The Social Metropolis

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The Social Metropolis

  1. 1. Technology as the facilitator 27 The anarchistic model: AltaVista 27 The democratic model: Google 27 The social model: Facebook 28 Page Summary 30Part one:The Social Metropolis S Part two: CPrologue 07 Social Citizen ActivationIntroduction 10 Introduction 36Democratization of information 11 Engaging the social citizen 37User evolution and the rise of social media 12 Adjusting to the social media space 41Pool of wisdom and power of diversity 15 The content tipping point 43How to leverage social media 15 Relevance is everything 43“I am social, therefore I am” 17 Getting the content right 44Making Waves 19 Content planning 45The Attention Economy 20 An approach to content rating 47The DNA of the attention economy 20 Distribution - we are not born equal 47Attention creating content 25 Getting it out there 48
  2. 2. Engagement replaces interruption 50 How big seed marketing fits ... 87Behavioral targeting: Changing consumer expectations 87the new way of segmenting your audience 51 Fit the formats 87The facts 51 You don’t need to reach millions 88Activation planning 55 Reach does not equal effect 88An approach to activation planning 58 The conversation is happening! 91Users and money move online 58 Always on: Cover all touch points 92Consumers rely on peers 60 The city never sleeps 92Attention planning aside from 62 The all-important entry point 95An approach to attention planning 69 Help the user decide what to buy 98From attention scarcity to engaged users 69 Reviews, listings and comparisons 98Summary 70 Make buying easy 101 Deliver outstanding environments ... 101Part three B Encourage community building 102Digital Brand Activation Summary 105Introduction 76Big Seed Marketing 77 final Part rNo free lunch 79 The Roadmap 111Two types of spread - they both count 82 Digital Brand Activation 111Shareability and momentum are key factors 84 Feel at home in the social metropolis 115
  3. 3. credit pHoto creDit istock.com + tommy rasmussenWritten by Jimmy MaymannEdited by : Thomas RolstedContributions : Mads Holmen / Dea EngbergIllustrations: Piotre Bromblik, Malene Bentzen, Pernille Hegn-sholt, Adam LønborgResearch by : Barfod, Bentzen, Blum, Busch, Cervera, Egeberg,Hegnsholt, Hiller, Hjort, Johansson, Knudsen, Lassen, Lønborg,Mariager, Mencák, Moseholm, Møgelmose, Möller, Ognibeni, Olrik,Olsen, Roznouski, Thestrup, Sonne, Wittmann and support fromthe rest of the GoViral team.Design and Art Direction by :Tommy Rasmussen // www.smussen.comThis publication can freely, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent,resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’sprior consent in any form. All parts of this publication may be re-produced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, record-ing, scanning, or otherwise, without the prior written permission ofthe Publisher. Just specify the source, please.Every possible care has been taken to ensure that the informa-tion given in this publication is accurate. The publishers cannotaccept any responsibility for any loss caused.PuBLiSHED in Eu, 2008By GoViralCopyright ©GoViral ApS
  4. 4. 07 Prologue Our aim, therefore, is to offer you a guide, based on collated information, facts and insights that will provide a sense of where to start and which direc- it has been a year since we published the tion to take, once you have chosen to enter the city statement “Welcome to the Media youcracy, Good- gates.bye to Media Feudalism”. A statement, because it So, it’s an invitation – to the new world, the big-wasn’t exactly a book but more a contribution to gest event on the block, or whatever terms best de-clarify what was going on in the media landscape scribes it – helping you to free your mind and soul. and offer a framework of how, as a marketing pro- now this sounds grand indeed. but we don’t expect fessional, you could navigate it and understand the you to experience some sort of epiphany, instead impact of the changes being seen. our humble hope is that you will become inspired to ditch the old way of doing things and harness the A year has passed, and the picture has only got new means of dealing with, and understanding, the more complex, which is why we felt a need for this changes taking place around you. book. if you were ever unsure as to whether the use of social media might just be a passing indulgence, So fasten your seatbelt and get ready to join us on blown out of all proportion, the developments over a twisting journey through this maze-like city envi-the past year should leave you assured that social ronment that is forever expanding and re-shaping media are not going away anytime soon – in fact, with new hotspots popping up on every corner.the rollercoaster ride has just begun. in writing this book, it has been interesting to dive into the myriad of alleys that make up the social the Social Metropolis - the metaphor of this book metropolis, and we hope you will enjoy what you - is a fast developing scene comparable to booming find.cities like Shanghai and Dubai. it is an intangible hub of all kinds of things to see and do, places to go, Jimmy Maymann people to meet, ways to communicate, and what- Chief Executive Officerever it takes to satisfy your soul.
  5. 5. the SocialMetroPoliSSiloPorteMlaicoSeht
  6. 6. Sintroduction in this part we Will lOOk Welcome to the Social Metropolis: a fic- intO the tive, yet highly realistic, city in constant flux. the FOllOWinG: citizens, the buildings, the landmarks, and the laws of the city are changing all the time. the Social Me- tropolis therefore presents the perfect picture of Democratization of information the shifting media landscape that we must navigate whether we are brand owners, consumers, or mar- keting professionals. user evolution and the rise of social mass media by visiting the Social Metropolis you will learn about the evolution of people, media, and tech- The attention economy nology. in addition, you will gain insights into the trends that are shaping the future, understand the key challenges, and tackle issues that so far have Technology as a facilitator gone unaddressed. in short, you will learn how to navigate the Social Metropolis.
