Computer Graphics HAND BOOK 2013

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Computer Graphics HAND BOOK 2013

  1. 1. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 COURSE DESCRIPTION Course No : Course Title : Computer Graphics Course Overview The subject computer graphics is aimed at learning the details of picture generation, simulation, animation, modeling and rendering 3-D objects, in order to create objects that look and behave as realistically as possible. The course progresses through a designed set of units, starting with simple, general applicable fundamentals and ending with more complex and specialized subjects. This course also provides a strong base for image processing research for the students
  2. 2. COMPUTER GRAPHICS JNTUH SYLLABUS UNIT -I Introduction, Application areas of Computer Graphics overview of graphics systems, video-display devices raster-scan systems, random scan systems graphics monitors and work stations and input device. UNIT – II Output primitives : Points and lines, line drawing algorithms, mid-point circle and ellipse algorithms. Filled area primitives: Scan line polygon fill algorithm, boundary-fill and flood-fill algorithms UNIT –III 2-D geometrical transforms: Translation, scaling, rotation, reflection and shear transformations, matrix representations and homogeneous coordinates composite transforms transformations between coordinate systems. UNIT – IV 2-D viewing: The viewing pipeline, viewing coordinate reference frame, window to view-port coordinate transformation, viewing functions, Cohen-Sutherland and Cyrus-beck line clipping algorithms, Sutherland-Hodgeman polygon clipping algorithm. UNIT – V 3-D Object representation: Polygon surfaces, quadric surface, spline representation, Hermite curve, Bezier curve and B-Spline curves, Bezier and B-Spline surfaces. Basic illumination models, polygon rendering methods. UNIT – VI 3-D Geometric transformations: Translation, rotation scaling, reflection and shear transforms composite transformations. 3-D Viewing: viewing pipeline, viewing coordinates, view volume and general projection transforms and clipping. UNIT – VII Visible surface detection methods: Classification, back-face detection, depth-buffer, scan-line depth sorting, BSP-tree methods, area sub-division and octree methods. UNIT – VIII Computer animation: Design of animation sequence, general computer animation functions, raster animation, computer animation languages, key frame systems, motion specifications. SUGGESTED BOOKS: T1: “Computer Graphics C version”, Donald Hearn & M. Pauline Baker, Pearson Education. T2: “Computer Graphics - Principles & Practice”, Second edition in C, Foley, Vandam, Friner, Hughes, Pearson Education. REFERENCES: R1: “Computer Graphics”, Second edition, Donald Hearn & M. Pauline Baker, PHI/ Pearson Education R2:”Computer Graphics Second edition”, Zhigand xiang, Roy plastock, Schaum’s outlines Tata Mc Graw hill education Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 2
  3. 3. R3: Procedural Elements for Computer Graphics, David F Rogers, Mc-GrawHill International, II Edition Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 3
  4. 4. Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 4 UNIT WISE SESSION PLANNER
  5. 5. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-B & IV UNIT NO: I Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L0 Introduction to Computer Graphics T1,T2 L1 Application areas of Computer Graphics T1,T2 L2 Overview of graphics systems video- display devices T1,T2 L3 video-display devices T1,T2 L4 video-display devices T1,T2 L5 video-display devices T1,T2 L6 Raster-scan systems Random scan systems T1,T2 L7 Graphics monitors and work stations Input devices T1,T2 T1,T2 Total No. of Periods 08 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 5 Academic Year: 2013-2014 Semester: IV/I
  6. 6. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: II Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 Points and lines Line drawing algorithm T1,T2 L2 Line drawing algorithms T1,T2 L3 Line drawing algorithms T1,T2 L4 Mid-point circle T1,T2 L5 Mid-point circle T1,T2 L6 Ellipse algorithms T1,T2 L7 Ellipse algorithms T1,T2 L8 Filled area primitives Scan line polygon fill algorithm T1,T2 L9 Scan line polygon fill algorithm T1,T2 L10 Boundary-fill and flood-fill algorithms T1,T2 Total No. of Periods 10 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 6 Academic Year: 2013-2014 Semester: IV/I
  7. 7. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: III Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 Introduction to 2D geometrical transforms, Translation T1 L2 Scaling , rotation transformations T1 L3 Reflection transformations T1 L4 Shear transformations T1 L5 matrix representations and homogeneous coordinates T1 L6 Composite transforms T1 L7 Transformations between coordinate systems T1 Total No. of Periods 07 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 7 Academic Year: 2013-2014 Semester: IV/I
  8. 8. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: IV Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 The viewing pipeline, viewing coordinate reference frame T1 L2 Window to view-port coordinate transformation Viewing functions T1 L3 Cohen-Sutherland line clipping algorithm T1 L4 Cohen-Sutherland line clipping algorithm T1 L5 Cyrus-beck line clipping algorithms T1 L6 Sutherland –Hodgeman polygon clipping algorithm T1 L7 Sutherland –Hodgeman polygon clipping algorithm T1 Total No. of Periods 07 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 8 Academic Year: 2013-2014 Semester: IV/I
  9. 9. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: V Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 Introduction to 3D, Polygon surfaces T1 L2 quadric surfaces T1 L3 spline representation T1 L4 Hermite curve T1 L5 Bezier curve T1 L6 Bezier surfaces T1 L7 B-Spline curves T1 L8 B-Spline surfaces T1 L9 Basic illumination models, polygon rendering methods T1 Total No. of Periods 09 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 9 Academic Year: 2013-2014 Semester: IV/I :
  10. 10. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: VI Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 Introduction to 3-D Geometric transformations, Translation T1 L2 Rotation, scaling T1 L3 Reflection and shear transformations T1 L4 Composite transformations T1 L5 Viewing pipeline, viewing coordinates T1 L6 View volume and general projection transforms T1 L7 Clipping T1 Total No. of Periods 07 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 10 Academic Year: 2012-2013 Semester: IV/I
  11. 11. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: VII Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 Introduction Visible surface detection methods, Classification T1 L2 Back -face detection T1 L3 Depth -buffer T1 L4 Scan -line T1 L5 Depth sorting T1 L6 BSP-tree methods, area sub-division T1 L7 Octree methods T1 Total No. of Periods 07 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 11 Academic Year: 2012-2013 Semester: IV/I
