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Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
Science Day 2011
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Science Day 2011

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The slides presented at the Science Day on December 29, 2011

The slides presented at the Science Day on December 29, 2011

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  • 1. Science Day 2011 December 29, 2011 Govinda Bhisetti, Ph. D. Lexington, MA 02421 govindarb@yahoo.com 9:30 AM Arrival 10:00 – 10:15 AM Introduction 10:15 -- 11:45 AM 2011 Nobel Prizes 12:00 – 12:30 PM Top 10 News in 2011 12:30 – 1:30 PM Lunch 2:00 – 3:00 PM Breakthroughs in Science 2011 3:00 – 4:00 PM Tribute to Prof. Har Gobind Khorana 4:00 -- 5:00 PM Disaster of the Year: Japan Earthquake12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 1
  • 2. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize amount for 2011 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 10 million ($1.46 million) per full Nobel Prize.12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 2
  • 3. Nobel Festivities http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=175212/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 3
  • 4. Prof. Har Gobind KhoranaThe day is dedicated to Prof. Khorana, 1968 Nobel Prize winner in Medicinewho passed away on November 9, 2011Hediscovered how amino acids coded by DNA combine to create proteinshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BidjlCnHs (min 4 to 14) http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/lau reates/1968/khorana-bio.html12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 4
  • 5. 2011 Nobel Prize winners12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 5
  • 6. Prize Announcement Schedule• Monday, October 3, 2011 PHYSIOLOGY or MEDICINE Ralph M. Steinman, and Bruce A. Beutler & Jules A. Hoffmann "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity" and for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity• Tuesday, October 4, 2011 PHYSICS Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae• Wednesday, October 5, 2011 CHEMISTRY Dan Shechtman ”for discovery of quasicrystals”• Thursday, October 6, 2011 LITERATURE Thomas Transtromer (Peru) because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality• Friday, October 7, 2010 PEACE President Ellen Johnson, Leymah Gboww and Tawakkol Kafman (Liberia and Yemen) for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work• Monday, October 10, 2010 ECONOMICS Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy Prizes were awarded on December 10, 2011 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 6
  • 7. Peace Nobel Prize Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work.12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 7
  • 8. PHYSIOLOGY or MEDICINE Ralph M. Steinman and Bruce A. Beutler Jules A. Hoffmannfor his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity” and “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity Ralph M. Steinman Bruce A. Beutler Jules A. Hoffmann Rockefeller University, NY Scripps Research Institute Université La Jolla, CA Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xr5og53z_dc12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 8
  • 9. Innate and Adaptive Immunity• Innate or non-specific - mobilized immediately upon infection - not antigen specific• Adaptive or specific - requires some time to react an invading organism - antigen specific - exhibits an immunological memoryBoth aspects of the immune system have cellular and Human blood contains most cellular and noncellular factors that participate in humoral components host immunity to bacterial pathogensKhan: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rp7T4IItbtM 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 9
  • 10. Pathogen Recognition Systems and Innate Immunity The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that provides an early and effective response against invading microbial pathogens. It relies on a limited set of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) commonly present in microbes but not in mammals. Upon detection of PAMPs, some PRRs trigger an inflammatory response leading to the efficient destruction of the invading pathogens. Four main families of PRRs have been shown to initiate proinflammatory signaling pathways: the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the NOD-like receptors (NLRs), the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). As our understanding of innate immunity expands, more PRRs are being identified , such as cytosolic dsDNA sensors (CDSs) and NLRs involved in the formation of inflammasomes. Trends in Immunology, 27, 352-357 (2006)12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 10
  • 11. Dendrtic Cells in Immunity The immune system’s response involves a cascade of events orchestrated by specialized immune cellsDendritic cells have two key functions in the initial, innate immune response. 1) theyproduce cytokines that help to kill viruses and bacteria. 2) they ensure that pathogens andother foreign substances are highly visible to specialized helper T cells, called Th1 and Th2cells, which coordinate the longer-term adaptive immune response. Th1 and Th2responses last for an extended time. Dendritic cells recognize different types of offendingsubstances and guide the immune system to make the most appropriate response. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 11
  • 12. Dendritic cell and adaptive immunity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xA m3Z5Iy85whis T cell (blue), one of the immune system’s principle means of defense,identifies the molecular signature of a dendritic cell (green) at a junction betweenthe two called the immunological synapse. If the immunological synapse signalsthe presence of a foe, the T cell will attack.12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 12
