of the tsunami’s energy on social media platforms, citi- toward Japan’s coast ratherThe use of GIS in emergency zens could use GIS to help get than toward Hawaii. The wavemanagement has been accel- status updates on their com- that Hawaii experienced waserated, not just because of im- munity. The Pittsburgh Post 1 meter high (compared to Ja-provements to GIS technology, Gazette reports, “For some pan’s 10-meter wave) but stillbut also because of the rapid people, it only took a single caused millions of dollars inadvances in mobile and cloud tweet or Facebook post to map damage to docks and seacrafttechnology. The “cloud first” their exact locations for search but—fortunately—no deaths.”and Digital Government Initia- parties and anxious familytive by the Obama Administra- members.” The article quoted Once the tsunami hit, Hawaiiantion has pushed agencies to Gabriel Schmidbauer, adjunct residents visited their primaryadopt cloud and mobile tech- professor of geology and geo- resource for emergency notifi-nology. The connection be- graphic information systems cations, the city website. Duetween GIS, cloud, and mobile at Aurora, Colo.-based Ameri- to the high traffic volumes,has led to an integrated suite can Sentinel University, as say- the website crashed, leavingfor emergency managers. With ing “Geo-enabled tweets and citizens uncertain about theirthe use of GIS, cloud, and mo- other types of social media safety. The case study stated,bile, agencies can collaborate that go on maps can be used “One of the GIS analysts men-and share information visu- as a way of analyzing events as tioned that their site [Hono-ally through interactive and they happen”. lulu.gov] went down followingdynamic maps. With mobile the alert because too manyaccess, people can share real- Along with geotagging, mo- residents were trying to findtime maps and data, using bile applications and GIS have information related to the tsu-this information to improve radically altered how emer- nami at once.” This situationhow resources are allocated gency response information ultimately inspired the city toand how decisions are made. is provided to citizens. An ex- create a new mobile app thatIn particular, the use of social ample of this comes from the provides evacuation informa-media and geo-tagging on de- case study, New Information tion for citizens.vices has led to incredible life- Channel: Andriod app getssaving advancements in emer- evacuation information to Honolulu traditionally publish-gency management. residents, which states, “When es information on evacuations the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, in phone books. The city foundThere are many examples ofgeotagging being used inemergency management. Oneexample comes from the dev-astating storms that hit theeastern United States in April2012. As powerful thunder-storms moved through the 21º18’25’’N -157º51’30’’W
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE12. that publishing information in the phonebook is not the most efficient option, as many resi- LARIMER COUNTY, CO dents are dependent on their 40º35’7’’N -105º5’4’’W mobile phones. The City of Ho- nolulu is prepared for an emer- gency situation, having devel- what: Emergency Response 2.0, oped an app that helps people GIS Builds Customer Web stay safe and find shelter in a App to Empower Emergency Managers crisis. GIS In Focus: Mobile and Larimer County An additional case study is the decision making process from Larimer County, Colora- during a crisis. Royce states, Royce identifies three ways GIS do, Emergency Response 2.0, “When coupled with census tools are used during an emer- GIS Builds Customer Web App and derived Federal Emer- gency, stating, “[GIS] allows in- to Empower Emergency Man- gency Management Agency stant collaboration, visualizes agers, shows the power of a (FEMA) HAZUS-MH layers, a population and infrastructure custom web app, and how cus- rich, query able tapestry be- vulnerabilities, visualizes and tomization of web applications comes readily available. Map manages the allocation of re- has the power to transform visualization provides a holis- sources with their associated emergency management. tic overview of the incident, hazards.” These are all critical while actionable reports come elements to disaster recovery, The author of the post is Lar- from performing spatial que- and mitigating the impact of a imer County’s GIS Programmer, ries.” This information is critical crisis on a community. Royce Simpson. Larimer Coun- for emergency managers to ty is home to nearly 300,000 have as a crisis unfolds. How GIS is Used in Emer- citizens and holds nearly 29 gency/Disaster Manage- cities and towns. Like many To fully capitalize the poten- ment county governments, Larimer tial of GIS, employees need County collects and stores to take advantage of a sig- Esri provides some great re- data related to shelters and nificant number of training sources on disaster manage- critical infrastructures, such as opportunities. Even though a ment. On their website Esri public facilities, schools and manager is equipped with all walks through how GIS is police and fire stations. the tools to make an informed used in emergency manage- decision, significant training is ment. They identify four as- During a crisis, managers need still required for the manager pects, planning and analysis, to quickly be able see what in- to think clearly, know the re- data management, situational frastructures may be in jeop- sources of the community, and awareness, and field opera- ardy, identify high population remain calm throughout the tions. Below, the GovLoop areas, high-risk communities, emergency; this is critical dur- team has expanded on each and where to send services. ing an emergency and allows and provided some further With GIS, this can be done emergency managers to make context on how important nearly instantly and improves decisions with clarity. each is for emergency man-
    • 13. STATEOFGISagement. nity analysis is at the core of Identification of emergency preparedness. GIS DataGIS to Assist With can facilitate the identifica-Planning and Commu- tion of critical infrastructure, For a GIS system to properlynity Analysis low laying land that may lead function, there is an immense to increased risk, and assist amount of data that needs toGIS technology allows emer- with plans to provide relief to be collected, stored, and man-gency management profes- distressed communities. This aged. GIS allows users to turnsionals to adequately address analysis and process has life- raw data into relevant infor-needs of the community and saving applications. mation, driving decisions andidentify high-risk communities improving outcomes. One ofwhen a crisis may hit. Commu- the GovLoop survey respon-Mapping the Colorado Wildfires+ + +GIS use during the 2012 Colorado wildfires dem-onstrated how GIS can help mitigate the damage High Parkfrom natural disasters. Esri has developed an onlinegallery that showcases web maps and applicationscreated by Esri users during the crisis. The fires in 259 87kColorado were some of the worst in history. Withthe combination of oppressive heat and drought,the risk and intensity of wildfires in the South-west United States has grown. On June 27th alone,nearly 32,000 residents were forced to evacuate Homes Lost Acres Burnedtheir homes. The High Park fire burned 259 homesand 87,284 acres, in a fire that roared for nearly amonth in Colorado. The fire has been estimated toinclude $39.2 million in damages. The Waldo Can-yon fire was just as oppressive, as the fire burned Waldo Canyon347 homes and 17,827 acres, in the town situatedjust west of Colorado Springs.During the crisis, Esri developed maps that showed 347 17kimportant data about the fires. Some of the dataon the maps included the wind direction, precipi-tation, burned areas, location of fires and also in-cluded user generated content on the web, such as Acres Burnedtweets and YouTube videos. Homes Lost(Citation: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-205_162-57463012/high-tech-maps-keep-track-of-colorado-wildfires/ )
