OLM Science6_8


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Grade 6, Chapter 8

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OLM Science6_8

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Volcanoes Volcanic Eruptions Section 1
  2. 2. Nonexplosive Eruptions <ul><li>Volcanoes with Lava flows </li></ul>
  3. 3. Explosive Eruptions <ul><li>Clouds of hot debris and gases shoot out from the volcanoes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Magma <ul><li>Hot liquid material volcanoes are created in </li></ul>
  5. 5. Vents <ul><li>Holes in the Earth’s crust that magma rises through </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lava <ul><li>Magma that erupts onto the Earth’s surface </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pyroclastic Material <ul><li>Magma & fragments of rock that are blasted into the air during violent earthquake eruptions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Volcano <ul><li>A vent or group of vents combined with a buildup of lava or pyroclastic material </li></ul>
  9. 9. Magma - High Water Content <ul><li>Explosive volcanoes with high water content </li></ul>
  10. 10. Magma - Silica <ul><li>Magma that contains a large percentage of Silica </li></ul>
  11. 11. Blocky Lava <ul><li>Cool stiff lava that cannot travel far from the erupting vent </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pahoehoe <ul><li>Lava that flows like wax dripping from a candle </li></ul>
  13. 13. Aa <ul><li>Lava that has a jagged surface </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pillow Lava <ul><li>Lava that erupts underwater </li></ul>
  15. 15. Volcanic Blocks <ul><li>Largest pieces of pyroclastic material </li></ul>
  16. 16. Volcanic Bombs <ul><li>Large blobs of magma that harden in the air </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lapilli <ul><li>“Little stones” pebble-like bits of pyroclastic material </li></ul>
  18. 18. Volcanic Ash <ul><li>Particles that are less than 2 mm in diameter </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter 8 Volcanoes Volcanoes’ Effects on Earth Section 2
  20. 20. Volcanic Flows <ul><li>Clouds of hot ash that flow rapidly downhill like an avalanche </li></ul>
  21. 21. Volcanic Fallout <ul><li>As volcanic ash falls to the ground effects may be devastating </li></ul>
  22. 22. Climatic Fluctuation <ul><li>Ash & gases spread around the globe & block out the sun </li></ul>
  23. 23. Shield Volcanoes <ul><li>Layers of lava from repeated non explosive eruptions </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cinder cone volcanoes <ul><li>Small volcanic cones made entirely of pyroclastic material from moderately explosive eruptions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Composite Volcanoes <ul><li>Explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material </li></ul>
  26. 26. Crater <ul><li>Funnel shaped pit at the top of the central vent </li></ul>
  27. 27. Caldera <ul><li>Magma chamber volcanoes empties & roof collapses </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chapter 8 Volcanoes What causes Volcanoes? Section 2
  29. 29. Formation of Magma <ul><li>Magma forms below the Earth’s surface in a region that includes the lower crust & the upper mantle </li></ul>
  30. 30. Where Volcanoes Form <ul><li>Tectonic plate boundaries form “ring of fire” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Rift <ul><li>Deep crake forms between the plates </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hot Spots <ul><li>Tectonic plates that are directly above columns of rising magma </li></ul>