Chapter 7  Earthquakes What are Earthquakes? Section 1
Seismology <ul><li>The study of earthquakes </li></ul>
Fault <ul><li>A break in the Earth’s crust along which the crust slide relative to one another </li></ul>Normal Thrust Str...
Deformation <ul><li>Change in the shape of a rock in response to stress </li></ul>
Elastic Rebound <ul><li>Sudden return of elastically deformed rock </li></ul>
Transform Motion  <ul><li>Two plates slip past each other </li></ul>                     
Strike-Slip Fault <ul><li>Blocks of crust slide past each other </li></ul>
Convergent <ul><li>Occurs where two plates push together </li></ul>                            
Reverse Fault <ul><li>Blocks of crust that are pushed together slide vertically </li></ul>
Divergent Motion <ul><li>Two plates pull away from each other </li></ul>                     
Normal Faults <ul><li>Block of crust are pulled away from each other slide vertically </li></ul>
Seismic Waves <ul><li>Waves of energy that travel through the Earth </li></ul>
P Waves <ul><li>Travel through solids liquids & gases. Fastest  seismic waves (Primary Waves) </li></ul>
S Waves <ul><li>Shear waves, second fastest seismic wave(Secondary Wave) </li></ul>
Surface Waves <ul><li>Moves the ground up and down in circles as the waves travel along the surface </li></ul>
Chapter 7  Earthquakes Earthquake Measurement Section 2
Seismographs <ul><li>Instruments that record seismic waves </li></ul>
Seismogram <ul><li>Tracing of an earthquake motion created by a seismograph </li></ul>
Epicenter <ul><li>Point on the Earth’s surface directly above an earthquakes starting point </li></ul>
Focus <ul><li>The point inside the Earth where the earthquake begins </li></ul>
Finding the Epicenter <ul><li>A circle is drawn around 3 different seismograph station </li></ul>
Richter Scale <ul><li>Tool used to measure the earthquake strength </li></ul>
Chapter 7  Earthquakes Earthquakes and Society Section 3
Earthquake Hazard <ul><li>How prone an area is to experiencing earthquakes in the future </li></ul>
Strength & Frequency <ul><li>The weaker the earthquake the more often they occur </li></ul>
Gap Hypothesis <ul><li>Sections of active faults that have few earthquakes are likely to be sites of strong earthquakes </...
Seismic Gaps <ul><li>Areas along the fault where relatively few earthquakes have occurred </li></ul>
Mass Damper <ul><li>Weight placed on the roof of the building </li></ul>
Cross - Braces <ul><li>Braces placed between floors </li></ul>
Flexible Pipes <ul><li>Prevent water & gas lines from breaking </li></ul>
Base Isolators <ul><li>Act as shock absorbers during an earthquake </li></ul>
Active Tendon System <ul><li>Works like damper system in the roof </li></ul>
Chapter 7  Earthquakes Earthquake Discoveries near and Far Section 4
Moho <ul><li>Space within the Earth where the speed of seismic waves increase sharply </li></ul>
Shadow Zone <ul><li>Area on the Earth’s surface where no waves from a particular earthquake can be detected </li></ul>
Inner Core <ul><li>Solid inner core </li></ul>
Moonquakes <ul><li>Seismograph event on the moon </li></ul>
Mars <ul><li>Space probe  Viking I </li></ul>
The Sun <ul><li>Seismic Waves </li></ul>
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OLM Science6_7

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OLM Science6_7

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Earthquakes What are Earthquakes? Section 1
  2. 2. Seismology <ul><li>The study of earthquakes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fault <ul><li>A break in the Earth’s crust along which the crust slide relative to one another </li></ul>Normal Thrust Strike-slip
  4. 4. Deformation <ul><li>Change in the shape of a rock in response to stress </li></ul>
  5. 5. Elastic Rebound <ul><li>Sudden return of elastically deformed rock </li></ul>
  6. 6. Transform Motion <ul><li>Two plates slip past each other </li></ul>                     
  7. 7. Strike-Slip Fault <ul><li>Blocks of crust slide past each other </li></ul>
  8. 8. Convergent <ul><li>Occurs where two plates push together </li></ul>                            
  9. 9. Reverse Fault <ul><li>Blocks of crust that are pushed together slide vertically </li></ul>
  10. 10. Divergent Motion <ul><li>Two plates pull away from each other </li></ul>                     
  11. 11. Normal Faults <ul><li>Block of crust are pulled away from each other slide vertically </li></ul>
  12. 12. Seismic Waves <ul><li>Waves of energy that travel through the Earth </li></ul>
  13. 13. P Waves <ul><li>Travel through solids liquids & gases. Fastest seismic waves (Primary Waves) </li></ul>
  14. 14. S Waves <ul><li>Shear waves, second fastest seismic wave(Secondary Wave) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Surface Waves <ul><li>Moves the ground up and down in circles as the waves travel along the surface </li></ul>
  16. 16. Chapter 7 Earthquakes Earthquake Measurement Section 2
  17. 17. Seismographs <ul><li>Instruments that record seismic waves </li></ul>
  18. 18. Seismogram <ul><li>Tracing of an earthquake motion created by a seismograph </li></ul>
  19. 19. Epicenter <ul><li>Point on the Earth’s surface directly above an earthquakes starting point </li></ul>
  20. 20. Focus <ul><li>The point inside the Earth where the earthquake begins </li></ul>
  21. 21. Finding the Epicenter <ul><li>A circle is drawn around 3 different seismograph station </li></ul>
  22. 22. Richter Scale <ul><li>Tool used to measure the earthquake strength </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chapter 7 Earthquakes Earthquakes and Society Section 3
  24. 24. Earthquake Hazard <ul><li>How prone an area is to experiencing earthquakes in the future </li></ul>
  25. 25. Strength & Frequency <ul><li>The weaker the earthquake the more often they occur </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gap Hypothesis <ul><li>Sections of active faults that have few earthquakes are likely to be sites of strong earthquakes </li></ul>
  27. 27. Seismic Gaps <ul><li>Areas along the fault where relatively few earthquakes have occurred </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mass Damper <ul><li>Weight placed on the roof of the building </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cross - Braces <ul><li>Braces placed between floors </li></ul>
  30. 30. Flexible Pipes <ul><li>Prevent water & gas lines from breaking </li></ul>
  31. 31. Base Isolators <ul><li>Act as shock absorbers during an earthquake </li></ul>
  32. 32. Active Tendon System <ul><li>Works like damper system in the roof </li></ul>
  33. 33. Chapter 7 Earthquakes Earthquake Discoveries near and Far Section 4
  34. 34. Moho <ul><li>Space within the Earth where the speed of seismic waves increase sharply </li></ul>
  35. 35. Shadow Zone <ul><li>Area on the Earth’s surface where no waves from a particular earthquake can be detected </li></ul>
  36. 36. Inner Core <ul><li>Solid inner core </li></ul>
  37. 37. Moonquakes <ul><li>Seismograph event on the moon </li></ul>
  38. 38. Mars <ul><li>Space probe Viking I </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Sun <ul><li>Seismic Waves </li></ul>

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