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE14. dents further emphasized the emergency and disaster man- partnerships, and providing a need for data management, agement. As an emergency grassroots platform for coast- stating, “Know the data, open unfolds, it is paramount to an al/oceans/Great Lakes space the attribute table, look at the effective response to under- management, not to mention different values in a column, stand the current circumstanc- other possible benefits we so that you can be confident in es and to monitor events as should discover after the Na- the answers you get from the they dynamically unfold over tional Ocean Policy is imple- queries and analysis you per- time.” GIS provides the ability mented.” form on the data.” to monitor the crisis and re- act in real time. GIS connects Respond Efficiently Collaboration with people, resources, and infor- Field Operations mation geographically to help GIS can quickly aide in re- decision makers understand sponse time. GIS helps to iden- Critical to capitalizing on the the full scope of a dynamic tify access roads and emergen- power of GIS is integration of situation. cy routes, and, using the cloud, responders in the field with to collaborate with those in the command center. The abil- Prepare for a Crisis the field. Through mapping of ity to instantly collect data on emergency response route in- a mobile device and relay that The first lesson is to be pre- formation, responders are able information to command cen- pared; although it is impos- to quickly reach critical areas. ters provides greater clarity of sible to plan for every element Likewise, they also know vul- the on the ground situation, of a disaster, there are strate- nerabilities of the community and can allow decision mak- gies that can be put into place and how to efficiently allocate ers to make more informed for agencies. Many emergency resources. choices for allocating limited response units have performed resources during a disaster. mock disaster trainings to help Recover Proactively prepare and train for how to Situational Awareness react during a crisis. During the recovery phase, GIS can be used to identify critical Esri states, “Situational aware- By being prepared for a crisis, needs areas. Post disaster, GIS ness is the corner stone of GIS can help agencies leverage provides valuable information the benefits that GIS provides. to advise recovery procedures. GIS can save significant time Leaders can view damage during a crisis for officials. to critical infrastructure and A survey respondent stated, buildings, and identify strate- “With GIS we are saving funds gies to expedite the recovery and employees’ time, increas- process. ing collaboration, promoting GIS use for emergency man- agement is still an emerg- ing field. As GIS continues to evolve, precious time can be saved to properly allocated resources, provide citizens sta- tus updates, and save lives.
    • 15. STATEOFGISFor more resources, on disaster tion management system. that could become or alreadymanagement and GIS, please are fires.view: ! MODIS Active Fire Mapping Program—Click on Current ! National Fire Weather—Fire! ArcGIS Online—Wildfire im- Fire Information for “large inci- weather outlooks and warn-agery, maps, and data. dent” maps. ings from the National Weath- er Service.! Fire Information for Re- ! MODIS Active Fire Maps—source Management System U.S.D.A. Forest Service - Re- ! BLM Airspace Information(FIRMS)—MODIS active fire mote Sensing Applications System—For aviators and fireproducts in easy to use for- Center personnel, this site shows tem-mats. porary flight restrictions due ! Geodata.gov—Fire Mapping to the fires.! GEOMAC Wildland Fire Sup- Community—Categories in-port—A multi-agency effort clude: Responder Resources,that allows fire managers to GIS Data, Public Interest, Map ArcGIS as a System foraccess online maps of current Gallery, and more. Emergency/Disaster Man-fire locations. agement ! National Oceanic and Atmo-! InciWeb—An interagency spheric Administration (NOAA) The ArcGIS software provides awildland fire incident informa- Fire Detect—Detects hotspots system for emergency/disaster management that supports all facets of the mission including preparedness, mitigation, re- sponse and recovery.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE16. { IN FOCUS How do you see agencies leveraging GIS in 5 years? { I see GIS as a universal integrator, a way to aggregate data with spatial aspects in an easy to understand format, typically an interactive map/app. Leveraging GIS is really leveraging all your existing sys- tems. I see agencies deciding that their needs to be one authoritative source of data and using GIS to clean that source “Web apps are another. With all the up. Take zoning for instance; right now free resources out there and such an it’s in a bunch of different tabular reposi- active development community you tories across different departments in can produce a GIS-based web app in the City. GIS is the only way to compare a very short period of time. Not a lot those disparate data sources to develop of other platforms can deliver that. 1 correct zoning designation per parcel. We developed a Storm Surge Look-up That’s how I see agencies really and truly App for citizens using ESRI’s ArcGIS benefiting from GIS investments in the Viewer for Flex in a week. It’s a really future. simple app but it gets the job done.”
    • 17. STATEOFGIS“Federal agencies shouldstart to do more large- “Expect that it likescale land management everything else on theusing a combination of web will go increas-data collected from the ingly mobile and more Data sources will be ex-field, remote sensing, and ubiquitous. What I posed as web servicesgeospatial data/existing would like to see is the pushed via an enterprisedata/metadata. Hopeful- I in GIS become knowl- service bus. If the IA poli-ly agencies will invest in edge more firmly in the cies will allow it, this willflex viewers that will help hands of the demo- allow organizations tobreak down organization- cratic based populous pick and choose theiral silos by showing differ- so that they use it as a data, fuse it, and visualizeent sources of agency data means of governance it. This would occur acrossin one space or as layers rather than for hyped organizations and therethat can be turned on and up presentations.” would be one industryoff (perhaps making some standard process to ad-programs or processes “I’m hoping data will be dress interconnection andvisible for the first time to shared more broadly security.key decision makers).” and efficiently; so agen- cies can focus on their core missions.”“GIS will become an everyday tool for a variety of purposeswithin the next 5 years and it’s awareness will be widespread.” “Looking five years into the future I see agencies interacting more with organizations such as IOOS to obtain data and partner with. I also believe that agencies may very well discontinue making maps themselves and use more contractor-developed maps.”