  7. 7. S deMocratization of inforMation uSer evolution and the riSe of Social MaSS Media the attention econoMy technology aS a facilitatorDeMOcrAtizAtiOn OF inFOrMAtiOn Google’s ceO eric Schmidt once said: “The Internet “Media companies don’t control the conversation the old model is broken - a new one is only slowly is the first thing that humanity has built that humanity any more” taking shape. Over the past decades, companies doesn’t understand, the largest experiment in anarchy rupert murDocH, cHairman, newscorp have become used to defining their message, shap-that we have ever had.” Words like these underline ing their brand, and having complete control over why it is impossible to put an exact label on the the channels of communication. radical changes the internet represents. now they are losing it. the internet, with all its free services, provides tools however, one of the significant changes in mass for everyone to be heard. nobody needs to know a media has been the shift from Media Feudalism to thing about htMl coding, or pay for web hosting “Digital Media has leveled the playing field,Media youcracy - a democracy focused on “you”, the to use the internet as their platform. the masses opening doors for anyone to have immediateindividual, and consumer. it saw the rise and fall of have been given a voice, and this is a change so pro- and unlimited access to an audience.the media industry as we knew it, an industry that found that marketers can find it hard to cope. But content must evolve with the platform”had built its power on the ability to broadcast the mark peDowitz, presiDent, aBc stuDiossame message to a vast audience in a cost-effective in reality, the internet and digital technologies driv-way. ing this reform are merely vehicles of a change that has been underway for a long time. While society What happens when information becomes social but, the paradigm shift in media consumption pat- over the past 40 years has lived through the most and more than one billion internet users add their terns, and the rise of new technologies, have added rapid media revolution ever, the marketing model contributions and creativity to the media land-a whole new level of complexity for the lords and of mass media has largely stayed the same. scape?kings of that old, feudal society. in Media youcracy information has been democratized, empowering the result is a genuine mismatch between a media this is one of the key questions that marketers all individuals to share, publish, sort, filter, pick, and marketing experienced public, and a market- struggle with today, and part of the answer is that choose, and create their own media feeds. ing/advertising industry that, generally speaking, the passive consumer has become an active user. have been delivering the same product since the Products, brands, and services are now chosen on 1970s. imagine if Ford or Sony did the same...? the basis of their online presence. 11
  8. 8. SdeMocratization of inforMation uSer evolution and the riSe of Social MaSS Media the attention econoMy technology aS a facilitator i USer evOlUtiOn AnD the riSe OF SOciAl MASS MeDiA What happens when information becomes social brands must learn that social media activity is a Users are increasingly turning to the web when and more than one billion internet users add their trading game. the users’ currency is attention. choosing products, brands, and services, and sub- contributions and creativity to the media land- this can be traded for values, information, and en- sequently engage more heavily with their peers in scape? tertainment amongst others. but like any other me- sharing and discussing online. brands and prod- dia format, unless brands learn the game quickly, ucts are a natural part of these conversations - as this is one of the key questions that marketers some will misinterpret such social media with dis- they are in our daily lives – but as the need for rec- struggle with today, and part of the answer is that appointing results as the likely outcome. there is, ommendation increases, the impact of advertising the passive consumer has become an active user. therefore, a strong need for intelligent social media diminishes. Products, brands, and services are now chosen on solutions that connect with users and deliver rOi. the basis of their online presence. For example, brand widgets and sponsored pages indeed one of the fastest growing areas of this on Facebook offer real opportunities for brands online presence is social media - the new “big the GenerAl who can create groups and content platforms to en- thing” and the word on everyone’s lips. Facebook, chAllenGe: gage users in a dialogue as opposed to delivering MySpace, Flickr, youtube, Del.icio.us, and twitter, traditional advertising. are just a few of the many social networking sites Marketing in general has not kept up with the radi- where the active consumer interacts. Add to this cal changes that are afoot in media. Users often ex- bUt “the SOciAl GlUe” all the blogs and forums and you have what former pect more than we are offering them. Still neeDS tO be ADDeD. Microsoft technical evangelist robert Scoble calls “the Social Media Starfish.” remember that social media users interact to find the GenerAl friendship, and friendship requires that you have the starfish will grow many new arms over the DiAGnOSiS: something interesting to bring to the conversation, years to come. While this development might take that you show respect, and that you don’t spam its toll on media companies that don’t adapt, it’s a From traditional content and commercial advertis- them. A friend remembers you and what you stand wonderful opportunity for those that do to engage ing (Push) over value adding content & interactivity for. with the user in the social media arena. but they (Pull) to contextuality and relevance (Participation) brands must do the same. first need to know how to play this new game.
  9. 9. Photos Vid s g e Blo osPe rso ive Ne nal rat two So bo ls lla o rks cial Co ToMMicroblogs CONVERSIONS Email Ev S en ts SM Social Networks White Label dio W iki Au s SOURCE: ROBERT SCOBLE - IMPROVED BY DARREN BAREFOOT
  10. 10. PUSH PULL PARTICIPATION
  11. 11. S 15 Social media can be defined as the democratization hOW tO leverAGe of information. the social media revolution has al- SOciAl MeDiA lowed users to change from simply being content readers to being publishers as well. For marketers Successful campaigns are often turning the roles One of the reasons that brands find it it represents a fundamental shift from a broadcast upside down. the illusion of control needs to be hard to influence social media is because the flaw mechanism towards a many-to-many model rooted replaced by an understanding of the need to pro-of classic marketing tells us to complete our com- in new conversations and interactions between pro- vide flexible scenarios of perception. For a better munication, brand value and experiences, before fessional publishers, people and their peers outcome, give your audience credit for their intelli-we launch the product. We still believe that with gence, invite them in, and let them use you in their good marketing we can determine the outcome of Social media can also be described as the “wisdom identity project. in short, bond with your target communication just by dictating the content. of crowds” where pieces of information are con- groups – you probably need them more than they the reality, of course, is how the message is per- nected in a collaborative manner. need you. by focusing on crafting and promoting ceived as that is an important part of the commu- advertising messages, marketing in the social me-nication. it takes an audience to communicate, and in his book the Wisdom of crowds: Why the Many dia world is about shaping phenomena and experi-with marketers demanding control they often shut Are Smarter than the Few, author James Surow- ences in people’s lives.themselves off. iecki argues that a group’s collective decisions are consistently better than individual decisions made With their campaign for the Fiat 500, Fiat under- by any single member of the group. Another core stood how to capitalize on these human traits be-POOl OF WiSDOM AnD argument is that the more diversified a group is in fore the term ‘social media’ was even coined.POWer OF DiverSity terms of sex, age, background, and preferences etc., the better it will be at collectively making the right even though the past year has been very, very choices. An organization that embraces people much centred around Facebook, we need to look from all walks of life with different backgrounds, at the overall picture. Social networking groups are tastes, and views, is likely to be more courageous emerging all over the web, with Facebook and the and innovative when all those views are pooled, likes merely the tip of the iceberg. Strong commu- than a like-minded group of people. nities have grown around big video sites like Meta- Surowiecki’s arguments suggests that seeking an cafe and youtube while ning now powers more expert’s sole answer or opinion is rarely the best than 230,000 user driven social networks. way to find the optimum solution.
