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Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
Increased Intracranial Pressure
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Increased Intracranial Pressure

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A very brief summary about intracranial hypertension (increased ICP)

A very brief summary about intracranial hypertension (increased ICP)

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Transcript

  • 1. Intracranial Hypertension Subgroup 1
  • 2. CONTENT1. Definition2. Pathophysiology3. Etiology4. Symptoms and Signs5. Progress6. Diagnosis7. Treatment 2
  • 3. I - DEFINITION• Skull: fixed compartment• Brain, blood and CSF: volume balance  ICP• ICP: 7-15 mmHg (supine); -10 mmHg (vertical)• ↑volume  ↑ICP (IH) 3
  • 4. II - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY• Intracranial constituents: – Brain and meninges – CSF – Blood supply (arteries and veins)• Change in constituents  IH 4
  • 5. II - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY• Brain and meninges: – Dura mater – Arachnoid mater – Pia mater – Brain parenchyma 5
  • 6. II - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY• CSF Circulation: – Site of production: Choroid plexus – Ventricles – Subarachnoid space – Optic foramen – Site of absorption: Dural sinus 6
  • 7. II - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY• Arteries: – Blood supply pressure: CPP – CPP = MAP – ICP• Vein: dural sinus (sagittal sinus) 7
  • 8. II - PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ↑ICPCPP = MAP - ICP ↓CPP ↑BPBrain ischemia Cerebral Cerebral blood hemorrhage vessels dilate Brain edema 8
  • 9. III - ETIOLOGY• Benign intracranial hypertension• Trauma: – Epidural hemorrhage – Subdural hemorrhage 9
  • 10. III - ETIOLOGY• Non-trauma: – Tumor: mass + CSF production – Abscess, hematoma – Inflammation: CSF production – ↑ venous pressure (CHF, occlusion) – CSF flow obstruction – Brain edema (hepatoencelopathy, anoxia …) 10
  • 11. IV - SYMPTOMS & SIGNS• Symptoms: – Headache: generalized, positional – Vomiting: sudden, positional – Altered mental status – Back pain – Abdominal pain 11
  • 12. IV - SYMPTOMS & SIGNS• Signs: mass effect – Papilledema – Pupillary dilatation – CN VI palsy – Nuchal rigidity (neck stiffness): not painful – Cushing’s triad: ↑pulse pressure, ↓HR, irregular respiration (Cheyne-Stokes, hyperventilation) 12
  • 13. V - PROGRESS• Brain herniation – Supratentorial • Uncal (1) • Central (2) • Cingulate (3) • Transcalvarial (4) – Infratentorial • Upward (5) • Tonsillar (6) 13
  • 14. V - PROGRESS• Signs and symptoms: – Vomiting – Irregular respirations – Abnormal posture – Low level of consciousness – Pupillary dilatation, response to light (-) – CN palsies 14
  • 15. VI - DIAGNOSIS• Clinical: Signs and Symptoms• Lab tests: MRI, CT reveal causes 15
  • 16. VII - TREATMENT• IH treatment: – Patient: lying, head motion restriction – Adequate airway, breathing & oxygenation – Anti-edema: mannitol, corticoid …• Etiological treatment: – Drainage – Craniotomy 16
  • 17. REFERENCES• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intracranial_pres sure• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_herniation• Trieu chung hoc Co so, tap 1 – NXB Y hoc 17
  • 18. THE ENDThank you for listening!

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