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE18. RESTORATION AND SUSTAINABILITY WITH GIS “By including projections of the effects of climate change, this approach offers a coherent and scientifically based way of addressing key decisions about development and land-use change.” -Geography Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara 2011 will long be remembered for its extreme within the conditions dictated by the environ- weather. From wildfires in the West, to torna- ment. dos in the heartland, to hurricanes in the East, the environment dealt the United States some Planning harsh blows. With twelve separate incidents that claimed lives and cost over a billion dol- When it comes to planning for environmental lars each, the National Oceanographic and At- changes, geography is everything. The impact mospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National of climate change is expected to be different Weather Service (NWS) urges the country to for different regions and different types of ter- heed the lessons of 2012 and anticipate even rain. GIS can help enable location-based plan- “more frequent extreme weather in the future.” ning and preparation. In a recap of a spatial Whether it is planning for large scale environ- roundtable discussion he attended, Esri Presi- mental changes and challenges, working to dent Jack Dangermond writes about the prom- maintain the environment on a more localized ise of using geodesign to help adapt to climate level, or responding to environmental disas- change. As one participant, a professor of ge- ters, GIS can help agencies and organizations ography at the University of California Santa whose mission is to manage, protect, or work Barbara put it, “A designer should be able to
    • 19. STATEOFGISsketch a design for a develop- stitute, a non-profit organiza- also help agencies and com-ment near a coastline, and to tion, does just that as part of munities better manage andevaluate it based on scientific its ClimateWise service, which care for resources for use andmodels of sea-level rise, as well assesses and prepare commu- conservation today. GIS canas pollution of air and water, nities for impacts associated help government and the pub-impacts on traffic congestion, with climate change. In using lic better understand naturaland other environmental and data from the U.S. Forest Ser- resources and the impact ofsocial dimensions. By includ- vice to make projections, The humans on those resources.ing projections of the effects of Geos Institute can help city, The National Forest Serviceclimate change, this approach county, state, and federal gov- has used GIS to this end inoffers a coherent and scientifi- ernment agencies prepare for several ways. It has used GIScally based way of addressing environmental changes. to create an interactive onlinekey decisions about develop- forest-planning map intendedment and land-use change.” to incorporate the public in Maintenance and the planning process , to bet-The ability to create layers that Restoration ter understand watershed ar-display population density, eas, and to assess damage by GIS in Focus: The Na-zoning, terrain, and environ- pests. GIS can also help moremental data can help bring tional Forest Service localized organizations andmultiple disciplines together agencies with environmen-to collaborate on how to deal While GIS can help with the tal restoration efforts and towith changing weather, coast- anticipated environmental improve conservation of vitallines, and more. The Geos In- challenges of tomorrow, it can resources like water through
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE20. a better understanding the information on a daily basis. landscape and availability of “At end of every day, we could resources and the many juris- see where every bird had been dictions and populations that picked up, everywhere crews depend on them. had been,” says Duke. FWS helped to create and update maps on a daily basis that en- Response abled other agencies, like the U.S. Coast Guard to determine GIS in Focus: US Fish where to deploy resources the and Wildlife following day. In a perfect world, careful plan- ning would be sufficient to en- sure protection of the environ- ment. However, as witnessed in recent years, accidents and natural events can bring about man-made environmental di- sasters. When this happens, GIS can help agencies to coor- dinate response. Jason Duke, Regional GIS Coordinator at the U.S Fish and Wildlife Ser- vice (FWS), discusses how the FWS was dispatched to pro- tect migratory birds following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In order to mount an effective response, the FWS and other responding agencies required data from numerous state and federal agencies, from on and offshore, and in a timely man- ner. Further, they needed to be able to view that data in a single location, so resources could be allocated efficiently on a daily basis. Duke explains that GIS allowed responders to create an “intel- ligent map... that we can make subtle changes to and make quick decisions off of,” while adding additional layers of
    • 21. STATEOFGIS More Data, Better PlanningThe ability to map and modelinterrelated geographic in-formation has allowed local,state, and federal govern-ments to revolutionize the waythey plan for environmentalchanges, maintain and restoreecosystems, and respond toenvironmental disasters.GIS has already empowerednumerous organizations towork with the public and oneanother to more effectivelyprotect and manage the en-vironment. As more and moreorganizations collect andshare even more environmen-tal data, the potential for GISto be even more effective inplanning for anticipated envi-ronmental changes and unan-ticipated environmental disas-ters will continue to improve.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE22.mapping for CRIME REDUCTION in communities “Using the visual crime maps and detailed aerial photography, personnel and resources were better placed at the right times to provide deterrent to potential crime.” Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tech- ing this, they are able to analyze the data and nology has been the catalyst for much of the determine patterns of criminal behavior with- recent innovation in crime control and pre- in the city. They can do this for many types of vention. This critical public service has always crime, including burglary, car theft, and more. been reliant upon information and intelligence Because of the analysis of these patterns, po- gathering and mapping, but GIS software pro- lice departments are able to better identify vides a platform for considering many variables patterns of criminal activity. affecting crime simultaneously. Best Practice: Enhance Traditional The initial use of crime data mapping had Practices been limited to charting location and time of a crime. GIS software allows users in state and Law enforcement is naturally visual field, and local government in the police department to crime mapping has existed in some form for plot crime, both in terms of time and place. Do- well over one hundred years. Until the past few
    • 23. STATEOFGISdecades, however, mapping To quote the PSAs, “knowledgecriminal activity was done is power” These are some examples ofprimitively, using techniques cities that have created mash-such as sticking pins in large Once mapping was possible ups of traditional and non-tra-maps posted on the wall. This on personal computers, GIS ditional police data to predictallowed for the detection of software began to be utilized and prevent crimes.clusters of criminal activity, but by police forces to map multi-there was no process in place ple sources of traditional crime X Minneapolis, Minnesota:for more sophisticated analy- data, including the date, time, The city has combined datasis. For example, there was no and type of offense in addition sets with locations of liquorcommon method for tracking to the crime’s location. The in- stores, public libraries, publicthe time or type of crime. formation collected by police parks, and bus route locations departments could be more to better identify patterns ofWith GIS technology, layers of readily analyzed, given a more gun-related crimes, includinginformation can be mapped complete visual representa- robberies, shootings, gun-for a more in-depth analysis of tion of relevant data. theft and illegal possession.crime patterns. The knowledgeregarding specific crimes offi- However, GIS software such as X Arlington, Texas: The Ar-cers track and record can now ArcGIS can automatically link lington Police mapped build-be overlaid to develop and data sets within several dif- ing code violations along withunderstand patterns, beyond ferent databases, allowing for the locations of residentialsimple location of crime clus- greater innovation in crime break-ins to better anticipateters. analysis. Data sets from any new burglary hotspots. The area of government can now resulting maps demonstratedBest Practice: Combine be combined with crime data a high correlation betweenTraditional and Non- for a more nuanced under- dilapidated structures andTraditional Data to Target standing of criminal activity. break-ins, and are now being There are several cities that used to designate “fragile-Crime have successfully combined neighborhoods”, working with traditional police data with other government agencies to“Assimilating differing data other non-traditional data to clean them up.sources to give staff a more prevent certain types of crimi-complete picture of the histo- nal behavior in their jurisdic- X Memphis, Tennessee: Map-ry of a parcel or the crimes oc- tion. ping the lighting of neighbor-curring in an area of the City.