  12. 12. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088 SESSION PLANNER Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV UNIT NO: VIII Expected date of completion: Lecture No. Date Planned Subject Topics / Sub-Topics References Text Books Journals Websites L1 Introduction to Computer animation, Design of animation sequence T2 L2 general computer animation functions T2 L3 Raster animation, T2 L4 computer animation languages T2 L5 Key frame systems T2 L6 Motion specifications T2 Total No. of Periods 06 Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Date: Date: Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 12 Academic Year: 2012-2013 Semester: IV/I
  13. 13. Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 13 SYLLABUS SESSION PLAN (Overall)
  14. 14. MLR Institute of Technology Laxma Reddy Avenue, Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad – 500 043 Phone Nos: 08418 – 204066 / 204088, Fax : 08418 – 204088 SESSION PLANNER Subject: COMPUTER GRAPHICS Branch & Year: CSE-A & IV Semester: I Academic Year: 2013-14 Faculty: GOUSE SHEIKH Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 14
  15. 15. Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 15 Unit No. S. No. Topic Lecture Number as per the period Date Planned Date Conducted I U N I T 1 Introduction to Computer Graphics L0 2 Application areas of Computer Graphics L1 3 Overview of graphics systems video- display devices L2 4 video-display devices L3 5 video-display devices L4 6 video-display devices L5 7 Raster-scan systems Random scan systems L6 8 Graphics monitors and work stations & Input devices L7 II U N I T 9 Points and lines Line drawing algorithm L8 10 Line drawing algorithms L9 11 Line drawing algorithms L10 12 Mid-point circle L11 13 Mid-point circle L12 14 Ellipse algorithms L13 15 Ellipse algorithms L14 16 Filled area primitives Scan line polygon fill algorithm L15 17 Scan line polygon fill algorithm L16 18 Boundary-fill and flood-fill algorithms L17 III UNIT 19 Introduction to 2D geometrical transforms, Translation L18 20 Scaling , rotation transformations L19 21 Reflection transformations L20 22 Shear transformations L21 23 matrix representations and homogeneous coordinates L22 24 Composite transforms L23 25 Transformations between coordinate systems L24 IV UNIT 26 The viewing pipeline, viewing coordinate reference frame L25 27 Window to view-port coordinate transformation Viewing functions L26 28 Cohen-Sutherland L27 29 Cohen-Sutherland L28 30 Cyrus-beck line clipping algorithms L29 31 Sutherland –Hodgeman polygon clipping algorithm L30 32 Sutherland –Hodgeman polygon
  16. 16. Note: Fortnightly verification by HOD Signature of Faculty Signature of HOD Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 16
  17. 17. QUESTION BANK UNIT-I DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1. Distinguish between the Raster scan system & Random scan system 2. Discuss the Flat-Panel Display devices 3. Discuss the operation of Raster scan System with a neat sketch 4. Discuss the operation of Random scan System with a neat sketch 5. List the different Input devices .What are the application OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. The study of techniques to improve communication between human & machine. [a] a) computer graphics b) System control c) Frame buffer d) none 2. ___________ is the art or science of producing graphics images with the of computer. [a] a) computer graphics b) System control c) Frame buffer d) none 3. The primary output device in graphics system is ____________. [a] a) video monitor b) audio controller c) radio controller d) none Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 17
  18. 18. 4. The ________ is the smallest addressable screen element. [b] a) Axis b) Pixel c) Scale d) none 5. A ________ is the contiguous piece of the computer memory. [b] a) Video monitor b) Frame buffer c) Video buffer d) None 6. The process of turning on the pixels for a line segment is called_______ [a] a) Vector generator b) Audio generator c) Video generator d) none 7. The ___________ makes use of the electrostatic fields to focus & accelerate the electron beam. [c] a) Video gun b) Magnetic gun c) Electron gun d) None 8. The phosphor used in a graphics display are chosen for their color characteristics and _______ [b] a) Resolution b) Persistence c) Aspect ratio Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 18
  19. 19. d) All the above 9. Persistence is define as the time taken by the field emitted light from the screen to decay to __________ of its original intensity. [a] a) one-tenth b) two-tenth c) tenth d) twenty 10. A phosphor with low persistence is useful for ________ [b] a) Art b) Animation c) Coloring d) None 11. The most common type of graphics monitor employing a CRT is the raster-scan display , based on _____________ technology.(TV) 12. The ________ is stored in a memory are called refresh buffer.(picture definition) 13. The _______ of a CRT is the number of times per second the image is redrawn.(refresh rate) 14. Random-scan display are also known as ________.(vector display) 15. A unique problem with the shadow mask tube is that of ________(convergence) 16. Shadow mask methods are commonly used in _________.(Raster scan system) 17. The ________ behaves like a CRT with a extremely long persistence phosphor. (DVST) 18. The ________ gun is used to store the picture pattern in DVST.(primary) 19. The ________gun maintains the picture display in DVST.(Flood) 20. _______is an example emissive display.(LED) 21. _______ is an example of non-emissive display.(LCD) 22. The _____ display is also called gas-discharge displays.(Plasma panels) 23. The plasma panel is an array of ________(Tiny neon tubes) Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 19
  20. 20. 24. The ______ display consists of diodes arranged in the form of rows & columns.(LED) 25. The ______ are commonly used in the small systems, such as calculators, laptops computer.(LCD) 26. Joystick is a _______device.(locator) 27. A _______ is small hand-held box used to position the screen cursor.(mouse) 28. A _______is a ball that can be rotated with me fingers or palm of the hand to produce screen-cursor movement. (Ans: trackball) 29. __________provides six degrees of freedom(Ans: Space ball) 30. A_______ consist of a small , vertical lever mounted on a base i.e moved to steer the screen cursor movement(joystick) 31. File animation requires _____ frames for each second in the animation sequence.(24) 32. Animation is played black on video monitor ______frames per second are required.(30) 33. The _____ is a technique of x-ray photography that allows cross-section views of physiological system to be displayed. (Tomography). 34. On a bit-and- white system with one bit per pixel, the frame buffer is commonly called a________(bitmap). 35. For systems with multiple bits per pixel , the frame buffer is often referred to as______(pixmap). 36. The return to the left of the screen ,after refreshing each scan line, is called the _______ retrace of the electron beam.(horizontal) 37. Colors CRts in graphics systems are designed as _______ monitor(RGB). 38. An RGB color system with 24 bits for storage per pixel is generally referred to as ______system (full-color). 39. The beam-penetration method for displaying color picture has been used with _____ monitors.(random-scan). 40. The ______system in a CRT is needed to force the electron beam to converge into a small spot as it strikes the phosphor.(focusing) ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 20
