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Sixth Grade, Chapter 15

Sixth Grade, Chapter 15

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  • 1. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere Characteristics of the Atmosphere Section 1
  • 2. Composition of the Atmosphere
    • Nitrogen is the abundant gas in the atmosphere
  • 3. Composition of the Atmosphere
    • Oxygen is the second most common gas in the atmosphere
  • 4. Composition of the Atmosphere
    • 1 percent of the atmosphere is made up of argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases
  • 5. Air Pressure
    • The measure of the force with which the air molecules push on the surface
  • 6. Altitude
    • The height of an object above the Earth’s surface
  • 7. Layers of the Atmosphere
  • 8. Troposphere
    • Lies next to the Earth’s surface; the lowest layer of the atmosphere
                                                             
  • 9. Stratosphere
    • The atmosphere layer above the Troposphere
  • 10. Ozone
    • Molecule that is made of three oxygen atoms
  • 11. Mesosphere
    • Above the stratosphere – Coldest layer of the atmosphere
  • 12. Thermosphere
    • Uppermost atmosphere
  • 13. Layers of the Atmosphere
  • 14. What are the 2 main gasses in the Earth’s atmosphere?
    • Nitrogen & Oxygen
    What is atmospheric Pressure? The force exerted by molecules on a surface
  • 15. Name the layers of the atmosphere, starting with the one closest to the Earth?
    • Troposphere
    • Stratosphere
    • Mesosphere
    • Thermosphere
  • 16. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere Heating of the atmosphere Section 2
  • 17. Radiation
    • Energy that is transferred as waves
  • 18. Conduction
    • The transfer of heat from one material to another by direct physical contact
  • 19. Convection
    • The transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of liquid or gas
  • 20. Greenhouse Effect
    • The Earth’s heating process, in which the gases in the atmosphere absorb radiation and change that energy into heat.
  • 21. Global Warming
    • A rise in the average global temperatures
  • 22. What is Radiation?
    • Energy transferred as waves
    A metal spoon left in a bowl of hot soup feels hot. Which process is mainly responsible for heating the spoon? Conduction
  • 23. What is convection current?
    • The continental, circular movement of warm & cool particles in liquid & gas
  • 24. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere Atmospheric pressure and winds Section 3
  • 25. Wind
    • Moving Air
  • 26. Surface Winds
    • Blow from high - pressure areas to equatorial low - pressure areas
  • 27. Pressure Belts
    • Uneven heating of the Earth produces Pressure Belts These belts occur about every 30 degrees of latitude
  • 28. Coriolis Effect
    • The curving of moving objects, such as wind, by the Earth’s rotation
  • 29. Trade Winds
    • Winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude to the Equator
  • 30. Westerlies
    • Wind belts found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 30 degrees & 60 degrees
  • 31. Polar Easterlies
    • Wind belts that extend from the poles to 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
  • 32. Types of Winds
  • 33. Jet Streams
    • Narrow belts of high speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
  • 34. Sea & Land Breezes
  • 35. What is wind?
    • Air that flows between air masses
    • of different temperatures
    Describe the general movement of wind over the Earth. Winds generally move from the poles to the equator
  • 36. What is the Coriolis Effect?
    • The deflection of moving objects due to Earth’s rotation.
    What are the two types of breezes that result from local topography? Mountain & Valley Breezes
  • 37. Chapter 15 The Atmosphere The Air We Breathe Section 4
  • 38. Primary pollutants
    • Pollutants that are put directly into the air by human & natural activity
  • 39. Secondary Pollutants
    • Pollutants that form from chemical reactions that occur when primary pollutants come into contact with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances
  • 40. Secondary Pollutants
  • 41. Industrial Air Pollution
    • Industrial Plants & Electric Power Plants that burn fossil fuels to get their energy
  • 42. Indoor Air Pollution
    • Household cleaners, air fresheners & smoke from cooking
  • 43. Acid Precipitation
    • Precipitation that contains acids due to air pollution
  • 44. Ozone Hole
    • Breakdown of the ozone into oxygen which does not block ultraviolet waves
  • 45. Scrubber
    • A device that attaches to smokestacks to remove some of the more harmful pollutants before they are released into the air
  • 46. Classify each of the following as either a primary or secondary air pollution? Smog Secondary Air Pollutant
  • 47. Chalk Dust Primary Air Pollutant Tobacco Smoke Secondary Air Pollutant Acid Rain Secondary Air Pollutant
  • 48. What are three sources of outdoor air pollution?
    • Motor Vehicles
    • Electrical Power Plants
    • Industries
  • 49. How do scrubbers help reduce air pollution?
    • Scrubbers move gases through a spray of water that dissolves many pollutants before they are released into the atmosphere
  • 50. References
    • Slides 2, 3 & 4 http://www.dangermouse.net/gurps/amber/atlas/triana.html
    • Slide 5
    • http://www.truckworld.com/How-To-Tech/03-tire_pressure/03-pressure.html
    • Slide 6
    • http://www. aseairport .com/ highaltitude .html