  12. 12. WoMEN loVES THE FIAT 500cASe StUDy: Fiat 500social marketing before the era of social mediaWhen launching the Fiat 500, Fiat created a website Moreover, the “500 Jingle video box” let users cre- by activating female views in the collective project that allowed users to gather around a common in- ate their own soundtrack for the site which could be of the Fiat 500, Fiat successfully removed potential terest – cars. Fiat created multiple applications and tailored in terms of layout and design to each user’s barriers to the purchase decision by transforming functions on the site where users could customize personal taste. Finally, the 500-ology was an online this choice to a collective process.and configure different elements of the car, and the encyclopedia where users were invited to free their website. they thus created an initial sense of per- imagination and share their hopes and dreams for Fundamentally, Fiat built a platform that invited sonalization on the website and built strong rela- the car. and empowered users to actually contribute to tions with the car. the content generation process, to share their own this empowerment of the users in a collective sto- thoughts, and to discover what other users felt. this Users were invited to join a creative laboratory rytelling process proved to be a very convincing and resulted in a strong ‘community feel’ that tapped and send in their own contributions for how the powerful tool. Obviously the platform appealed to into the essential group dynamics of social media car should look. competitions on the best bumper men with a profound interest in cars. however, Fiat marketing, long before the phenomenon took off.sticker and ad campaign were created and video also wanted to integrate another key segment – the configurations of the car allowed users to person- women who are often the gatekeepers to the deci-ally design their own special edition. Similarly, an sion of purchasing a new car. Fiat´s success was built on creative, original think-“Air Drive championship” made users compete for ing. instead of regarding potential customers as best performance, by driving an imaginary Fiat 500 Fiat therefore decided to invite new mothers to con- easy prey for the marketing department, they ben-and uploading and sharing their videos. tribute and share photos and details of their new- efited by inviting users to participate. borns, as well as to enter a lottery for winning the car.
  13. 13. S 17 the 500 has enjoyed phenomenal sales engaging in online social media networks, posting doing when we listen to a joke? Trying to memorize itsuccess so far. Within 3 weeks of the 500’s launch comments to friends, uploading pictures from the so that we can bring it somewhere else. The joke itself isthe entire years production of 58,000 had been sold latest holiday, or passing on a funny video, are all social currency.out. to date, Fiat has received more than 80,000 activities that make sure we stay in the loop. in es- “Invite Harry. He tells good jokes. He’s the life of theorders for the 500. 40,000 have been sold. While sence, social media have become part of the social party.”italy obviously has been the 500’s main market, (in glue, where we use them to relate to others and stay October 2007, some 9000 cars have been sold in up to date. Think of this the next time you curse that onslaught ofitaly, making it the 3rd bestselling car there) the We are all exposed to an endless number of com- email jokes cluttering up your inbox. The senders think500 is gaining a strong following in many coun- mercial messages everyday but few of them are they’ve given you a gift, but all they really want is an ex-tries. Fiat France had received more than 10,000 likely to stay in our minds. So the challenge by cuse to interact with you. If the joke is good enough, thisorders by the end of October 2007. brand owners is not merely to get their commer- means the currency is valuable enough to earn them aWith Fiat planning to release the 500 soon in many cials viewed by a given number of people, but also response.other countries demand is likely to increase fur- to get people intrigued and involved. it’s about the ther. to cope with this demand Fiat has announced depth of the relationship rather than shallow quan- That’s why the most successful TV shows, web sites,that production has been increased to 200,000 tities. how deep is your love? As a brand owner, and music recordings are generally the ones that offerin 2008. by 2010 production is likely to break the what do you do to make content that is compelling, the most valuable forms of social currency to their fans.350,000 barrier. inviting and persuading enough for users to give Sometimes, like with mainstream media, the value is its up some of their time to interact with the content? universality. In the US right now, the quiz show ‘Who“i AM SOciAl Wants to be a Millionaire?’ is enjoying tremendous rat- thereFOre i AM” Studies show that people are more willing to engage ings because it gives its viewers something to talk about with commercial content within the confinements with one another the next day. It’s a form of mass spec- of social networking sites, as long as the content tacle. And, not coincidentally, what is the object of thePeople are social beings. they like to share and in- has some distinct value that enhances the identity game? To demonstrate one’s facility with a variety ofteract, and take pleasure in putting foward their own and overall online experience. forms of social currency! Contestants who can answerreports, opinions and information into the world. a long stream of questions about everything from sportsthe act of publishing and passing on content is, in “Social currency is like a good joke. When and movies to science and history, are rewarded with aitself, a sort of statement. it’s the beginning of a a bunch of friends sit around and tell jokes, what are million dollars. They are social currency champions.”dialogue, a blurb about oneself and one’s world. they really doing? Entertaining one another? Sure, for Douglas rusHkoffthis is why forms of social media are such a suc- a start. But they are also using content -- mostly un- autHor of ‘open source Democracy’ anD more.cess - they cover a basic need to communicate and original content that they’ve heard elsewhere -- in orderengage with people. to lubricate a social occasion. And what are most of us