  21. 21. 1. Draw the cross-sectional diagram of a CRT device. Identify the major components and discuss their roles. 2. List & explain the applications of CG TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1. .Assuming that a certain full-color (24-bit per pixel) RGB raster system has a 512 by 512 frame buffer, how many distinct color choices (intensity levels)would be available. Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 21
  22. 22. 2.How much time is spent in scanning across each row of pixels during screen refresh on a raster system with a resolution of 1280 by 1024 and a refresh rate of 60 frames per second? Assume horizontal and vertical retrace times are negligible UNIT-II DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1. What is meant by aliasing? Discuss two antialiasing methods. 2. Compute the intermediate points on the straight line using the Bresenham’s algorithm, when the end points are given as input. 3. Show graphically that an ellipse has four-way symmetry by plotting four points on the ellipse: x = a cos θ + h, y = b sin θ + k where a =2, b=1, h=0 and k=0 4. When 8-way symmetry of circle is used to obtain a full circle from pixel coor-dinates generated from first octant, does overstrike occur? Where? 5. (a) Explain the DDA scan conversion algorithm for generating the points on Line segment, when two end-points are given as input. (b) Digitize the line with end-points (20,10) and (30,18) using DDA algorithm 6. Explain the steps involved in Bresenham algorithm for line drawing. Demonstrate with an example. Discuss its merits and demerits 7 .(a) Write Bresenham’s algorithm for line generation which is suitable for any slope. (b) Using the above algorithm, generate the intermediate points of the line segment, if the two end-points are given as (30,18) and (20,10). OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following is true about the Bresnhams algorithm ANS[c] a) There is only one division operation b) Rounding operation is performed inside the loop c) There are no intensive computations, except multiplication by 2 d) Slope of the line is explicitly computed. 2. Comparing with circle ,ellipse generation requires more computation . this because ANS[c] a) Circle is described by an equation b) Shapes of the circle is regular c) Origin centered ellipse is not symmetrical x=y axis d) Aliasing problem is less in circle Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 22
  23. 23. 3. If an algorithm uses the output of the pervious iteration , the computations of outputs in the current iteration , such algorithms are called as ANS[b] a) Double-differencing algorithm b) Incremental algorithm c) Successive approximation algorithm d) Scan-line algorithm 4. In circle drawing algorithm ,when the circle is centered at an arbitrary point(x,y,c),how many reflections are required ANS[a] a) 3 b) 2 c) 1 d) 4 5. Circle is not symmetrical about ANS[c] a) x=-y b) y=0 c) y=x+1 d) x=0 6. to identify the interior regions of an object, which of the following rules is used ANS[c] a) scan-line b) convex-concave rule c) odd-even rule d) stack-rule 7. for storing edges coordinates in edge table which sorting algorithm is used ANS[a] Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 23
  24. 24. a) bucket-sort b) merge-sort c) heap-sort d) selection-sort 8. using odd parity rule, if the number of polygon edges crossed by a line, from a point P is odd a) P is an interior point ANS[A] b) P is an exterior point c) P is on the edge d) Odd parity rule alone is not sufficient to judge 9. Origin centered ellipse is symmetrical about ANS[d] a) Only x-axis b) Only y-axis c) X-axis , y-axis and x=-y d) Both x & y axis 10. For the efficient circle generation algorithm , for a raster scan display devices ,point on the periphery of circle are to be generated ANS[b] a) Full b) One octant(1/8) c) Half d) one quadrant(1/4) 11. The _______algorithm for computing the incremental movement involve fractional number arithmetic.(DDA). 12. The Cartesian slope-intercept equation for straight line is __________(y=max+b) Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 24
  25. 25. 13. Bresenham’s algorithm uses only ________ that can be to display circles as other curves(Incremental integer calculation) 14. The initial value of decision parameter circle is _______(p0=5/4-r) 15. The _______is accomplished by calculating intermediate positions along the line path between two specified endpoint positions.(Line drawing) 16. For lines with m=1,∆x=∆y and the horizontal and vertical deflection voltages are_____(equal) 17. ________table contain all the information necessary to process the scan lines efficiently (sorted edges) 18. ________ is simply that the properties of one part of scene are related in some way to other parts of the scène o that the relationship can be used to reduce processing. (coherence) 19. A ________defined as the set of points that are all at a given distance r from a center position(x,y).(circle) 20. An _______ is an elongated circle(ellipse). ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. What are the steps involved in Bresenham’s line drawing algorithm for |m| > 1, where m is slope of the line. Generate all raster points on the line segments, if the two end-points are given as (10, 20) and (18, 30) using the above algorithm 2. a) Explain the steps involved in scan-line polygon-fill algorithm. Illustrate with an example polygon and the corresponding sorted edge table. (b) Explain the steps involved in i. odd-even rule and ii. Non-zero winding number rule, which are used for and carrying out inside-outside test. TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1.Digitize the line with end-points (20, 10) and (30,18) using DDA algorithm 2.Generate all raster points on the line segment, if the two end points are given as (10,20) and (18,30) using Bresenham’s line drawing algorithm 3.The circle with radius 5, demonstrate midpoint circle algorithm by determining along with radius along the octant in the first quadrant from x=0 to x=y. 4.Show graphically that an ellipse has four way symmetry by plotting four points on the ellipse. Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 25