  • 13. CHEMISTRY Daniel Schechtman for the discovery of quasicrystals Dan’s discovery of quasicrystals has created a new cross- disciplinary branch of science, drawing from, and enriching, chemistry, physics and mathematics. This is in itself of the greatest importance. It has also given us a reminder of how little we really know and perhaps even taught Dan Schechtman, 70 us some humility. That is Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel a truly great achievement http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZRTzOMHQ4s http://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=173112/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 13
  • 14. Quasicrystals 5 or 10-fold symmetry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QiT00AUwQl8Many scientists — notably Linus Pauling, the Nobel-winning giant of chemistry —argued vehemently that Dr. Shechtman’s data could be explained by “twinning,”where two ordinary periodic crystals are fused together at an angle.http://www.periodicvideos.com/videos/feature_nobel_prize_2010.htmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLgW3fRMOhkfeature=related 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 14
  • 15. PHYSICS Adam Riess, Saul Perlmutter and Brian Schmidt for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae” Saul Perlmutter, 52, Brian P. Schmidt, 44, Adam G. Riess, 41, Lawrence Berkeley Australian National Johns Hopkins National Laboratory University in Canberra University Baltimore12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 15
  • 16. Expanding Universe • An exploding star known as Type 1a supernova is very bright • The Nobel prize winners used them to measure the expansion of the universe •http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=v6o2bUPdxV0 •http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=dMwr0VYuExE12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 16
  • 17. Breakthrough of the Year 2011 “The goal of an AIDS-free generation is ambitious, but it is possible,” - Hillary Clinton Antiretroviral treatments for HIV keep the virus from spreading and raised hopes of ending HIV/AIDS epidemics in whole populations. The years runners-up include what makes asteroids red, ancient DNA in modern humans, the structure of photosystem II, pristine gas in the early universe, the microbiome, a new malaria vaccine, alien solar systems, zeolites, and senescent cells. http://podcasts.aaas.org/science_podcast/Scienc ePodcast_111223.mp3 http://podcasts.aaas.org/science_podcast/Scienc ePodcast_111223.mp3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mi5URSLUzD M 23 December 2011 Scanning electron micrograph of HIV viruses, each ~120 nanometers in diameter, on an infected cell surface12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 17
  • 18. 2011 Science Breakthroughs 1. HIV Treatment as Prevention. 2. Asteroid Dust Solves Color Conundrum.. 3. Archaic Humans’ DNA Lives On. 4. Plant Life’s Boxy Heart. 5. Glimpses of a Simpler Time. 6. Microbes R Us. 7. RTS,S -- A Vaccine With Many Maybes. 8. Extrasolar? Extra Strange. 9. Industrial Molecules Tailor-Made 10. Removing Old Cells to Stay Young?12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 18
  • 19. 10. Removing Old Cells to Stay Young Washed-up cells in our tissues promote aging, culling them could keep us healthier longer • Senescent cells leak growth-stimulating and tissue-dissolving chemicals that encourage tumors to grow and spread, and might also promote aging by damaging the surrounding tissue or by stoking the protracted inflammation characteristic of old age. • Injections of a drug triggered the animals to kill off cells that manufacture the protein p16INK4a, which flags many senescent cells • Raises the possibility that targeting senescent cells or countering their effects could burnish our golden years.12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 19
  • 20. 9. Industrial Molecules, Tailor-MadeNew ways to tailor the size of their pores and create thinner, cheaperzeolites• Zeolites, family of porous crystaline minerals was first discovered in 1756. Over the past 250 years, 40 natural zeolites have been discovered, and chemists have chipped in roughly 150 more synthetic versions.• South Korean scientists crafted a family of zeolites with network of small pores surrounded by walls holed with larger voids. Labs in Spain and China produced large- and small-pore zeolites by using a combination of inorganic and organic materials to guide the structures as they formed. Researchers in France and Germany discovered that, by carefully controlling growth conditions, they could form a large-pore zeolite. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 20
  • 21. 8. Extrasolar? Extra StrangeDistant planetary systems are pretty weird • NASA’s Kepler observatory—which has been tracking 156,000 nearby stars found six large planets, three of them gas giants like Jupiter, orbiting a star named Kepler 11 some 2000 light- years from Earth. • Five of the six are bunched up very close to the star, closer in than Mercury is from the sun. The sixth planet lies only a bit farther out, as far as Venus is from the sun. • HAT-P-6b, a gas giant orbiting in a direction opposite to the spin of the parent star. • An exoplanet orbiting a binary starWith more than 700 extrasolar planets on system.record, researchers are grappling not only with • 10 planets floating freely in space withplanets unlike anything circling our sun but also no host stars nearby, suggesting thatwith entire planetary systems whose weirdness they may have been kicked out of theis forcing scientists to rethink how planets form planetary systems in which theyand settle into orbits. formed. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 21