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE CRIME MAPPING SUCCESS 24. across the nation Minneapolis, MN Combined data sets with locations of liquor stores, public libraries, publicOgden, UT parks, and bus route locations to better identify patterns of gun-related crimes.Launched a multi- Shelby, NCmission RealTime Crime Cen- Developed Crime-ter (RTCC) which Stat to allow thelinked data sets police force to mapwithin several dif- things such as theferent databases, locations of whereincluding camera stolen vehicles aresystems, crime da- stolen and recoveredtabases, and ve- and crime density.hicle tracking Columbia, SC Decreased violent crimes over the course of one year by 6.06 percent, and property crimes decreased by 14.22 percent through visual crime mapping. Arlington, TX Mapped building code violations along with the locations of resi- Memphis, TN dential break-ins to better antici- Mapped the lighting of neigh- pate new burglary hotspots. borhoods, as well as proximity to concert venues to spot con- nections between this infor- mation and criminal behavior. hoods, as well as proximity GIS In Focus: Ogden, significant amount of data in to concert venues and other Utah the course of their work. Pri- non-traditional data, the city or to 2008, however, officers was able to spot connections Similar to these cities across relied upon the crime analy- between this information and the country, the Police Depart- sis unit’s monthly reports for criminal behavior. ment in the City of Ogden, crime reduction planning and Utah, gathers and utilizes a to identify additional areas of
    • 25. STATEOFGISconcern. To produce these re- may alleviate some of this con- statistics and crime patternsports, the crime analysis unit cern. from the previous month. Themanually combined data sets meetings walk through eachfrom multiple sources. Additionally, there is the po- crime category, and they dis- tential for crowd-sourcing cuss strategies to reduce theTo better understand patterns applications to better un- number of crimes committedof crime, the Ogden Police De- derstand crime. In Las Ange- in each area.partment (OPD) launched a les, California, and Memphis,multi-mission Real Time Crime Tenessee, university faculty Best Practice: TargetsCenter (RTCC). With their ini- played central roles in devel- Deployment of Limitedtial implementation of this GIS oping the programs for data Resources with Predictivesoftware, ArcGIS automatically analysis. Opening up informa- Modelinglinked data sets within several tion to the public could lead todifferent databases, including more innovation in preventing In an era of decreasing resourc-camera systems, crime data- and controlling crime. es, GIS helps law enforcementbases, and vehicle tracking, determine where to deploy re-and displayed them in a com- GIS In Focus: Shel- sources for the largest impact.mon operating picture. “It was by, North Carolina As budgets shrink and policeadded so that we could track forces become leaner, utilizingand analyze patrol patterns After observing other larger technology to pinpoint high-and their relationship to crime cities successfully implement crime areas is increasingly im-patterns,” says Josh Jones, se- GIS software, the City of Shel- portant.nior project coordinator—GIS, by, North Carolina, custom-City of Ogden. Combining the ized a program that met their Many cities are beginning todisparate datasets for patrol needs. Their program, CrimeS- utilize GIS technology to maplocations and crime locations, tat, has provided concrete in- past crimes and analyze pat-along with additional layers formation for the force to act terns retrospectively. Innova-of data, the Ogden Police De- upon to reduce crime dramati- tions in crime prevention arepartment (OPD) was provided cally. The police department is also being developed, with GISwith new information that led able to build maps that show software helping to forecastto better decision-making and where stolen vehicles are sto- where future crimes will occur.resource allocation. len and recovered and create maps that show density of GIS In Focus: Colum-Best Practice: Provide crimes such as driving under bia, South CarolinaPublic Access to Data the influence. These maps can inform police where to patrol The Columbia, South Carolina,With open data movements and be placed for selected en- Police Department has utilizedthriving across all levels of gov- forcement. GIS to more efficiently deployernment, providing access to resources through the use ofhigh value information, such The Shelby Police Department visual crime maps. They areas crime data, will allow citi- also holds monthly meetings also able to analyze past datazens to also better understand that are open to the public, to forecast patterns of futurecrime in their area. Residents helping facilitate collaboration crime. For example, an analysisconsistently over-estimate the between the police and the lo- of historical data may show anamount of crime in their area; cal community. During these increase in burglaries duringproviding access to actual data meetings, maps created with a specific season or month of CrimeStat are used to discuss
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE26. the year. Having the ability to activity. Violent crimes have map those crimes and deter- decreased over the course of mine which jurisdictions are one year by 6.06 percent, and affected can inform decisions property crimes decreased by about how resources are de- 14.22 percent. ployed and areas are patrolled. For patrolmen, being able to utilize the interactive maps allows them to determine, by clicking on an incident point, any tracked descriptive infor- mation, including the time and date of the burglary, how the break-in occurred, and what was stolen. Again, accessing data from multiple sources is an invaluable resource for ana- lyzing patterns of crime. Captain Rick J. Hines of the Columbia Police Department described that, “The photo- map [created with GIS] visually depicted pathways between buildings, back alleys, and oth- er potential locations for crim- inal opportunists to prey on social gatherers heading back to their cars late at night.” He continued, “Using the visual crime maps and detailed aerial photography, personnel and resources were better placed at the right times to provide a deterrent to potential crime. In the event of a crime, the staff was able to respond to an inci- dent more quickly.” Implementing this program has led to real returns on in- vestment for the police de- partment. Since implementing their GIS program, the City of Columbia, SC, has seen a dra- matic decrease in criminal
    • 27. STATEOFGISThe Platform forGovernmentNo matter how you deliver government services,Esri provides the platform for your place-baseddecisions. With data, analysis, field mobility, operationalawareness, and citizen engagement solutions, we canhelp you foster innovation, reduce costs, and improvethe way you govern.Learn more at esri.com/govplatform Copyright © 2012 Esri. All rights reserved.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE28. INVESTING IN HEALTHY NEIGHBORHOODS THROUGH EMERGING TECHNOLOGY “The first key step in enabling anyone in the world to visit a GIS map, click on a country, understand where all of our projects are, what they’re doing, and the kinds of results they’re getting,” which will make USAID’s work “far more accessible, transparent and effective.” -Dr. Rajiv Shah , U.S. Agency for International Development Due to the current precarious fiscal state of the economy, government agencies are con- tinually looking to close budgets and at the tized solutions. same time, provide a higher level of services to citizens. While there are never easy solu- Further, agencies must be efficient and proper- tions to delivering social services, improving ly coordinate among the myriad organizations public health, and sparking urban renewal, and jurisdictions involved in providing assis- government needs every decision, program, tance and supporting vulnerable populations. and implementation to count. This requires an Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a excellent understanding of the context around unique way to help governments achieve all a problem and developing strategic and priori- three.