  26. 26. X=acosө+h Y=bsinө+k. Where a=2,b=1,h=0 and k=0 Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 26
  27. 27. UNIT-III DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1. (a) List the basic transformation techniques. What are their respective mathe- matical and matrix representations? (b) Prove or disprove that two successive rotations in 2-D space are commutative 2. (a) Derive the transformation matrix for rotation about origin. (b) Explain the terms: i. Homogeneous Coordinates ii. Rigid-body transformations iii. Composite transformations. 3. (a) List the basic transformations which cause the physical distortion in the transformed object. (b) An object point P(x,y) is translated in the direction U = aI + bJ and simultaneously an observer moves in the direction U. Show that there is no apparent motion of the object point from the point of view of obsever. 4.(a) Prove that a uniform scaling (sx = sy) and a rotation form a commutative pair of operations, but that, in general, scaling and rotation are not commutative. (b)Derive the transformation matrix for rotation about origin. 5. Is it possible to subject the following transformations on the characters, which are generated by a hardware character generator? (a) a rotation (b) a scaling (c) a translation 6.(a) Perform a 45 degree rotation of a triangle A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(5,2) about P(-1,-1). (b) Magnify the triangle with vertices A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(5,2) to thrice its sizewhile keeping B(1,1) fixed. 7. (a) Describe the transformation that rotates an object point Q(x,y),degrees about a fixed center of rotation p(h,k). (b) Magnify the triangle with vertices A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(5,2) to twice its size, while keeping C(5,2) fixed. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. if every point on the object is translated by the same amount ,such transformation is called as ANS[a] a) rigid-body b) transformation with deformation c) deformation in translation Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 27
  28. 28. d) tightly coupled transformation 2. if the sx and sy , are scaling factors applied in x and y directions respectively , on P(x,y) the output point coordinates after applying scaling operation is ANS[d] a) x1=1/xsx,y=y.sx b) b)x1=x+sx,y1=y+sy c) x1=x.sx,y1=1/y.sy d) x1=x.sx,y1=y.sy 3. The transformation that alters the size of an object. [a] a) Scaling b) Translation c) Rotation d) Shearing 4. The transformation that cause the image to slant [d] a) Scaling b) Translation c) Rotation d) Shearing 5. The transformation that applied to an object by repositioning its along a straight-line path from one coordinate location to other a) Scaling b) Translation c) Rotation d) Shearing 6. The reflection about x-axis is given by matrix [a] a) 1 0 b) -1 0 c) -1 0 d)0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 1 0 Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 28
  29. 29. 7. The reflection about y-axis is given by matrix [b] a) 1 0 b) -1 0 c) -1 0 d)0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 1 0 8. The reflection about origin is given by matrix [c] a) 1 0 b) -1 0 c) -1 0 d)0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 1 0 9. The reflection about x=y is given by matrix [d] a) 1 0 b) -1 0 c) -1 0 d)0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 1 0 10. The reflection about y=x is given by matrix [d] a) 1 0 b) -1 0 c) -1 0 d)0 -1 0 -1 0 1 0 -1 -1 0 11. The homogenous coordinate transformation matrix for a translation of tx, ty is [a] a) 1 0 0 b) 1 0 0 c) 0 1 0 d) none 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 tx ty 1 tx ty 1 1 tx ty 12. If the scaling factors sx & sy are equal ,then the scaling transformation matrix[a] a) A constant multiplied with unit matrix b) Becomes rotation matrix c) Becomes reflection matrix d) Resembles unit matrix 13. If the rotation about an arbitrary point is to be performed, what is the sequence of operations to achieve the desired effect [d] a) Translate & rotate b) Rotate , Translate & Rotate c) Rotate , Translate & Scale d) Translate ,Rotate & Translate Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 29
  30. 30. 14. If the object is to be rotate 30® anticlock wise , keeping the object stationary , the same effect achieved by rotating the coordinate system [d] a) 60® in anti-clock wise b) 60® in clock-wise c) 30® in anti-clock wise d) 30® in clock-wise 15. The scaling factor in the scaling translation are [b] a) Positive and less than one b) Always positive c) Either positive or negative d) Positive and greater than one 16. Two successive translation can be represented as [d] a) Difference of two translation matrices b) Addition of two translation matrices c) A combination of translation & scaling d) A single translation matrix 17. Which of the following is a rigid body transformation [a] a) Shear b) Translation c) Rotation d) None 18. Two successive translation is [a] a) Commutative b) Non-commutative c) Distributive Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 30
  31. 31. d) Commutative only if in both times, the displacement applied is in one direction 19. The matrix for rotation about the origin when the rotation angle is Θ is given by [a] a) cos θ -sin θ b) -cos θ sin θ b) cos θ -sin θ d) none sin θ cos θ sin θ cos θ sin θ cosθ 20. the transformation matrix for x-direction shear relative to the x-axis is [b] a) 1 0 shx b) 1 shx 0 c) 1 0 0 d) 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 shx 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 shx 0 0 1 21. the transformation matrix for x-direction shear relative to the x-axis is [d] a) 1 0 shx b) 1 shx 0 c) 1 0 0 d) 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 shx 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 shx 0 0 1 ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. Prove that the multiplication matrices for each of the following sequence of operations is commutative i. Two successive rotations ii. Two successive translations iii. Two successive scalings. 2. (a) Show that the composition of two rotations is additive by concatenating the matrix representations for R (θ1) R (θ2) = R (θ1 + θ2) (b) Give a brief note about the following transformations. i) Reflection ii) Shear 3. Scale the given triangle to twice and rotate it by 90 .The triangle ABC Coordinates are A(2,2,),B(2,8),C(4,4).Implement the above transformations with respect to point B TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1.Show the transformation matrix for reflection about line y=-x is equivalent to reflection relative to the y-axis followed by a counter clockwise rotation of 900 2.Perform a 45 degree rotation of a triangle A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(0,1) about P(-1,-1). Magnify the triangle with vertices A(0,0), B(1,1) and C(5,2) to twice its size while keeping C(5,2) fixed Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 31