  • 22. 7. RTS,S - A Vaccine With Many MaybesClinical trials of a malaria vaccine keep hopes alive. • Clinical trial of a malaria vaccine at 11 sites in seven African countries enrolled more than 15,000 children. • RTS,S vaccine produced by GlaxoSmithKline in collaboration with the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative has received more than $200 million in development support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. • Early results of the ongoing trial reassured malaria researchers that discovering a malaria vaccine remains possible. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 22
  • 23. 6. Microbes R Us Internal microbial communities fell roughly into three enterotypes: Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus• The Microbiome: The microbes and viruses that call the human body home has led to the concept of the microbiome. Since 90 percent of the cells in our bodies are actually microbial, scientists are beginning to understand how significantly microbial genes can affect how much energy we absorb from our foods and how our immune systems respond to infections.• Everyone has a dominant bacterium leading the gang in their digestive tract: Bacteroides, Prevotella or Ruminococcus.• Bacteroides thrives on a high-protein diet while Prevotella prefers vegetarian fare.• These findings and more helped to clarify the interplay between diet and microbes in nutrition and disease.• http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/normalflora.html 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 23
  • 24. 5. Glimpses of a Simpler Time Clouds of gas — trapped in filaments between galaxies — may be long- lasting leftovers from the Big Bang.• Astronomers using the Keck telescope in Hawaii to probe the faraway universe wound up discovering two clouds of hydrogen gas that seem to have maintained their original chemistry for two billion years after the big bang.• Other researchers identified a star that is almost completely devoid of metals, just as the universes earliest stars must have been, but that formed much later.• The discoveries show that pockets of matter persisted unscathed amid eons of cosmic violence. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 24
  • 25. 4. Plant Life’s Boxy Heart High Resolution Crystal Structure of Plant’s Photo System II• Plant’s essential protein called photo system II (PSII) uses solar energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, then pairs oxygens into the O2 molecules we breathe. It is one of nature’s most fascinating and important reactions.• PSII is a transmembrane protein complex with 20 protein subunits, several electron-transfer quinone factors, and a photoantenna system of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments.• The high-resolution structure of PSII reveals the geometric arrangement of the Mn4CaO5 cluster as well as its oxo bridges and ligands, and four bound water molecules. This provides a basis for unravelling the mechanism of water splitting and O–O bond formation.• The structure gives us a solid structural understanding of energy migration, electron transfer and water-splitting reactions taking place within PSII. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 25
  • 26. 3. Archaic Humans’ DNA Lives On DNA from a Siberian finger bone showed mixing between Denisovans and Homo sapiens• In the past 100,000 years, Homo sapiens arose in Africa, then swept out into Europe and Asia, “completely” replacing Neandertals and the other archaic peoples they met there.• In December 2010, researchers published the whole genome of a new kind of archaic human from Denisova Cave in Siberia.• It was found this year that members of three relatively isolated groups of Africans carried unusual DNA variants apparently inherited from archaic people in Africa in the past 35,000 years, long after modern humans arose. 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 26
  • 27. 2. Asteroid Dust Solves Color Conundrum Why the most common meteorites that fall to Earth didn’t seem to come from the most common asteroids in the asteroid belt?• Hayabusa, a Japanese spacecraft, a daring mission returned to Earth with dust from the surface of a large asteroids Itokawa after some near- disastrous technical difficulties and a stunningly successful recovery.• Analysis of these dust samples confirmed that the most common meteorites found on Earth, known as ordinary chondrules, are born from these much larger, S-type asteroids.• The earlier mistakes of identity were caused by discoloring of asteroids by solar wind.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEyQ DwAUfRQfeature=related• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsQ p9Zey27Y Touchdown on Itokawa, as portrayed in the Japanese movie Hayabusa: Back to the Earth 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 27
  • 28. 1. HIV Treatment as Prevention Antiretroviral drugs reduce HIV transmission rates by 96% The antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV-infected people also dramatically reduce HIV transmission rates, a finding that may influence the strategies used by health advocates and policymakers to battle the disease.http://podcasts.aaas.org/science_podcast/SciencePodcast_111223.mp3http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mi5URSLUzDMScience Hall of Famehttp://video.sciencemag.org/SciOriginals/744533805001/1 12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 28
  • 29. HIV Clinical Trials HPTN 052 designN Engl J Med 2011;365:493-505.12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 29
  • 30. HIV Clinical Trials HPTN 052 design (contd.)12/29/2011 Science Day Govinda Bhisetti 30

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