    • 29. STATEOFGISUnderstanding the Con- income census tract where ei- decisions and prioritizing ac- ther a substantial number or tions. This applies not only totext share of residents has low ac- policymakers, who can make cess to a supermarket or gro- better policy and program de-GIS In Focus: Depart- cery store.” In short, a Food cisions based on a completement of Agriculture Desert is an area in which a understanding of a problem significant portion of residents and available resources, butIt is critical to understand a does not have ready access to also to private citizens, whoproblem’s context before de- affordable, nutritious food. can make better decisionsciding on a solution. The recent when armed with the appro-explosion in geo-tagged data Using GIS, USDA developed priate information displayedcan help organizations tasked the Food Desert Locator to in a user-friendly way. Viewingwith health, human services, clearly illustrate where food information visually on a map,and housing missions better deserts exist. Using the map, rather than as a list of text, itunderstand challenges faced it becomes possible to under- can improve understanding ofby areas of interest. By using stand which areas lack access a situation and allow individu-geo-tagged data, it is now to nutritious food—critical in- als to take a more informedpossible to view demograph- formation for anyone seeking course of action.ics, income, access to low-cost to address public health issuesand nutritious food, access to like childhood obesity or so- The Supplemental Nutritionhealth professionals, and more cial welfare issues. Secretary Assistance Program (SNAP),all within a single map. Each of Agriculture Tom Vilsack says the successor to the foodof these distinct, yet related this understanding will “help stamp program, aids 44 mil-variables can be mapped on a policy makers, community lion Americans each year. Inseparate “layer” and be viewed planners, researchers, and oth- 2010, the USDA released thein different combinations to er professionals identify com- SNAP Retail Locator, which al-help planners, social workers, munities where public-private lows SNAP benefit recipientsnonprofits, and government intervention can help make to see the retailers near theirofficials best understand what fresh, healthy, and affordable home, work, or other locationthe critical factors at play are food more readily available to that accept SNAP benefits.and to use this information to residents.” Jonathan Bennett, a Programdetermine the best course of Manager for the USDA’s Foodaction. and Nutrition Service, argues that the tool allows beneficia-In understanding the context ries to make “better buyingof a problem and evaluatingpotential solutions, it is criti- More Informed Decision- decisions” by viewing all stores Making that accept SNAP benefits incal to understand what re- their area and allowing themsources already exist in a given GIS In Focus: Sup- to compare before showingarea and what access to those plemental Nutrition up at a retailer to make a pur-resources is like. The United Assistance Program chase. One of the interestingStates Department of Agricul- (SNAP) developments following theture’s (USDA) Economic Re- release of the SNAP Retail Lo-search Service (ERS) did just In addition to helping under- cator is that while the tool wasthat in spring of 2011, when it stand context, GIS can be a built for SNAP benefit recipi-released the Food Desert Lo- valuable resource in making ents, an “Unintended user wascator. A food desert is a “low- also the SNAP eligibility
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE30. workers out in the states who This will help to avoid circum- I n other words, GIS is enabling are working with individuals stances in which a researcher an entire ecosystem of agen- to qualify and authorize them does not realize a map exists cies, nonprofits, and compa- to receive SNAP benefits.” The with specific information and nies to understand all of the tool not only helps current “end up duplicating work that’s work being performed that recipients make better buy- already been done or relying could affect its own work in ing decisions, but it also helps on an inferior product.” In a any given region. state employees make better similar move, the U.S. Agency decisions when determining for International Development eligibility and working with (USAID) launched a GeoCenter, As organizations increase their new beneficiaries to maximize which USAID Administrator Dr. use of GIS to become more the value of the program. Rajiv Shah touted as “The first transparent, it becomes pos- key step in enabling anyone sible to improve resource al- in the world to visit a GIS map, location by taking advantage click on a country, understand of each other’s resources. For Coordinating Across Orga- where all of our projects are, instance, one group of sepa- nizations what they’re doing, and the rate jurisdictions created a GIS kinds of results they’re get- collaboration group in Fulton GIS In Focus: USAID ting,” which will make USAID’s County, Georgia. work “far more accessible, The potential for organiza- transparent and effective.” tions to derive value from GIS increases as more and more industries and organizations The Fulton GIS Collaboration Group listed four significant discover new uses for geo-tag- ging and mapping their data. benefits of collaboration for the jurisdictions involved : As more organizations collect geographic data and integrate GIS into their workflows and programs, new opportunities + Elimination of redundant + Potential to save costs exist to improve efficiency. maintenance for data that through identifying points of Perhaps some of the biggest existed in multiple places. project integration. of these efficiency gains could arise from increased transpar- ency into organizations’ data and the associated ability of organizations to complement + An ability to share + Improved accuracy of each other’s work. technology and knowledge allocation of taxes collected. resources. The USDA, which has 29 sepa- rate divisions that use geospa- tial information, is working to create a central repository of GIS maps and information.