  32. 32. 3.Given 3x3 homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix which will have the same effect ae each of the following transformation techniques. a) scale the image to be twice as large and then translate it 1 unit to the left. b) rotate counter-clockwise by 900 and then scale the x-direction to be on-half as large 4.Prove that a uniform scaling (sx = sy) and a rotation form a commutative pair of operations Obtain the reflection of the point A(10,10) about y=x+2 Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 32
  33. 33. UNIT-IV DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1. (a) what are the stages involved in two-dimensional viewing transformation Pipeline. Explain briefly about each stage. (b) What is parametric representation of a line? What is its form? What are the Typical range of values for parametric variable. 2. (a) What are the stages involved in Window-to-viewport coordinate transforma-tion. Explain about each stage. (b) What is the procedure followed in point clipping with respect to a rectangular window. 3. (a) Write procedure copy-segment (old-segment, new-segment) which copies Old segment to new segment. (b) Distinguish between window and view port. 4. Find the normalization transformation that maps a window whose lower left corner is at (1,1) and upper right corner is at (3,5) onto (a) a view port that is the entire normalized device screen and (b) a view port that has the lower left corner at (0,0) and upper right corner at (1/2,1/2) 5. Explain the following terms with reference to 2-D displays: a. Viewing transformation b. Windows and view port 6. Compute the transformation matrix that maps a window with (wxmin,wxmax)=(2,2)and (wxmax,wymax) =(4,6) onto a normalize device coordinated which has lower left corner at (0,0) and upper right corner at (1,1) 7. Let R be a rectangular window whose lower left corner is at L (-3,1) and upper right- hand corner is at R(2,6). If the line segment is defined with two end points with A (-4,2) and B (-1,7). (a) The region codes of the two end points, (b) Its clipping catezory and (c) Stages in the clipping operations using Cohen-Sutherland algorithm. 6. Explain the algorithm for line clipping by Cohen-Sutherland algorithm. Demon-strate with an example all the three cases of lines (a) Find the general form of the transformation N which maps a rectangular window with x extent xwmin to xwmax in the x-direction and y extent ywmin to ymax in the y-direction on to a rectangular view port with x extent xvmax to xvmax and y extent yvmin to yvmax. (b) Distinguish between Cohen-Sutherland outcode and Sutherland-Hodgeman al-gorithm. 9. (a) List the algorithms which are suitable for line clipping when the clippingpolygon is non-rectangular window. (b) Explain about the following categories of lines with respect to rectangularclipping window. Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 33
  34. 34. i. Completely visible ii. Clipping-candidate iii. Completely invisible. 10 . Explain the Cohen-Sutherland algorithm for finding the category of a line segment.Show clearly how each category is handled by the algorithm OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. A rectangular area with its edges parallel to the axis of NDCS is used to specify a sub-region of the display area that embodies the image. This rectangular areas is called as [c] b) Normalized device c) Physical device d) View-port e) Window 2. Which of the following bits (from right) is set to 1 in cohen-sutherland algorithm if Y<Ymin a) bit 3 b) bit 1 c) bit 4 d) bit 2 [a] 3. The logical AND operation performed on the 4-bit codes correspond to the end- points of the line segment consists same non-zeros, then the line segment is. [b] a) Partially visible or completely invisible b) Completely invisible c) Partially visible d) Completely visible 4. The dot product of two vectors is positive then the angle between those two vectors is defined in the range of [c] a) 0<Θ<90 b) 90< Θ<270 c) 0<Θ<90 & 90< Θ<270 d) 0< Θ<180 Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 34
  35. 35. 5. The dimensions of normalized space in viewing transformation are [d] a) 640 x 480 b) Xmax x Ymax c) Workstation dependent d) 1 x 1 6. If the clipping polygon (window ) consists of n edges, how may iterations are to be performed in outermost loop [a] a) n b) n-1 c) window dependent d) 1 7. The second bit from right, in four bit code of Cohen Sutherland algorithm indicates the [b] a) Above region b) Right region c) below region d)left region 8. The equation for finding the coordinate value at the intersection point for the line segment (x1,y1) to (x2,y2) with x=xmax window edge is a) Y=(wxmax-y1)*m+x1 b) Y=(wxmax-x1)*m+y1 c) Y=(wxmax-y1)*m+x2 d) Y=(wxmax-x1)*m+x2 9. If a point is within the clipping rectangle, four bit code of the point according to cohen-sutherland algorithm is ]a] a) 0 0 0 0 b) 1 0 0 0 c) 1 1 1 1 d)0100 10. Which of the following 4 bit codes cannot be assigned to any region in cohen- sutherland algorithm [a] a) 0011 b)0100 c) 0000 d)0110 11. The method for selecting and enlarging portions of a drawing is______[a] a) windowing b) clipping c) viewport d) none 12. The ______ defines where is to be displayed [c] a) Windowing b) clipping c) view port d) none 13. The ____ defines what to be viewed. [b] a) windowing b) window c) view port d) none 14. ______algorithm is used for polygon clipping. [c] Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 35
  36. 36. a) cohen-sutherland b) sutherland Hodgemman c) Both a & b d) none 15. ______ polygons are correctly clipped by the sutherland Hodgemman. [b] a) Window b) convex c) view port d) none 16. By varying the size of _______ , we change the size & proportions of displayed object [c] a) Windowing b) window c) view port d) none 17. the method that can be used to test lines for total clipping is to perform the logical ____ operation with both region [b] a) OR b) AND c) NOR d) none 18. the region which an object is clipped is called a) window b) clip window c) viewport d)none 19. a __ area selected for display is called a window[a] a) world-coordinate b) view port c) origin d) none 20. any procedure that identifies those portions of a picture that are either inside or outside of a specified region of space is referred to as a_______ algorithm [b] a) Window b) clipping c) view port d) none ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. (a) What are the stages involved in Window-to-viewport coordinate transformation. Explain about each stage. (b) What is the procedure