  14. 14. S ray ban certainly understood how to create this together with creative agency cutwater, ray-ban social currency with their ‘never hide’ campaign, developed an incredibly successful viral catch with which got people blogging, chatting and engaging an obvious connection to the ray-ban brand, apart with the brand. from the glasses used. this was left to consumers to actively seek and find out. the video clip is a story about two guys, one of whom seems to have a cASe StUDy: special ability to catch sunglasses with his own face. the clip shows the pair performing entertaining Ray-Ban - ‘never Hide’ stunts to see how far they can take this talent and in order to spread awareness globally, the content was With their ‘never hide’ campaign ray-ban aimed seeded on relevant video sites. to promote the individuality their sunglasses gave people, rather than the ability to hide behind then. When the clip was posted on youtube, it generated the campaign cleverly used an innovative mix of more than 1.7 million hits during the first week. media ranging from cinema, print, outdoor, inter- it then spread to Facebook where users became net, and user generated media. “fans” of the video. break.com also reported well over 1 million hits, and the video has so far been viewed more than 15 million times. Users were en- gaged online and began interacting with other fans of ray-ban, letting the brand become integrated in user conversations. in March 2007, the campaign was made into an offline experience where 12 images, taken by mem- bers of the public, were projected in times Square, nyc. ray-ban then allowed users to display pho- tos of themselves in a user gallery on www.rayban. com. ray-Ban´s catcHing stunts
  15. 15. S 19 cASe StUDy: by December 2007 cadbury reported a 5% growth Cadbury’s - the gorilla ad in sales. Whether there is a long-term effect re-MAkinG WAWeS mains to be seen, and this also applies to the effect of the latest cadbury ad featuring a track by former considering Surowicki’s notion of the wisdom of in late August/September 2007, a new tv ad for rock icons, Queen. however, more importantly, the crowd, social media is not only a collective voice the british chocolate brand, cadbury, was launched the gorilla ad stood the test of “social proof”. the of many individuals, but also a diversified pool of and spread to the internet in a matter of days. more people who saw it and talked about it, the ideas. compared to traditional media, the funda- the ad featured a gorilla playing the drums to the more likely those who had not were prone to see it. mental difference with social media is that at the soundtrack of Phil collins’ 1981 hit ‘in the Air to- Surely, with so many people having seen it, it must heart of it lies the opportunity for users to pool their night.’ it got everyone talking: Some liked it, some be something spectacular.interactions and views, and thereby create waves or disliked it, some discussed the connection between common trends. thus, with social media, any piece the gorilla, Phil collins and chocolate, while others of content can become common knowledge in next were wondering whether it was in fact a real gorilla to no time. or a man in a gorilla suit – perhaps even Mr. col- lins himself. One comment on a website noted that there were probably more people who had mentioned “cad- bury” over the past few months than altogether over the past 10-15 years. in the Uk, the ad was listed as the most popular tv ad of 2007, the most success- caDBury´s gorilla music ful viral video of 2007 and, judging by the number of posts on a few randomly chosen blogs, the most debated ad for 2007 if not for several years. this piece of branded content captivated the hearts of the british nation and “the gorilla ad” is synonymous with “cadbury’s gorilla ad” with no need to men- tion the brand name. it had gone from the specific, individual level, to a level of common knowledge.
  16. 16. SdeMocratization of inforMation uSer evolution and the riSe of Social MaSS Media the attention econoMy technology aS a facilitator the AttentiOn When attention is a scarce resource, economic ad- “People in well off countries have more stuff than ecOnOMy vantage flows to the marketers best able at directing they know what to do with,” says Michael h. Gold- attention to the right spot, at the right time, and haber, author of The Attention Economy: The Natural the democratization of information and media in the most efficient way. the key is to reach users Economy of the Net. “if you see our current predica- has led to an information overload. For users it has through media that they can consume when they ment as a case of information overload, you have to never been more fun with an abundance of excit- want it, where they want it and how they want it - ask yourself why is that? if you turn it around, you ing things to do such as: using silly widgets on Fa- while at the same time ensuring that commercial see that the true item of scarcity, what’s really hard cebook, re-designing MySpace profiles, uploading messages don’t interfere with this but instead en- to get in modern life, is attention.” photos onto Flickr, filming a spoof of a karaoke hance the experience. Madonna-cover, watching Japanese potato-peeling Unfortunately, that is not how things are done at tricks, or checking out free games. the moment. A recent tv study from Accenture the DnA OF the For marketers, on the other hand, it is less fun as shows that people are fed up with the status quo AttentiOn ecOnOMy marketers feed off attention, using media that also and want us, as marketers, to challenge conven- feed off attention. in today’s media landscape, at- tions and apply new technology in order to get the herbert Simon was perhaps the first person to ar- tention is becoming the scarcest resource in the relevance back in the media mix. ticulate the concept of attention economics in 1971 value chain – but also the most vital strategically. when he wrote: in the attention economy, the lack of innovation ”Across consumer markets, attention is becoming the in marketing becomes a trap: incumbents throw “...in an information-rich world, the wealth of infor- scarcest - and so most strategically vital - resource in more and more dollars into branding and market- mation means a dearth of something else: A scar- the value chain. Attention scarcity is fundamentally ing through the traditional channels, and less and city of whatever it is that information consumes. reshaping the economics of most industries it touches; less dollars into production, development of new What information consumes is rather obvious: it beginning with the media industry.” formats, and exploration of new channels. in turn, consumes the attention of its recipients. hence, a umair Haque, each marketing dollar is chasing a smaller and wealth of information creates a poverty of atten- Blogger, www.BuBBlegeneration.com smaller return on attention just to keep margins tion and a need to allocate that attention efficiently constant. this is why tv and radio air time, along among the overabundance of information sources with magazine advertising space, have exploded in that might consume it.” the last 20 years despite a decline in the amount of Since then the term has grown ever more relevant, listeners, viewers and readers. particularly during the last few years with the explo- sion of media channels and a new form of commu- nication termed social media.