    • 31. STATEOFGISA PROMISING FUTUREGIS holds the potential to improve the ability of individuals, organi-zations, and governments to better understand problems, devise andprioritize solutions, and to collaborate and improve transparency in ad-ministering programs. With myriad organizations that collect data andprovide services at the intersection of public health and social welfare,the potential impact of GIS is significant. GIS holds potential for gov-ernment to more fully understand and access information related tonutritious food, exercise facilities, healthcare, as well as the potentialfor development, and growing food locally. It will be exciting to seehow more organizations follow the lead of those listed here to find newways of developing and delivering solutions through the use of GIS.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE32.Building the Base Map for Citizen engagement “With advances in technology, a greater information exchange between government agencies and the public has occured. The amount of data created...can be daunting for agencies to present and process in order to effec- tively engage with and respond to the community. “ The primary goal for government is to provide use of Web 2.0 technology to make govern- services for citizens; critical to achieving that ment more transparent, participatory, and col- mission is gaining a better understanding of laborative. Using GIS technology, public ser- what services a community values. Providing vants have developed innovative ways of both information and receiving feedback are the providing better access to data, as well as more fundamental processes of citizen engagement. adeptly processing feedback received from cit- With advances in technology, a greater infor- izens. The accessibility of data allows agencies mation exchange between government agen- to be more transparent; the opportunity for cies and the public has occurred. The amount citizen analysis of data increases government of data created through this exchange, howev- accountability and participation. Also, having er, can be daunting for agencies to present and a clear feedback cycle allows for additional col- process in order to effectively engage with and laboration between government and the pub- respond to the community. lic. Advances in technology have paved the way While open data sets are an important aspect for the continued evolution of Gov 2.0, or the of the open data movement, it is only the first
    • 33. STATEOFGISstep in increasing and improv- of Data.gov, there is a clearing citizen engagement. In platform for agencies to use to Step 1Esri’s Fall 2011 newsletter for provide access to critical dataGovernment Matters, six clear sets. Begin with Authoritative,steps are presented for ad- Hig Value Datavancing citizen engagement At the federal level, the Openwithin an agency. Originally Data Initiative has aimed toentitled the “Anatomy of a Gov “liberate” government data2.0 Solution,” each step repre- by making traditional govern-sents a path toward furtheringcitizen understanding and en- ment data publicly available, in an effort to improve the Step 2gagement. lives of Americans and cre- ate economic opportunity. As Push Data to CitizensStep 1: Begin with Authorita- a part of this movement, thetive, High Value Data White House also launchedStep 2: Push Data to Citizens the Presidential InnovationStep 3: Allow Citizen Analysis Fellows program, which pairsStep 4: Create a Citizen Feed-back Loop top innovators from the pri- vate sector, non-profits, and Step 3Step 5: Update Authoritative academia with top innovators Allow Citizen AnalysisData in government to collaborateStep 6: Increase Operational on projects.Awareness For state and local govern-Whether your agency is still ments, there are also clear ex-identifying high value data toprovide to the public, or has amples of cities throughout the United States that are set- Step 4already pushed out this infor- ting the bar for access to highmation and needs to solicit value, timely, critical informa- Create a Citizen Feedbackcitizen feedback, these steps, tion. Brand Niemman, the Di- Loopalong with the illustrative case rector and Senior Data Scien-studies for each step, should tist at SemanticCommunity.help your agency effectively net, spoke with Christopherimplement GIS technology. Dorobek of the DorobekIN- SIDER to discuss the open data Step 5Step 1: Begin with Author- movement’s unrealized po-itative, High Value Data tential. In their conversation, Update Authoritative he emphasized that releasingThe movement toward open information critical to govern- Datadata has been a catalyst for ment services and decision-Gov 2.0 and has increased making should be the highestcitizen engagement. Govern- priority for agencies.ment agencies maintain high-quality, reliable data sets that To better facilitate the shar- Step 6serve as a foundation for Gov ing of high value data, Niem- man stated that government Increase Operational2.0 initiatives. Since the launch “Should build a data science Awareness
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE34.the Open Data Initiativehas aimed to “liberate” government data by makingtraditional government data publicly available, in aneffort to improve the lives of Americans and createeconomic opportunity. community in the agencies.” the open data movement, and along with three other cities He elaborated by suggest- will allow for greater innova- throughout the United States. ing that, “Agencies should put tion with GIS. As one survey Prior to this venture, however, forward a statistician or data participant states, “Share your Seattle launched data.seattle. scientist to be the points of data, locate and maintain out- gov in early 2010 and had been contact. Because right now, a side data sources.” a leading force in the open lot of the points of contact for data movement. Even earlier, the data.gov activities are not GIS In Focus: Data. in 2006 the city had pioneered those people – are not the sub- seattle.gov their “My Neighborhood Map”, ject matter experts, the statis- an interactive mapping tool ticians, or the data scientists.” This year the City of Seattle, that opened important city Putting forth experts to select Washington, joined the Data. data to the public, including high value data would advance gov venture, cities.data.gov, food bank locations, hospitals and health centers, schools, and more. The launch of data.seattle.gov allowed public access to au- thoritative, high value infor- mation. The datasets include detailed budget information, active business licensing data, crime data, and several hun- dred other data sets. Begin- ning with data that is impor- tant to the public has made the platform more successful, as this is the type of informa- tion that most directly impacts Data.seattle.gov the citizens of Seattle.
    • 35. STATEOFGISWhile the information has data.cityofchicago.orgbeen accessible via Seattle’swebsite for several years, join-ing cities.data.gov has beenan exciting opportunity forthe city. As D’Anne Mount ofthe Seattle Department of In-formation Technology wroteto the Seattle Weekly, joiningdata.gov “Increases awarenessand visibility of available datastreams to a broader audience.It also provides a centralizedrepository for developers andcitizens to find data withoutneeding to visit individualsites”. Though cities.data.govbegan with just four cities, as nipulate and interpret these cago’s Crime Mapsof now there are, in total, fif- datasets, providing a contextteen cities that have joined the for the data will allow more With almost 2,000 data feedsmovement. citizens to utilize the informa- on their site, data.cityofchi- tion. GIS visualization puts cago.org, the City of Chicago,The City of Seattle, as well as data into a visual context, al- Illinois, has made an incrediblethe fourteen other cities with lowing users to view informa- effort to improve transparencysimilar initiatives, has shown tion in a format with which for residents. Building uponhow data can be empowering they are familiar. A significant that progress, in addition toand create a more dynamic amount of data has a geospa- the incredible number of data-and engaged citizenry. High tial element, and organizing sets provided, the city has alsovalue, authoritative data is es- information geographically is offered context for using GISsential to any GIS initiative; in more intuitive for viewers. software. Datasets on fire sta-order to encourage the devel- tions, street closure permits,opment of web applications Mapping data can dramatical- bike racks, and many more,and other innovative online ly improve transparency and have been overlaid on citytools, cities need to provide a accountability across all levels maps to allow users to easilydata platform for developers. of government. Public works, view and interpret the infor- public safety, parks and recre- mation. ation, and other areas acrossStep 2: Push Data to Citi- federal, state, and local gov- The City of Chicago’s Policezens ernment provide services to Department has made de- citizens. Pushing data to citi- tailed information on reportedMaking datasets open to the zens in formats they can easily incidents of crime available onpublic is a necessary first step view and understand increases the data site. This informationin facilitating greater citizen citizen engagement with pub- is presented in a spreadsheetengagement. While data ana- lic agencies and their missions. with thousands of rows, eachlysts and programmers may representing a unique crime.have the ability to readily ma- GIS In Focus: Chi- Viewing the crime spread-