followed in point clipping with respect to a rectangular window 2. a) Find the normalization transformation that maps a window whose lower left corner is at (1,1) and upper right corner is at (3,5) onto (a) a view port that is the entire normalized device screen (b) a view port that has the lower left corner at (0,0) and upper right corner at (1/2,1/2) 3. Explain the algorithm for line clipping by Cohen-Sutherland algorithm & Sutherland- Hodgeman algorithm. TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1.Find the normalization transformation that maps a window whose lower left corner is at (1,1) and upper right corner is at (3,5) onto (a) a view port that is the entire normalized device screen and (b) a view port that has the lower left corner at (0,0) and upper right corner at(1/2,1/2) 2.Let R be a rectangular window whose lower left corner is at L (-3,1) and upper right- hand corner is at R(2,6). If the line segment is defined with two end points with A (1,-2) and B (3,3). (d) The region codes of the two end points, (e) Its clipping category (f) Stages in the clipping operations using Cohen-Sutherland algorithm. 3.Find the normalization transformation N that uses the rectangle A(1,1), B(5,3), C(4,5) and D(0,3) as a window and the normalized device screen as a viewport Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 36
  37. 37. UNIT-V DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1. (a) Distinguish between boundary representation and space-partitioning representation of solid object representation schemes. (b)List and describe the polygon tables representation for polygon surfaces of a 3-D object. Give an example. 2.(a) Explain about different representation of polygon meshes in surface modeling. (b) What are the characteristics of parametric cubic curves? What are its advantages? 3. (a) Determine the blending functions for uniform periodic B-spine curve for d=6. (b) Write the equation for the basic illumination model using a single point light source and constant surface shading for the faces of a specified polyhedron. 4. (a) What is the blending function used in Bezier’s method for curve generation? Explain the terms involved in it? (b) What are the properties of Bezier curve? 5. (a) Distinguish zero-order, first-order and second-order continuity. (b) What is the organization of control points followed in Bezier’s method to ensure second order continuity? (c) What are the properties of Bezier’s curve? 6. Explain the procedure to design two-dimensional, cubic Bezier curve shapes that have first order piece-wise continuity. 7. (a) What are the advantages of B-splines over Bezier Curves? (b) Differentiate between interpolation and approximation in spline representa- tions. (c) Give the applications of raster scan graphics. 8.(a)State the blending function suitable for Bezier surface and explain the terms involved In it (b)Demonstrate that Bezier curve is axis independent. 9.(a)Determinetheblending functions for uniform periodic B-spine curve for d=5. (b) Give a note about Phong specular-reflection model. 10. (a) Represent a cube using an explicit edge listing method. (b) Show that the nth degree B-spline basis function Bc,n(x) satisfying Bc,n(x) = 0 if x < ti or x > ti+n+1. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 37
  38. 38. 1. ________ is the polynomial with maximum power 3 [a] a) Cubic polynomial b) Quadric polynomial c) Binomial polynomial d) Acute polynomial 2. A polynomial curve using a parameter called as [a] a) Parametric polynomial curve b) Cubic polynomial curve c) Quadric polynomial curve d) Solid polynomial curve 3. A set connected polygon ally bounded planar surface is called as [a] a) polygon mesh b) solid object c)3D object d) Mesh-cube 4. ____ is not a common represented of 3D surface [d] a) polygon surface b) parametric surface c) quadratic surface d) neural surface 5. _______surfaces are defined on a plane, then the lanes normal is computed as. [c] a)cubic surface b) Bi-cubic surface c) quadratic surface d) binomial surface 6. _____surface are generated by cubic polynomial in both u and v parameter [b] a) cubic b) Bi-cubic c) Quadratic d) Binomial 7. Of Q(t) is a cubic polynomial , then the tangent vector of the curve is [b] a)[Q(t)2 b) Q’(t) c)1/Q(t) d) Q2(t) 8. The number of coefficient in a cubic polynomial [b] a) 3 b) 4 c) any number d) 1 9. _____ is the basis matrix of Hermites curve [a] Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 38
  39. 39. a)2 -2 1 1 b)2 -2 1 1 c)1 0 0 0 d) none -3 3 -2 -1 3 3 -2 -1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 -2 -1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 -2 1 1 10. The Horner’s rule for factoring polynomial f(t)=at3+bt2+ct+d is [b] a)((t+1)a+b)+c)+d b) ((at+)t+c)t+d c) ((at+1)t+c)t+d d)((a+1)t+b)+c)+d 11. In the following curves, _______curves require, for its definition two end points & two end point tangent vectors [a] a) Hermit curve b) Bezier curve c) B-spline d) none 12. in the B-splines algorithm , the B stands for [a] a) Basis b) black c) bold d) none 13. the range of parametric variable ‘t’ used in Bezier curve is [c] a)1,1 b)1,0 c) 0,1 d) none 14. _____ light has no spatial or directional characteristics [a] a) ambient b) ray light c) illuminationd) none 15. the _____ model ,sets the intensity of specular reflection proportional to cosns0 [b] a) increase b) phong c) song d) none 16. the range of values for the reflection coefficients followed in illumination model is a) 1 to 2 b)0 to 1 c) -1 to 1 d) 0 to a [b] 17. ____ draw back is observed in Gouraud shading [a] a) mach bands b) intensity c) density d) none 18. ___ is the principle of Gouraud shading [b] a) vector b) intensity interpolation c)surface d) none 19. _____ is the principle of constant intensity shading [c] a) vector b) intensity interpolation c) single intensity d) none 20. surfaces that are shiny and the light sources create highlight or bright spots called [a] a) specular reflection b)Distributed reflection c)diffuse d) ambient ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. What is the blending function used in Hermite curve method generation? Explain the terms involved in it? What are the properties of Hermite curve? 2. (a) Describe the properties of B spline approximations. (b)What is the difference between Bezier curve and B-spline curve? TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1.What is the blending function used in Bezier’s method for curve generation? Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 39
  40. 40. Explain the terms involved in it?What are the properties of Bezier curve? 2.Different types of B-Spline curves Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 40