  17. 17. What conSuMerS diSlike about Watching ’live’ tv. COMBINED BRAZIL FRANCE GERMANY ITALY MEXICO SPAIN UK USCommercials 64% 50% 63% 57% 68% 49% 73% 65% 59%Can’t 40% 48% 38% 39% 37% 30% 47% 40% 36%rewindCan’t watch 38% 40% 37% 37% 35% 22% 50% 36% 30%when I wantContent not 13% 40% 14% 14% 8% 16% 17% 14% 11%appealingCan’t watch 8% 20% 8% 7% 12% 17% 10% 5% 6%away from homeCan’t 7% 29% 3% 5% 13% 11% 10% 4% 5%interactCan’t 7% 29% 4% 5% 11% 8% 12% 3% 3%rate SOURCE: ACCENTURE CONSUMER BROADCAST STUDY
  18. 18. COMPANIES OFFER SERVICES Alerts News Search ShoppingConsumer Attention Attention attention marketplace services
  19. 19. S 23 if we look at the DnA of the attention Goldhaber summarizes attention DnA in the fol- Why is all this relevant for us as marketers? it is economy, the premise is really best described as a lowing way: relevant because we have to accept that the world is marketplace where people are trading goods. One changing and that the democratization of informa-commodity being traded is attention, which is trad- “Attention can ground an economy because it is a fun- tion has led to information overload, leaving us in ed against an array of information services such as damental human desire and is intrinsically, unavoid- a situation where scarcity of attention is setting the podcasts, blogs, news, search engines, recommen- ably scarce. It can be a rich and complex economy be- agenda.dations, entertainment and more. news feeds illus- cause attention comes in many forms: love, recognition,trate the point well since they ask for consumers’ heeding, obedience, thoughtfulness, caring, praising, this has implications on how we work with content, attention in exchange for the opportunity to show watching over, attending to one’s desires, aiding, ad- distribute it, and get the users to engage with it. to-them advertising. Search engines also show ads vising, critical appraisal, assistance in developing new day, attention economists are primarily concerned (asking for attention) in exchange for helping users skills, et cetera. with the problem of getting consumers to consume find answers online (a service provided for free in A CEO managing his employees doesn’t want the kind advertising. but traditionally, advertisers have fol-exchange for that attention). of attention Paris Hilton seeks. There are also many lowed a model which suggests that consumers go ways to capture attention: via your thoughts, inven- through the linear AiDA model - Attention, inter- tions, self-revelations, expressions, performances, ar- est, Desire and Action. this is obviously a problem, tistic creations, achievements, pleas, and arresting ap- for if we don’t have their undivided attention today, pearances.” how can we get them into the AiDA funnel? So, attention is scarce, and the total amount per the niveA for Men campaign is a great example capita is strictly limited. to see why, consider your of how to steal the users’ attention and get them to own attention right now. it is fixed on these words. engage and spend invaluable time with the brand. no matter how brilliant at multitasking you are, you can’t be focusing on very much else. Ultimately, the attention economy is a zero-sum game - What one person gets, someone else is denied.
  20. 20. S cASe StUDy: the whole process – from the selection of the con- Nivea for Men: “kicken gegen die profis” testants, the training, and finally the football match – gained remarkable coverage in several media. not only was it featured in a fourpart reality tv show in early 2007, niveA for Men launched (in asso- aired on German sports channel DSF, it also creat- ciation with media agency, OMD Germany) a cam- ed a great deal of buzz on youtube, forums, blogs, paign with the slogan: “kicken gegen die Profis” and other social media, generating some 150,000 (“kicking against the pros”). niveA called on all Google hits, more than 70 million media contacts, men over the age of 18 to take part in a casting for a and about as many Pr contacts. football match against the professional team of the German premier league, hSv. For the application, So, why was “kicken gegen die Profis” so success- creativity was demanded, for in addition to a photo ful? the answer can be found at the bottom of the and a short statement as to why he should be a part campaign strategy: niveA didn’t prioritize the big HSV PlAYERS WITH NIVEA WINNERS of the niveA-team, every contestant could upload celebrities. instead, they gave everybody (within the a self-made promo video, depicting his skills, to an target group) the possibility to actively take part in especially created campaign site. the level of inter- a unique experience, withthe amateurs being in the est was immense: nearly 6,500 amateur footballers limelight. applied for the 15 vacant spots. the result: an exceedingly high potential for iden- the selection procedure took place in June, followed tification and thus an impressive level of interest by a three-day training camp and a big showdown and engagement. So even though the amateurs lost on July 7th: the match against the hSv (which, by their match against the pros, the campaign was a the way, ended with a respectable 2:7 for the ama- definite win for niveA. teurs).
  21. 21. S 25 ronalDinHo getting reaDy...AttentiOn creAtinG cOntentthis empowerment of the modern day consumer has confronted the traditional view of communi-cation and led consumers to realize that they are in full control. in other words, permission has be-come critical to marketers in order to convey their messages to the consumers. controlling how the message was perceived and recognized was an illu-sion - well preserved - but now gone. the consum-ers have set themselves free.For marketers, controlling the perception of con- the good news is that with the digitalization of nike knows how to create great viral videos. the old sumers is not an option. We can’t just show ads brands there are more opportunities than ever video of ronaldinho hitting the cross bar of a foot-on any old marketing channel, lean back and hope before. Accepting the idea of no control implies ball goal three times in a row continues to be one for the best. if it was tricky to engage consumers dynamics and flexibility. consumers are different of the most popular videos on youtube with over before, it just got worse. As a result, brands have and so are their interpretations and experiences 22,5 million viewings. Several other successful vid-to adapt and instead offer something of value in re- with a brand. in order to activate brands digitally eos have come from nike using star brand ambas-turn for consumer attention. and engage their audiences, marketers must shift sadors to make sure the video’s setting is truly viral to providing flexible scenarios of interpretation em- by making it so extraordinary that you ask yourself: “Now TV’s not special, it’s ubiquitous. And the images bedded with commercial messages. this will allow is that real or fake?on our TVs, mobiles and laptops may or may not ema- for consumers to engage with the content on their nate from a television company…”, own terms. PETER BAzAlGETTE FoRMER CHIEF CREATIVE oFFICER, ENDEMol
  22. 22. S the footage has also sparked plenty of questions from observers, some about safety, and others cASe StUDy: about the role of authenticity in brand positioning. Futhermore, it has inspired a handful of teenage Nike’s social media ’Slam dunk’ nike’s new “hyperdunk” – its lightest copycat videos which concerned safety advocates. basketball shoe ever - is currently getting a big but, for the most part, viewers seem to be pretty fas- boost from such marketing. the brand’s latest viral cinated with just how it was shot. nike, meanwhile, release has been on the web for a couple of months maintains that the video is completely safe. now and has already caused a significant viral ef- fect. it features lA lakers superstar, kobe bryant, “One of our goals at Nike is to always consider the attempting an outrageous jump over a moving As- safety of our athletes and others, and we wouldn’t want ton Martin.is it fake? Of course it is. bryant himself anyone to re-enact the clip. This was obviously done has described the clip in two words that say it all: with professional editing and something people prac- “that’s hollywood.” lA lakers would clearly not ticed and rehearsed. The beauty of a project like this is have been too pleased about having to cross their that people can watch it as much as they want and as fingers while their $20 million-a-year star jumped often as they want. And many of the kids we’re trying to over a racing car. but this act is done so well that a reach, live in this digital world.” good deal of people watching it will no doubt have keJuan wilkins, nike spokesperson. thought twice– if only briefly – before determining that, of course, it can’t be for real and forwarding it Of course, whether it will sell hyperdunks is yet koBe Bryant Jumping over a car ? to their mates to ask what they think. to be revealed. the shoe isn’t scheduled to hit U.S. stores until late July, but if you can put out a video the video has already gained over 5 million hits and get millions and millions of hits this should on youtube alone, and has spread to mainstream certainly help seed a new product launch. On top media and thousands of car, sports, and entertain- of this, there is great integration between the new ment sites. Another interesting fact is that nike light shoe and the creative material. the shoe is does not have misgivings about promoting other the basis for the story line and directly used in the brands within its own brand communication proc- clip, so the chances are that people will remember ess. this creates a stronger story by using known it and, in turn, go out and buy the shoe. global symbols.
