Congressional Redistricting By Ali Buchanan, AlainaHager, and Eric Holtmeier Anderson High School Cincinnati, OH
Why Does Congressional Redistricting Occur? The United States Constitution requires congressional seats to be reapportioned among the states after each decennial census. Because the Supreme Court in the 1960s interpreted the Constitution to require that each US House district have equal numbers of people, any state with more than one district must adjust its district lines. Districts in a state are determine by population.
Census An official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals. Occurs every 10 years. Determines the number of seats each state should posses. Redraw lines to bring the districts into line with the federal census. It counts people in the state and determines the amount of district that state deserves.
Electoral College Maps As time passes states electoral votes change due to population In the images shown before, Ohio started out with 25 seats and in 2012 Ohio currently has 16 seats. The population in Ohio has not grown has quickly as other states. The maps also indicate Florida seats have increase from 17 to 29 due to population increase.
Effects of Redistricting in Ohio Redraw the lines to ensure each district is a certain party. Example: District 1 was made bigger to make it a guarantee republican district for Steve Chabot.2010 Ohio Congressional 2012 Ohio Congressional
Gerrymandering the drawing of electoral district lines to the advantage of a party or group. Can be found in most places where lines are drawn for the election of public officeholders- in cities, counties, school districts, and elsewhere
Malapportionment Define: characterized by an inequitable or unsuitable apportioning of representatives to a legislative body. Example: Wesberry V.S Sanders
Wesberry V.S Sanders Was a U.S Supreme court case on February 17, 1964 concerning U.S Congressional Districts in the State of Georgia James Wesberry filed a suit against the Governor of Georgia( Carl Sanders) stating that he violated the Fourteenth Amendment. Wesberry wanted every district to have the same number of representatives and have equal say no matter how small your district was. This case allows all the congressional districts of a state to be sized equally by having the same size population. The court decision was to follow Wesberry opinion.
Packing Packing happens when the State legislators “pack” as many voters from the opposing party into a single district as possoble. Makes districts “safe” for the party in power.
Cracking Iswhen the party in power splits up (spreads out) the voters who support the opposing party. This results in the minority party winning fewer seats
Ohio Issue #2 AKA Ohio Redistricting Amendment. It would allow citizen commission to draw legislative and congressional district maps. districts would be based Ohio geographic, racial, ethnic and political diversity.
How does the current redistrictingprocess contribute to the dominance of America’s two-party political system?A state is given a certain amount of district based on population. In most states, districts are drawn to benefit a certain party, like Ohio’s congressional district 1 that benefits republican Steve Chabot.