  41. 41. UNIT-VI DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1. Prove that the multiplication of three-dimensional transformation matrices for each of the following sequence of operations is commutative. (a) Any two successive translations (b) Any two successive saling operations (c) Any two successive rotations about any one of the coordinate axes. 2. A pyramid defined by the coordinates A(0, 0, 0), B(1, 0, 0), C(0, 1, 0) and D(0, 0, 1) is rotated 450 about the line L that has the direction V=J+K and passing through point C(0, 1, 0). Find the coordinates of rotated figure. 3. Explain the Procedure to clip three-dimensional planes against a regular parallelepiped by extending Sutherland-Hodgeman algorithm for polygon clipping. 4. (a) Derive the quaternion rotation matrix for rotation about an arbitrary axis in three-dimensional domain. (b) Classify the perspective projections and explain about each. 5. Given a unit cube with one corner at (0, 0, 0) and the opposite corner at (1, 1, 1), derive the transformations necessary to rotate the cube by θ degrees about the main diagonal (from (0, 0, 0) to (1, 1, 1) in the counter clock-wise direction when looking along the diagonal toward the origin. 6. (a) Give a brief account on three-dimensional rotations. (b) Show the sequence of transformations for rotating an object about an axis that is parallel to the x axis 7. Derive transformation matrix for rotation about an arbitrary axis 8.(a)Write 3 dimensional homogeneous matrix to rotate by π degrees about the line passing through the point (0,0,0) and (1,0,1) (b)Write a note on smooth shading. 9.Consider a line from the origin of a right-handed coordinate system to the point P(x, y, z). Find the transformation matrix needed to rotate the line in to the positive z-axis. Follow the below mentioned sequence to achieve the desired transformation matrix: (a) Rotate about the z-axis into the (x, z) plane, (b) Then rotate about the y-axis in to the z-axis. 10. (a) What is the procedure for reflecting an about an arbitrarily selected plane. (b) What are the characterstics of perspective projections? Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 41
  42. 42. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. In 3D scaling transformation for transition with a unit along x-axis & b units along y- axis & c units along z-axis is [b] a)1 0 0 0 b)1 0 0 0 c) a b c 1 d) none 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 -a b 0 1 a b c 1 1 1 1 1 2. If the axis of rotation is X ,then the direction of positive rotation is [a] a)y to z b) z to x c) x to y d) y to x 3. If the axis of rotation is Y ,then the direction of positive rotation is [b] a)y to z b) z to x c) x to y d) y to x 4. If the axis of rotation is Z ,then the direction of positive rotation is [c] a)y to z b) z to x c) x to y d) y to x 5. In 3D space rotation of an object is done about [b] a) a point b) an axis c) a plane d) a hyper plain 6. In 3D scaling , all the three scaling parameters. [b] a) must be positive & greater than one b)must be positive c) either positive or negative d)n one 7. The x-shear maintains the coordinates of which of the following directions constant [d] a) x b) y c) z d)y and z 8. The y-shear maintains the coordinates of which of the following directions constant [c] a) x b) y c) x and z d)z 9. The x-shear maintains the coordinates of which of the following directions constant [b] a) x b) x and y c) z d)y and z 10. If an object is reflected about xy plane , ten the coordinates of which axis do not change [d] a)x b) y c) z d) x and y 11. If an object is reflected about xy plane , ten the coordinates of which axis do change [c] a)x b) y c) z d) x and y 12. ____ means of technique of projecting 3D object to 2D screen [a] Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 42
  43. 43. a) projection b)elevation c) display d) none 13. _____ show the true image ,size & shape of the object [b] a) relative projection b)parallel Projection c) display d) none 14. a parallel projection preserves ______ of object [a] a) relative projection b)parallel Projection c) display d) none 15. when the projection are perpendicular to the view plane then it is called [c] a) relative projection b)parallel Projection c) orthographics projection d) none 16. ortho graphics projections are often used to produce the front,side and ___ of an object [c] a)side view b) bottom view c) top view d) none 17. a toportho graphic projection is called a _______ [a] a) Plainview b) bottom view c) top view d) none ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. Consider a line from the origin of a right-handed coordinate system to the point P(x, y, z). Find the transformation matrix needed to rotate the line in to the positive z-axis. Follow the below mentioned sequence to achieve the desired transformation matrix: (a) Rotate about the z-axis into the (x, z) plane, (b) Then rotate about the y-axis in to the z-axis. 2. Classify the projections. Explain the properties of each. Distinguish the parallel projection and Perspective Projection view volumes. Give suitable examples 3. The pyramid defined by the coordinates A(0,0,0), B(1,0,0), C(0,1,0) and D(0,0,1) is rotated 15 deg. About the line L that has the direction V=J+K and passing through the piont C(0,1,0). Find the coordinates of the rotated pyramid. TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1.Find the transformation matrix which align the vector V=i+j+k with the vector N=2i-j-k. Prove that the multiplication of 3D transformation matrices for each of the following sequence of operation is commutative. 2.a) Any two successive translations. b) Any two successive scaling operation c)any two successive rotations about any one of the coordinate axes 3.A pyramid defined by the coordinates A(0, 0, 0), B(1, 0, 0), C(0, 1, 0) and D(0, 0, 1) is rotated 450 about the line L that has the direction V=J+K and passing through point C(0, 1, 0). Find the coordinates of rotated figure Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 43