  23. 23. S deMocratization of inforMation uSer evolution and the riSe of Social MaSS Media the attention econoMy technology aS a facilitator lets have a look at how three different technology the DeMOcrAtic MODel: technOlOGy AS companies have used three different approaches to GOOGle democratize the process of information gathering A FAcilitAtOr and sharing. the examples are interesting because information democracy is achieved by giving eve- they prove how a good understanding of the under- rybody a say in what’s important and then aggre-What we are seeing now with online social media lying technologies, and what they can do for your gating the results. in very short time, Google has is just the beginning. Many of the same people who marketing campaigns, can reshape the way we cre- become an integral part of even the simplest online developed the popular channels and sites of today, ate marketing campaigns. marketing plan. the main reason for the rise of have rolled up their sleeves, put on a lab coat, and Google is that the inventors were among the first to are busy adding features and new tools to give users understand the value of democratizing information the possibility to set up their own music and video the AnArchiStic MODel: on the internet.channels, social networking sites, and ways to team AltAviStAup on editorial projects. Google created a system that allows individual One of the pioneers on the internet, Altavista, built web pages to vote on the relative merit of a given the divide between the publishers and the public one of the first commercial listings on the internet web page. this is the cornerstone in the Pagerank is collapsing. technology is eating its way into the in a completely anarchistic way. Altavista present- system. relevance and importance are thus the publishers’ production capital, as all you need these ed all websites equally, underrating important web denominators that add more value than a generic days is a mobile phone and an internet connection. pages and overrating others, making it more diffi- web crawler which scans the internet and puts lists big money for big studios is a model devaluing fast- cult for people to navigate. together. From an advertising perspective, there’s a er than last months’ newest mobile handset. lot of value in this approach because it allows mar- the commercialization of this meant that users keters to get their message out in the right context, it is important to keep in mind that technology is ended up seeing banners in many different shapes thus raising the relevance of the message.simultaneously part of the problem and part of the and sizes on a lot of irrelevant platforms. Over the solution. Many of the challenges we are facing in last decade this has made cynical users absolutely So far, the Google approach has proved to be more Social Metropolis are created by technology. but so numb to the generic banners placed in the topbar, sustainable than the old anarchistic approach ap-are many of the opportunities. the successful brand or right-hand side, of most web-sites with traffic. plied by Altavista and other early internet portals. owners and marketers of tomorrow will be the ones click-though rates on these banners are below the reason why democracy won is down to the sim-who understand and embrace the technologies that 0,25% which has only increased the clutter, since ple fact that it gives power to the people, and there’s facilitate all aspects of the media landscape. marketers have had to buy more and more impres- no doubt that the aggregate opinion of millions of sions to get the attention of the user. people is, in most cases, better than even the most carefully chosen set of experts. 27
  24. 24. S that said, Google is by no means the end Features which are only appropriate for a certain the general trend is that media sources are becom- destination. We have seen numerous examples of user sector can naturally find that arena. this is a ing more open, have a more social component, and democratic services replacing more technologically great way of democratizing the process of figuring add more context in relation to the marketing cam- focused ones not tuned in to the “power of the peo- out which of the new features are valuable enough paign. the ‘We Feel Fine’ project is a great example ple”. Wikipedia democratized the encyclopedia and for a mass audience. by taking part, the users de- of how the technology evolution has opened new has replaced encarta. youtube democratized inter- cide on the viability of a given feature, which is doors and made it possible to engage people to fa- net video clips and replaced iFilm. in some cases, invaluable for market research, and free. this will cilitate a richer experience. the democratic service hasn’t replaced the existing make the Facebook platform very competitive in the services, but has instead provided a strong alterna- arena of users’ attention and an important tool for tive. e-bay democratized shopping and blogger has brands, if they can find the right way of tapping into democratized news while linux has democratized the user sphere without intruding. software development. ” The tools we use to create digital content are increas- ingly powerful but decreasingly expensive. And we can show our work to a potentially global audience. There is the SOciAl MODel: no analog in human history for this development.” FAcebOOk Dan gillmor – autHor, ‘we tHe meDia’ A strong contender to Google’s very successful way of democratizing information is Facebook, whose design offers a compelling alternative by opening its platform to developers and users in an entirely new way. Users can try out new features, and if they like them, they’ll tell their friends about it and the feature will spread.