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE 36. of data has allowed them tostat.chesapeakebay.net create applications that can analyze and display informa- tion in useful and meaningful new ways. There are countless examples of citizen-made ap- plications that analyze public datasets to address issues im- portant to the community. GIS In Focus: Chesa- peake Bay Restoration The restoration of Chesa- peake Bay is an incredibly im- portant issue for residents of Maryland, one that has been a huge focus during Governor O’Malley’s tenure. During this time, ChesapeakeStat was cre- ated to increase transparency sheet does not readily increase Step 3: Allow Citizen and accountability for the transparency of crime in the Analysis project. The application utiliz- city, but overlaying the data es GIS to allow the public, Con- on a map of the city dramati- Once data is mapped, citizens gress, other restoration stake- cally enhanced the utility of are able to engage with these holders, and project managers the information. maps to understand initiatives to track the project through and see how government is completion. It provides data The mapped crime data allows serving them. Through view- on the program’s progress, users to easily view incidents ing the data and identifying current status, and the fund- by neighborhood, all through- trends, citizens can evaluate ing that has been allocated to out the metropolitan area. It the impact of new programs the program. easily allows viewers to see and policies. This step is clear- crime density in each of these ly the most beneficial in allow- The program allows users to areas. Zooming in on a particu- ing citizens to see what their zoom into various areas to lo- lar neighborhood, viewers can government is doing for them. cate restoration activities ex- look street by street at each Looking to the future, they are amining smaller watershed incident, with each incident also able to access better in- and viewing activity in specific represented by a blue point. formation for evaluating and areas. It is the first effort of its Clicking on these points pro- voting on local bond levies, kind that improves account- vides the additional data from propositions, and other issues. ability for all partners in Ches- the original crime dataset, in- apeake Bay restoration effort. cluding location, time, type of Additionally, for citizen devel- It utilizes multiple datasets to incident, and other pertinent opers and programmers, the display funding streams from information. advancement of government each fiscal year and how they APIs allowing for easy mining will be used; there is also a da- tabase that details restoration
    • 37. STATEOFGISactivities, spending to date, The ability to map data collect- across the country as a result.and the project’s current sta- ed from social media sites alsotus. gives government the abil- GIS In Focus: Mont- ity to solicit citizen input from gomery County, Mary-The program organizes data where they’re naturally going landaround the five goal areas of online.sustainable fisheries, healthy In Montgomery County, Mary-habitats, water quality, healthy Through web and mobile land, forest conservation ease-watersheds, and Chesapeake apps, citizens can report many ments – legal agreementsstewardship. For each catego- different types of information, that limit activities to protectry, there are a suite of environ- including easement violations. forests – protect almost 10mental and performance indi- Using geocoding data, map- percent of the county’s for-cators that allow the public to ping these data points allows ests. These easements werebetter judge the effectiveness agencies to visualize and make previously monitored usingof the effort. sense of the data and respond individual paper maps; com- to issues. Government adop- municating information andThe ChesapeakeStat Program tion of applications that create monitoring the condition ofis an exemplar for the poten- a citizen feedback loop have easements was almost impos-tial of GIS software to allow legitimized and promoted sible for the county.citizen analysis. Not only pro- their use. Citizen participationviding layers of high value, in data collection has become After building a geodatabasemapped information, but also more prevalent in many cities that included the locations ofpresenting clear metrics foranalysis, contribute to citizenanalysis of an important stateinitiative. Moving forward,there are clear applications forprograms across the countryto increase public transparen-cy and accountability.Step 4: Create a CitizenFeedback LoopBeyond providing access todata and allowing citizen anal-ysis, the advancement of mo-bile technology has allowedcitizens to meaningfully par-ticipate in the collection ofdata. The innovation of crowd-sourcing applications, whichsolicit citizen input, have bothincreased citizen engagementand have led to realized costsavings for local governments. montgomeryplanning.org
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE38. easements, individual require- ments, and the condition of each land parcel, they were able to better analyze and manage the forests, as well as provide public access to the information for the first time. Additionally, they created a feedback loop for citizens to report easement violations. Seeing the success of this pro- gram, other departments have created similar programs to further their missions. Appli- cations for tracking park en- croachment and an interactive ci.glendale.ca.us map for historic preservation are just two examples of how this success was translated requests. into new opportunities for citi- As data becomes validated, it zen engagement. will be most effective when in- The system enables citizens to corporated into agency work- use the most common smart- Step 5: Update Authorita- flows. For example, validated phones to easily report issues tive Data public works requests could in their community, including be directly integrated with graffiti, potholes, and broken “Validating or debunking current operating systems to streetlights. Using geocoded preconceived notions about decrease response times. Us- data from smartphones, the where City services are needs ing this feedback to create up- application allows citizens to or where our infrastructure to-date workflows improves photograph and categorize conditions are poor. Just be- performance and increases ef- the problem, add any addi- cause people think they know ficiency. tional comments, and submit doesn’t mean it’s right.” the notification with a GPS lo- GIS In Focus: City cation for the service request. Once a citizen feedback loop of Glendale, Califor- is in place, government agen- nia The information provided by cies can utilize different each citizen is mapped and methods for validating this The City of Glendale, California, publicly available. Addition- crowdsourced data. By pho- was one of the first jurisdic- ally, the status of the issue is tographing violations, agen- tions to adopt a cloud-based also publicly maintained. This cies can visualize the issue and citizen reporting platform, al- open dataset incorporates the appropriately respond. Data lowing the public to become first three steps of the citizen can also be validated in crowd- involved in maintaining their engagement process, allow- sourced applications through community. The program not ing for open, high value data multiple reports of the same only improves public involve- that is mapped and available issue. ment, but it also streamlines for citizen analysis. Citizens and automates public service can also directly contribute to
    • Citizen 39. STATEOFGIS Developersthe dataset by utilizing the ap- agency is deciding how bestplication to report new issues to tackle the first step, or hasthat need to be addressed. effectively implemented a feedback loop for citizen en-Once reported, the applica- gagement, the innovationstion updates the existing cus- possible through GIS providetomer service request system the opportunity to continuwith this new data to ensure a ously improve. These steps can Apptimely response. As the issues help your agency conceptu-are resolved, that information alize a path forward, provid- Challengeis also visible to citizens. Pro- ing a framework for thinkingviding a transparent citizen through how best to engagefeedback loop integrated with citizens in your agency’s mis-public workflows allow citi- sion. Whether your agency’szens to engage with the main- central mission is emergencytenance of their community. response, crime prevention, The City of Seattle, Washing- environmental planning and ton State’s Broadband Of-Step 6: Increase Opera- protection, or confronting fice and King County have poverty, malnutrition and lack launched the joint initiative,tional Awareness the Evergreen Apps Chal- of housing, you can use GIS technology to achieve a more lenge, to produce sustainableThe mapping of authoritative informed and engaged citi- applications using govern-government data and crowd- zenry. ment data to serve the com-sourced data provides better munity.visibility into communitiesand a more robust operatingpicture for agencies. Clearly,the increasing collaboration The goals of thebetween public agencies andcitizens allows for a more ef- Competition are to:fective and responsive gover-nance. 1) To stimulate the development of applications that improve access to information, government services and governmentProviding services to the pub- transparency, making it easier and more fun to visit, live and worklic is the most important goal in Washington.of government, and throughopening public data, solicit- 2) To stimulate economic development by encouraging inno-ing citizen analysis and feed- vation and the creation of new intellectual property with com-back, and building systems to mercial potential by individuals, startups and small organizations.increase responsiveness, theseservices are dramatically im-proved. The key platform forthese improvements in datasharing and collection is GIStechnology.Regardless of whether your
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE40. { IN FOCUS Participants in the survey were asked to share what { their greatest challenge implementing GIS.... One interesting discussion that arose Training was a common answer from re- from the survey was on software spondents, as another respondent stated, licenses. In many areas of govern- “Human Resources, the people are the lim- ment, license sharing for software iting factor on the use of the technology is a challenge. Two respsones are and the data that makes the technology essentially at odds, as on respon- useful.” dent stated, “The biggest challenge is decentralized offices, data shar- There was also a significant contribution ing and need more license.” Another of answers regarding regulation. Respon- respondent stated, “If someone else dents stated, “My fellow colleagues would answers this question saying that we say lack of data management highly incor- need more software licenses then porated in our business models along with that should put up a red flag. It isn’t lack of funding. Although I think this has about the software, it’s about the merit, the response to first question clearly people.” The respondent continued identifies where the root cause of problem to state that there is a dire need for lies. It is lack of clear authority for all gov- more properly trained GIS officials, ernment agencies and private industry to and easier access to products. follow. Certain of my conservative friends would disagree, but, GIS needs to be regu- lated much more.”