  44. 44. UNIT-VII DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1.(a) Distinguish between object-space and image space methods of visible surface detection algorithms. Give examples for each. (b) Given points P (1, 2, 0), P (3, 6, 20) P (2, 4, 6) and a view point C (0, 0, -10), determine which points obscure the others when viewed from C. 2. (a) Explain the depth-buffer (z-buffer) algorithm for hidden surface removal. (b) Explain the procedure to compute the z-values in two successive locations in a scan-line and intersection positions on two successive scan lines. 3. (a) Assuming that one allows 224 depth value levels to be used, how much memory would a 1024 × 768 pixel display requires to store the z-buffer. (b) How can the amount of computation required by the scan-line method be reduced? 4. (a) Write an algorithm to that would test a given plane surface against a rectan- gular area to decide whether it is a surrounding, overlapping, inside or outside surface. (b) Distinguish depth-sort and z-buffer algorithms. 5. (a) Explain how the depth values are computed in scan-lines? (b) What are the merits and demerits of z-buffer? 6. Implement the depth-buffer method to display the visible surfaces of a given poly- hedron. How can the storage requirements for the depth buffer be determined from the definition of the objects to be displayed? 7. Outline the z-buffer algorithm. List the advantages and disadvantages of the z- buffer algorithm. 8. (a) Discuss about the scan line method for visible surface detection. (b) Compare and contrast depth-buffer and depth-sort methods. 9 .(a) Illustrate the procedure for implementing area-sub division method. (b) Explain how the BSP-tree method is implemented for visible surface detection. 10. (a) Explain about the octree method for visible surface detection. (b) Write an algorithm for back-face detection using a perspective projection to view visible faces of a convex polyhedron. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. Coherence methods are used to take advantage of [a] Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 44
  45. 45. a)Regularities in a scene b) irregularities in a scene c)Computational power of computer d) Precision of image capturing 2. Coherence property is used un visible surface detection algorithms to [a] a) speed-up the process b) increase the precision c) Speed-up the process& increase the precision d) none 3. The equation of polygon surface is Ax+By+Cz+D=0. Examining of which coefficient is sufficient to determine the visibility of polygon surface [c] a) A b) B c) C d) D 4. Another name for depth-buffer method for visible surface [a] a) z-buffer algorithm b) Depth-sorting algorithm c) scan-line algorithm d) Painters algorithm 5. In Z-Buffer algorithm , the Z-Buffer stores the value of [b] a) Depth b) Intensity c) Depth & Intensity d) Intensity & interaction number 6. In which of the following algorithm , the object surfaces need not be polygon [a] a) Z-Buffer b) List-priority c) Depth-Sort d) Binary space algorithm 7. In which of the following algorithm the polygons in the scene are grouped into cluster [b] a)List priority algorithm b) BSP tree algorithm c) Scan-line algorithm d)Z-Buffer algorithm 8. In which of the following algorithm, is well suited when the view point changes [b] a)List priority algorithm b) BSP tree algorithm c) Scan-line algorithm d)Z-Buffer algorithm 9. The correct priority order polygon list can be obtained using ____in BSP tree [a] Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 45
  46. 46. a) in order tree walk b) Pre-order tree walk c) Post-Order tree walk d) BFS tree walk 10. How many buffers are used in Z-Buffer algorithm [b] a) 1 b) 2 c)3 d) 4 ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. a)Outline the z-buffer algorithm. List the advantages and disadvantages of the z-buffer algorithm. b)Explain Painter’s Algorithm 2. (a)What are the advantages of mini max test in z-buffer algorithm (b)A polygon has a plan equation ax + by + cz + d = 0. Suppose that we know the value of ‘z’ at a point (x,y). What is the easiest way to calculate the value of z at (x + 1,y) and at (x,y +1)? TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1. Given points P (1, 2, 0), P (3, 6, 20) P (2, 4, 6) and a view point C (0, 0, -10), determine which points obscure the others when viewed from C. 2. Assuming that one allows 256 depth value levels to be used, approximately how much memory would a 512 × 512 pixel display require to store the Z-buffer? Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 46
  47. 47. UNIT-VIII DESCRIPTIVE QUESTION 1.What are the steps in design of animation sequence? Describe about each step briefly. 2. (a) List and explain about the steps of animation. (b) What are the various types of interpolation used in animation. 3. Discuss about the problems peculiar to animation and propose suitable solutions. 4. What are the steps in design of animation sequence? Describe about each step brief (a)What is raster animation? Describe it. (b)List the typical tasks for which the animation functions are defined in animation anguages. 5. What are the issues involved in design of a story board layout with accompanying key Frames for an animation of a single polyhedron. List the categories of animation Languages. Briefly explain the characteristics of each of these languages. 6. Discuss about the techniques to achieve the simple animation effects. 7. How the morphing effects are implemented in key frame system bared animation languages? 8.What are the issues involved in design of a story board layout with accompanying key frames for an animation of a single polyhedron. 9. List the general-purpose animation languages. Explain the characteristics any are language. 10. (a) Explain how the linear interpolation is implemented when the key-frame po- sitions of an object are given. (b) Describe linear list notation of animation languages OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. Application of computer-generated animation are [d] a)Advertising b) Scientific c) Training d) All the above 2. Many applications of computer animation require _____display [c] a) Random b) Regular c) Realistic d) Motive 3. ____define the motion sequence as a set of basic events that are to take place [b] a) Action b) Storyboard c) Frame d) none 4. Films requires ____frames per second [b] a) 34 b) 24 c)23 d) 25 Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 47
  48. 48. 5. Within each frame, each object is positioned according to the ___for that frame [a] a) time b) Shape c)Size d) Orientation 6. In the films , graphics terminals are refreshed at the rate of ____ frames per second [c] a) 30 to 80 b) 60 to 80 c)30 to 60 d)30 to 120 7. A single-arm robot has ___degrees of freedom [b] a)two b) six c) ten d) twenty 8. Morphing methods can be applied to any motion or transition involving a change in [d] a) size B)Color c)Texture d)Shape 9. ____ forces affects object motion [d] a) Magnetic b) Gravitational c) fraction d) all the above 10. _______requires the specification of the forces that produce the velocities & accelerations [a] a)Dynamics b)Kinematics c) Inverse dynamics d) none ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. (a) Discuss about the techniques to achieve the simple animation effects. (b) What are the various types of interpolation used in animation? 2. What are the steps in design of animation sequence? Describe about each step brief (a)What is raster animation? Describe it. (b)List the typical tasks for which the animation functions are defined in animation languages. TUTORIAL QUESTIONS 1.What are the various types of interpolation used in animation 2.The typical tasks for which the animation function are defined in animation languages Marri Laxman Reddy Institutions –COMPUTER GRAPHICS HAND BOOK– 2013 48

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