  25. 25. S 29cASe StUDy: We Feel FineJonathan harris and Sepandar kamvar are a great What do people feel right now in baghdad? What by creating a ‘meta tool’ for identifying what is actu-example of creative thinking. in 2005, they launched were people feeling on valentine’s Day? Which are ally on people’s mind, harris & kamvar did some-the We Feel Fine Project, which has since been har- the happiest cities in the world? Which are the sad- thing truly unique. instead of actually creating a vesting human feelings from a large number of we- dest? And so on. piece of content, they turned the creative process blogs. every few minutes the system searches the upside down and utilized already existing content, world’s newly posted blog entries for mentions of “At its core, We Feel Fine is an artwork authored by integrating loads of it into a relevant frame. it is the phrases “i feel” and “i am feeling”. everyone. It will grow and change as we grow and the perfect example of original thinking and indi- change, reflecting what’s on our blogs, what’s in our cates that great content is not necessarily, or even hearts, what’s in our minds. We hope it makes the by definition, mass produced in order to conform in addition, demographics such as age, gender, world seem a little smaller, and we hope it helps peo- to a product..and geographical location, as well as local weather ple see beauty in the everyday ups and downs of life.”conditions, are identified and stored with the given JoNATHAN HARRIS & SEPANDAR KAMVAR, MAY 2006 they challenged creative thinking without even feeling found. the result is a database of several producing the content themselves. this approach million human feelings, increasing by 15,000 - to social media lays the foundation for an entirely 20,000 new feelings per day. Using a series of play- new way of thinking. the internet holds endless ful interfaces, the feelings can be searched and sort- potential by using and combining components ed across a number of demographic slices, offering already available to us, content production might responses to specific questions like: Do europeans not therefore, have to be costly, particularly if the feel sad more often than Americans? Do women creative foundation holds an appropriate amount of feel fat more often than men? Does rainy weather originality.affect how we feel? What are the most representa-tive feelings of female new yorkers in their 20s?
  26. 26. SSuMMary the SOciAl MetrOPOliS DeMOcrAtizAtiOn OF inFOrMAtiOn: the AttentiOn ecOnOMy: SUMMAry Passive consumers have become active users the key is to reach users through media that they can consume when they want it, where they want it, and how they want it We hope that this first chapter has given you a taste of the riSe OF SOciAl MeDiA: what’s to come further in this book. the old premise Social Media cover a basic need to communicate and technOlOGy AS A FAcilitAtOr: of media and brand control is being replaced by in- engage with people navigation in the Social Metropolis is impossible creasingly flexible user scenarios primarily driven by without technology – it guides us and adds transper- 4 major trends: ancy to complex user scenarios. in order to create strong social media campaigns you need to give your audience credit for their in- telligence, invite them in, and let them use you in their identity project. in short, bond with your target groups – you probably need them more than they need you. by focusing on crafting and promoting ad- vertising messages, marketing in the social media world is about shaping phenomena and experiences in people’s lives. that’s what we have started here with a journey from the low-tech brazilian farvela to the high-tech Shanghai sky-line.
  27. 27. “the internet is the first thing humanity has built that humanity doesn’t understand, the largest experiment in anarchy that we have ever had” ERiC SChMiDT, CEo GooGlE
  28. 28. Social citizenactivationnoitavitcaneziticlaicoS
  29. 29. Cintroduction in this part we Will lOOk the ultimate goal for the successful mar- intO the keter is to activate and engage the citizens of the FOllOWinG: Social Metropolis. but the challenges and the op- portunities seem endless just like a huge intersec- tion in our Social Metropolis – too many roads to choose from and no clear idea about which one to Engaging the social citizen choose in order to get to the social citizen. Getting it just right requires both understanding - of people, media, and technology - and the tools to Distribution - we are not born equal ensure the right approach or road is taken. Above all, it is about reaching people - both the con- sumers and the users. the means to reach them, users and money move online however, are equally important. We must, there- fore, look closer at the messages we are conveying to people - and how we convey those messages. in this second part of the book we will focus on con- From attention scarcity to engaged users tent and distribution.
  30. 30. C engaging the Social citizen diStribution - We are not born equal uSerS and Money Move online froM attention Scarcity to engaged uSerSenGAGinG the find the micro site by “clicking through the inter- Umberto eco to describe how literary texts which SOciAl citizen net”, like flicking through a magazine and hoping leave room for individual interpretation, and de- to stumble upon it sooner or later. it stated: mand a higher level of reader involvement, will ul- timately be more rewarding and engaging. Social media is part of the “social glue” “People only go to your website for a reason. And they An example of this, is the way thriller films cre-key to understanding how social media can be used go there on purpose, not by accident.” Furthermore, ate suspense by hinting at what might happen, or to activate your brand, get people to engage with it, “a micro site must provide the users with some sort of is about to happen, without being overly explicit. and respond to the message you are sending them, utility,” such as the features on sites like nike+ and Another, maybe more appropriate example, is the requires understanding that social media are part Domino’s build-A-Pizza. With social media, we remixes, cover versions, and sampling of, today’s of the social glue. however, at the same time it is have a great opportunity to get people to engage, pop music. essentially, a remix is the re-working of crucial to represent a “speaker’s corner” where, at but this requires self-criticism and the courage to somebody else’s content, often speeding it up and any time, you can put a given topic up for debate look within. Moreover, it takes the guts to open up varying the beat. it gives old songs a new appeal to within any crowd, be it small or large. and let people be part of the process. younger audiences, and re-launches existing tracks with a slightly different profile to make them a bet-Social glue is what holds us together. it is about his- this means you have to come up with something ter match for the dancefloor. Andy Warhol’s famed tory, culture, tradition, family events, holidays, the truly worthwhile for others to engage with. then, cambell Soup print is also a new take on the origi-sending of birthday cards, or these days, posting a you have to put it out there to be part of the proc- nal soup can. in the world of super brands, it is an comment on your friend’s profile or a blog. indeed, ess – asking for peoples’ opinion and letting them interesting example of how something that started it is this interaction, engagement, and involvement contribute to, and tweak, your content. this is a as a remix, has ended up being such a great suc-that defines our place in society and specific groups. fundamentally different approach to what we’ve cess. but what does it take for a piece of branded content been used to. no more competitions on campaign nigo, a well-known hip-hop DJ in tokyo, re-mod-to become part of this? What are the possibilities sites to drive traffic UnleSS the campaign sites eled his Air Force 1 sneakers by ripping off the of not only getting exposure, but making it into the have something truly unique to offer and are giving ‘swoosh’ logo and stitching on his own emblem. he higher spheres of “water-cooler conversation”? the user value. Define your key hubs and ‘blend in’, went on to design a range of redesigned Air Force as this is what will entice people to click, blog, and 1 sneakers using colours and materials that nike First, you have to have something meaningful to chat about, your brand. had never thought of using themselves. nike could say, or something useful to offer. this may seem have sued the guy heavily, but instead they chose to obvious, but as a recent comment on micro sites rather than thinking of the content as a defined, respond by introducing their own ‘remixes’ of the in the ‘campaign’ magazine pointed out, too many unchangeable unit, it should be considered an “op- classic shoe with all kinds of colours, patterns, and agencies seem to think that the users will randomly era aperta” - or “open work” – the latin term used by materials. 37
