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Introduction to Special Education, Teaching in an Age of Opportunity, Chapter 5 Speech & Language Impairments.

Introduction to Special Education, Teaching in an Age of Opportunity, Chapter 5 Speech & Language Impairments.

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Chapter 5 Tmg Chapter 5 Tmg Presentation Transcript

  • Speech or Language Impairments Chapter 5 Introduction to Special Education
  • The Significance of Language
    • Language is the foundation for:
      • Cognition (Understanding and Learning)
      • Reading Abilities
      • Social Competence
      • Basically every aspect of life.
      • Page 179, 4 th ed.
  • Communication Process page 181-183, 4 th ed.
  • Communication is unsuccessful when…
    • The sender or the receiver cannot use the signals and symbols adequately.
    • Either person has a defective mechanism for sending or receiving info.
    • Page 181-182, 4 th ed.
  • Important Terms
    • Communication – the transfer of knowledge, ideas, opinions and feelings.
    • Language – The formalized method of communication by which ideas are transmitted to others.
    • Speech – The vocal production of language, usually the fastest and most efficient way to communicate.
    • Vocal System – System made up of
      • (1) vibrating system (larynx & vocal folds – the makers of sound) and
      • (2) Resonating Systems (oral & nasal cavities – forms the sounds into words).
  • The Body’s Systems for Generating Voice and Speech page 184, 4 th ed.
  • Types of Speech and Language Impairments page 185, 5 th ed.
  • Speech Impairments
    • Speech is abnormal when it is unintelligible, is unpleasant, or interferes with communication.
      • Voice – Pitch and Loudness.
        • Part of ones identity.
      • Articulation – ex. “thinger” instead of “finger”.
        • Considered “cute” at younger ages.
      • Fluency – hesitations or repetitions that interrupt the flow of speech that are not age appropriate. For example: speaking very quickly or hesitation in the middle of a sentence that is covered by using fillers such as “like”, “you know” or “umm”.
        • This can occur with adults during times of stress, excitement or unfamiliar situations.
      • Pages 183-186, 5 th Ed.
  • Articulation Typical Development of Correctly Producing Sounds (90% of all Children) Page 186, 4 th ed.
  • Language Impairments
    • Language problems arise when one experiences difficulty or inability to master the various systems of rules in language, which then interferes with communication. Pages 187-188, 4 th Ed.
  • Form – Rule Systems
    • Phonology – Combining speech sounds to form words/sentences.
      • Ex. How vowels and consonants are used together to sounds
        • Varies per language spoken.
          • Ex. Hawaiian - 24 speech sound combinations vs. English – 45 speech sound combinations.
    • Morphology – Structuring of words/meaning of words.
      • Ex. Cover, cover ed , un cover ed .
    • Syntax – Order of words in sentence/phrases.
      • Ex. It is one o’clock. / Is it one o’clock.
  • Content – Intent or Meanings
    • Spoken or Written Language
    • Semantics – System that patterns the intent and meanings of words and sentences to comprise the content of communication.
    • Not being exact, clear or precise with our language
      • Ex. Child comes home from school and says “left at school”. Mom ask what was left at school. The phrase does not make sense used in this way.
  • Use – Application of Language
    • Concerns application of language in various communications according to the social context of the situation.
    • Pragmatics – Study of language in context & focuses of the intention of the communication.
      • Ex. Child must know what a cup is and what it is used for before he/she can properly use the word cup in communication.
      • Pages 187-188, 4 th ed.
  • Identification
    • Who? Speech / Language Pathologist (SLP’s)
    • Formal assessment of a person to determine if they have a speech or language impairment is made by an SLP.
    • How? (1) Formal Assessment
    • (2) Informal Assessment
    • Formal assessments such as standardized test are used by SLP’s.
    • Ex. Test of Language Development (TOLD)
    • Informal assessments such as observations during free play time. This is the primary source of assessment of child’s spontaneous speech. Page 189, 4 th Ed.
  • What are SLP’s Looking For?
    • Speech Impairments
    • Articulation Errors
      • Repeated omission of groups of sounds or substitution of one sound for another or extra sounds added.
    • Voice Problems
      • Chronic Hoarseness
    • Fluency Problems
      • Ex. Stuttering
  • Four Kinds of Articulation Errors
  • What are SLP’s Looking For?
    • Language Impairments
    • Observations to determine how well child uses the Rules of Language
      • Form
        • Phonology
        • Morphology
        • Syntax
      • Content
        • Semantics
      • Use
        • Pragmatics
        • Page 191, 4 th Ed.
  • Significance
    • The ability or inability to use speech and language well influences a person’s academics, social world and employment.
    • Services should be provided to individuals with speech or language difficulties to enable them to learn how best to communicate successfully with others.
    • Page 192, 4 th Ed.
  • History of the Field
    • S/L problems have been a part of the human condition as long as there have been humans.
    • In the past people with S/L Impairments were considered fools or buffoons only good for cruel entertainment.
    • In the U.S. speech correction was not available until 20 th Century.
  • History of the Field
    • 1910 – Chicago Public Schools – Speech training program for children who “stammered”
    • 1914 – First Speech Clinic by Smiley Blanton at the University of Wisconsin
    • 1925 – American Academy for Speech Correction was formed spearheaded by Robert West. Later became American Speech & hearing Association (ASHA) Page 193, 5 th Ed.
  • History of the Field
    • Speech clinicians in public schools and military research programs demonstrated that speech therapy can be effective and after the war (WWII) more universities began to train SLP’s.
    • 1970s were a period of transition and further improvements in the field as more research resulted in new information about S/L Impairments.
    • Pages 193-194, 5 th Ed.
  • Pattern of Development
  • Prevention and Early Identification
    • Preventative Measures
      • Proper pre-natal care
      • Proper immunizations from diseases such as rubella and polio
      • Good childhood nutrition
    • Early ID and Intervention can GREATLY reduce the impact of S/L Impairments on the individual.
  • Watch For…
  • Educational Interventions
    • Almost every school in U.S. has access to SLP’s
    • General Ed teachers play a crucial role in children’s language development.
    • Teachers can utilize Instructional Enhancements that encourage expressive and receptive language such as language based games.
    • Collaborative work with teachers and SLP’s are crucial and the shared responsibility for problem definition, planning, provision of services and evaluating outcomes.
  • Technology
    • Alternative and Augmentative Communication
      • Low Tech
        • Communication Boards
      • High Tech
        • Speech Synthesizers
        • * Video from EDUC 6100 of Autistic Woman in College who used the communication device. AMAZING what she already knew that no one expected.