    • 41. STATEOFGISFurther, a respondent identified the need tostandardize information, “Standardize infor-mation, get people involved in the cultureof sharing the information and having theircontractors collect and send standardizedinfo.” Likewise, a respondent mentioned theneed to collaborate in decentralized envi-ronment, stating, “Collaboration on corpo-rate and business specific datasets across avast decentralized organization.” A final response from a survey partici- pant provides some great insights to it hard for us to have an enterprise GIS; some of the challenges being faced by DOI geospatial and IT policies are in GIS officials. “I can list several key chal- flux; GIS software products are updat- lenges: we have a complex mission with ed before we can learn the potential of a huge number of programs and a huge the last version; we don’t have enough range and number of data sets; we have in-house system administrators to not developed data standards for all maintain any GIS viewers/applications mission-critical data (and therefore it is we develop. It’s therefore difficult to not collected and catalogued uniformly show the value of GIS historically and making it hard to create national GIS); currently to our agency (hard to tell pressure to reduce costs and reduce clear stories to non-technical/non GIS data centers in Federal agencies makes experts).” Be sure to visit GovLoop, as we will be highlighting some of these challenges, and working to find solutions from the GovLoop community.
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE42. GIS RESOURCES Below you can find further resources, case studies, and information about GIS from GovLoop and Esri. GovLoop Blogs • Top 10 Benefits of GIS • GIS - Not Just for Programmers or Tech Savvy • Cloud and GIS: A Perfect Match for Collaboration • Using GIS During an Emergency • Local Governments Increase Transparency Through GIS Technology Esri Resources • Top 5 Benefits of GIS • What Can You Do with GIS? • The Geographic Approach • GIS Glossary • Esri Publications • Map Gallery Federal Government Case Studies • Mobile Application Illustrates US Recovery Projects • Elevating Maps into the Clouds • Climate Change Scenario Planning for Cape Cod • US Forest Service Sees Regional Horizons • Insuring America’s Farmland • NOAA Geoportal Speeds Data Discovery at National Climatic Data Center • eCoastal Program Fosters an Enterprise Approach to Data Management • Recovery.gov Rapidly Evolves • The US Green Building Council’s Gateway to Green Building • Chesapeake Bay Restoration Made Transparent • National Park Service Follows the Modern Lewis and Clark Trail • Geoenabling Federal Business Processes State Government • Keeping Traffic Moving during Bridge Repair Project • ELA Supports Maryland’s Nationally Recognized Program • How Disaster Ready Are You? • How Do You Warn 19 Million People at the Drop of a Hat? • Paul Tessar Is the Johnny Appleseeed of GIS Local Governments • Collaboration Is Easier in Sussex County, New Jersey
    • 43. STATEOFGIS• King County Documents ROI of GIS• Dealing with Rapid Growth and Program Compliance• Small Scripts, Big ROI• Local Officials Ride the Wave of Baby Boomers• Automating Street Sign Maintenance in St. Johns County• Philadelphia Uses Robotics and GIS to Map Below Market Street• City of Las Vegas Implements ParkPAD for Mobile Asset Management• Preparing for a Vibrant Future in the Township of Langley• Modeling Walkability• City of Woodland Refines Water Crew Dispatch• Code for America Drives More Efficient City Government• Mobile GIS Improves Code Enforcement Services in McAllen, Texas• Port of Los Angeles Unifies Operations with Data Portal
    • THEGOVLOOPGUIDE44. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Identifying the Promise of GIS for Government where he is pursuing a Masters of Public Policy was written by Pat Fiorenza, Lindsey Tepe and at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute. Steve Cottle. Design of the guide was done by Prior to his time at GovLoop and Georgetown, Jeff Ribeira and Cat Robinson. Thank you to Steve spent nearly five years as a federal strat- everyone in the GovLoop community for their egy and operations consultant, supporting contribution to this guide. clients throughout the Department of Home- land Security and serving as a fellow in a think Pat Fiorenza, GovLoop Research Analyst tank for public sector innovation. Pat is currently a Research Analyst at Gov- Jeff Ribeira, GovLoop Content and Community Loop. Through the creation of blogs, research Coordinator reports, guides, in-person, and online events, Pat helps to identify and find best practices Jeff is the Content and Community Coordina- to share with the GovLoop community. Pat tor at GovLoop and manages all creative and received his Masters of Public Administration technical development projects. He gradu- degree from the Maxwell School of Citizenship ated from Brigham Young University where he and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. studied Russian, Middle Eastern Studies/Ara- bic, and International Development. Lindsey Tepe, GovLoop Graduate Fellow Lindsey is currently a Fellow at GovLoop. In Cat Robinson, GovLoop Design Fellow this role, Lindsey assists with the development of content creation. This includes writing of Cat is currently a Design Fellow at GovLoop. blogs, research reports and facilitating com- She received her Masters in Art Therapy from munity engagement on GovLoop. Lindsey the George Washington University in 2010. received her Masters of Public Administration She began her career in graphic design with from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and the Arcadia Center for Sustainable Food and Public Affairs at Syracuse and is a former Teach Agriculture and now designs for Govloop. She for America Fellow. is interested in effective visual communication for worthy causes. Steve Cottle, GovLoop Graduate Fellow Steve is currently a Graduate Fellow at Gov- Loop and a student at Georgetown University,
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