  31. 31. C Nike could see that what nigo had done instead of thinking of it in terms of single pieces of “People influence people. Nothing influences people was actually adding value to the brand, and the content, the aim is to think of it as a process - like more than a recommendation from a trusted friend. product, and that by getting involved in this de- a video or a game that entertains challenges, or a A trusted referral influences people more than the best sign ‘battle’ and responding to nigo, they took the Facebook profile that can announce up-and-coming broadcast message. A trusted referral is the Holy Grail brand and its experience even further. the lesson events and be open for feedback. Or a micro site of advertising.” here is that creativity and inspiration often spring that can offer something useful and informative, a mark zuckerBerg, faceBook from existing sources, and the advertising business blog that can tell an ongoing story in text and pic- can learn from this by letting the produced pieces tures, or a competition that will offer a chance for of content form a base that can inspire alterations, direct involvement. A process is by nature ongoing re-editions and add-ons as part of the brand experi- and open, multi-facetted and non-linear, and have ence. room for additions and alterations at any point, or from any angle, depending on incidence or prefer- ence. the same applies with online content. it is about leaving room for additions and alterations, like a Using social media to activate your brand should piece of clay that you can stretch and form in any also be considered a process, where the various direction. Much has been said about the need to let pieces of content are the blurbs and statements that go of control, as control and content ownership are will call for reactions - the nature of which will de- no longer important. but, it is the extent to which pend upon what type of content it is, and the point the users can offer personal versions, spoofs, or of connection where a user’s encounter takes place. remixes and so on, that really counts. instead of it encompasses a lot more than uploading a video pondering how best to endorse a given brand, and onto youtube and hoping it will be spoofed and communicate its value propositions, you need to well-rated. rather, it requires a genuine willing- start in a completely different place, and create an ness to recognize it as a process that should offer overall concept that can take on numerous forms, a meaningful and entertaining experience, as well in terms of its content, and has an infinite nature. as the courage to listen to the collective voice of the users and let them take part.
  32. 32. TRADITIONAL MEDIA Television SOCIAL MEDIA Podcasts Print Vlogs Radio Blogosphere Movies Forums Media outlets Wikis Enterprise 2.0 platforms 1.0Institutional control 2.0 Consumer control
  33. 33. C 41 the internet is now an arena which harbours new effective brands are like people. they understand ADJUStinG tO the and exciting ways of getting your message across. the social and business environments in which they SOciAl MeDiA SPAce it is time for brands to analyze their relationships exist. they uphold and represent values which help with the online user and develop a mindset that will define their utterances. they have personalities. in the offline world - before the internet made every embrace and creatively manage the new world of the more human components a brand possesses, consumer a potential broadcaster and the reception marketing opportunities. brands and their caretak- the better it engages consumers in the social media of brand overtures a matter of consumer choice - ers need to cultivate corporate and creative cultures space, and the stronger the emotional ties it creates. the brand builder was in control. Marketing oper- that produce campaigns driven by the internet’s A brand’s expression finds its voice in every touch ated through an advertiser to audience relationship. key asset: interactivity. point: colors and graphic identity, language and but, the internet has radically changed that premise. tone, and value-driven actions, like a commitment brand building is now subject to individual prefer- the online consumer world is one-on-one contact to better the environment, or promote literacy. ence, acceptance and rejection, all of which are ex- with millions of global individuals, who all demand ercised by the autonomous internet user. communication styles to be flexible and compatible There is no golden rule for captivating online audienc-there is no golden rule for captivating online audi- with multiple interpretations. the internet is not es. No magic spell for harnessing user loyalty, makingences, no magic spell for harnessing user loyalty, simply a destination, it iS social. it is different des- them like you, and persuading them to act as enthusias-making them like you, and persuading them to act tinations, each as unique as the users that occupy tic brand advocates. But, just as traditional marketingas enthusiastic brand advocates. but, just as tradi- and define it. the online user can spot a “phoney” has spent decades perfecting its operating models andtional marketing has spent decades perfecting its miles off. So brands need to be honest, relevant, measuring its effectiveness, online marketing must at-operating models and measuring its effectiveness, and respectful of the consumer’s domain, and in- tain maturity by undergoing a methodical process ofonline marketing must attain maturity by undergo- teract with them in the relevant context, rather than development.ing a methodical process of development to adjust simply assume Facebook and Google will do the job MARTIN lINDSTRøMto a social media space. for you.
  34. 34. C the effective brand behaves as a fully introduce your brand to big and small online en- formed member of its community. it lives and vironments where it is relevant. Start by building breathes in the same place as its audience. the relations, rethinking the character of your brand human brand is not necessarily characterized by and examining how it is perceived within its mar- perfection: it makes mistakes and it manages them ketplace. in doing so, you can reinforce your brand with candor. it creates and contributes to environ- values, and let it find its place in the complex, re- ments that promote a personality-driven relation- warding, and responsive internet environment. ship between the consumer and the brand, whether it be an atmosphere of warm welcome, or one of in order to do so, you must carefully consider what studied aloofness. to affect the right environment, your contribution to the community is - your con- the brand personality must be functional and well tent. you must also be able to distribute it to the understood by both the brand, and its customers. right people, at the right time, and in the right way. We must, therefore, look into the aspects of content and distribution since getting these factors right is faceBook is Here to stay ? imperative to reaching and engaging with the citi- zens of the Social Metropolis.

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