History of Networking and Security

3,825 views
3,606 views

Published on

Given a guest lecture at James Cook University Singapore.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,825
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
13
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
95
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History of Networking and Security

  1. 1. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Networking and Security Darwin Gosal National University of Singapore
  2. 2. OutlineQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah History of communication History of telecommunication Computer networking now and beyond Information Security Ancient cryptography Overview of modern cryptography Introduction to quantum cryptography.
  3. 3. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Body Language History of Communication
  4. 4. History of CommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Speech 200,000 years ago (FOXP2 gene) Unreliable storage: human memory human hearing human voice 20Hz 300Hz 4kHz 14kHz 20kHz 500Hz 3kHz speech
  5. 5. History of CommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Symbol Rock carving Cave painting Pictograms Ideograms Logographic Alphabet
  6. 6. SymbolQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Cave Paintings Rock Carving (Petroglyph) Chauvet Cave (30,000 BC) Haljesta (10,000BC)
  7. 7. SymbolQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Pictograms (9000 BC) Ideograms Logographic (4000BC) 2600 BC Sumerian Cuneiform Ideograms from Mi’kmag hieroglyps Chinese Oracle Bone Script 1600BC Water, Rabbit, & Deer from Aztec Stone of the Sun Egyptian hieroglyph
  8. 8. SymbolQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Alphabet / Adjad A mapping of single symbols to single phonemes Nearly all alphabetical scripts used around the world derived from Proto- Sinaitic alphabet “Ba’alat” means Lady (title for Hathor, feminime title for semitic god Baal)
  9. 9. History of CommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Writing tools / medium Papyrus (3000BC) The first newspaper, Acta Diurna (59BC) Paper (100AD) Pens (1000AD) Printing press, Gutenberg (1400AD) Typewriter (1800s) Computers (1960s)
  10. 10. History of TelecommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Transportation Foot soldier Postal system Sneaker-net F-16 payload: 4600kg 76,470pcs of 2.5” 160GB HDD Capacity: 12 Peta-Bytes Speed: Mach 2 Range: 3200km Bandwidth: 2.6 TB/s
  11. 11. History of TelecommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Drums signal Drum talking (i.e. Yoruba language) Smoke signals
  12. 12. History of TelecommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Heliograph (Greek, 405BC) Modern Heliograph using Morse code (1810) Semaphore (1972) Distance: 20 miles Bandwidth: 15 cpm
  13. 13. History of TelecommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Electric Telegraph 1st commercial version (1937) by Wheatstone & Cooke 9 April 1839 – 21km First transatlantic telegraph cable (1866) Telex (Teleprinter Exchange, 1932) a switched telegraph service.
  14. 14. History of TelecommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Telephone (1876) Alexander Graham Bell Elisha Grey Antonio Meucci Bell Telephone Company (1877) American Telephone & Telegraph (1885) AT&T break-up (1984)
  15. 15. History of TelecommunicationQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Radio / Wireless Telegraph (1890s) Nikola Tesla (1893) Guglielmo Marconi (1901) 1st wireless comm. between UK & US Won Nobel Prize in Physics (1909) Mobile Phone (Marty Cooper 1973)
  16. 16. From Analog to DigitalQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Claude Shannon Father of Modern Information Theory Publish: A Mathematical Theory of Communication (1948) Won 1936 Nobel on: “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuit” Notion of BITS = Binary digITS.
  17. 17. Computer NetworkingQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah 1960/4 - Research on Packet Switching 1968 - DARPA contracts with BBN to create ARPAnet 1970 - The first 5 nodes: BBN, Stanford, UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, & U of Utah. 1972 - TCP created by Vint Cerf 1981 - ARPAnet have 213 nodes and IPv4, TCP/UDP is used.
  18. 18. Computer NetworkingQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah 1983 – TCP/IP compliant network Internet ARPAnet + X.25 + UUCP + NSFnet 1989 – Tim Berners-Lee, CERN, invented HTML thus World-Wide-Web. 1993 – Mosaic, the 1st graphical browser 100000 10000 Hosts 5000 1000 562 213 100 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Years
  19. 19. Computer NetworkingQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah 1992 – Internet Society (ISOC) given formal oversight of the Internet Activities Board (IAB) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 1995 – Fed Gov out from networking infrastructure business eCommerce
  20. 20. Networking now and beyondQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Personal Area Network Bluetooth, PDA-phone, Notebook Local Area Network Gigabit, WiFi (802.11a/b/g/n) Wide Area Network Frame-Relay, ATM, GSM (EDGE, GPRS), CDMA (3G) MAN FDDI, FSO, WiMax
  21. 21. Networking now and beyondQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah IPv6 (232 2128), Internet 2 Peer to Peer (Usenet 1979) Wireless Mesh network (802.11s) Convergence VoIP Starhub cable: TV, Phone, Broadband RFID (spychips?) GPS © NASA
  22. 22. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah The Future Networking now and beyond
  23. 23. Information SecurityQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Confidentiality (Authentication) Ensuring the information is accessible only to authorized personal (prevent unauthorized disclosure) Integrity (Non-repudiation) Safeguarding the accuracy and completeness of the information (prevent unauthorized modification) Availability (Reliability) Ensuring authorized user to have access to the information when required (prevent disruption of service and productivity)
  24. 24. Information SecurityQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Confidentiality PIN,Password, Passphrase, Biometrics, Tokens, Encryption Integrity MD5, SHA1 Availability Denial of Service
  25. 25. Information SecurityQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Network Security Firewall, IDS, VPN Application Security SELinux, Secure coding Host (End-point) Security Anti-virus, Anti-spyware, ACL, Physical security, Social engineering
  26. 26. Information SecurityQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Hacker activity Firewall Worms & viruses Intrusion Detection SPAM SPAM filtering Spyware Anti-Spyware Phishing Phishing filtering
  27. 27. Information SecurityQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Trusted Computing (TPM) Palladium Digital Right Management (DRM) Play4Sure, DVD’s Content Scrambling System (CSS) Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
  28. 28. Security ModelQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Threat avoidance (Military model) Security is absolute (either you’re secure or not)
  29. 29. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Risk Management
  30. 30. Security ModelQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Risk Management (Business model) Security is relative (many risks and solutions) Accept the risk Mitigate the risk with technology Mitigate the risk with procedures Transfer the risk
  31. 31. CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Claude Shannon Father of modern cryptography “Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems” Cryptology (scrambling) Cryptography Cryptanalysis Steganography (hiding)
  32. 32. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah AliceEavesdropper Bob Cryptography
  33. 33. History of CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Atbash cipher Hebrew (600BC) Permutation cipher (Greek) Scytale (6BC) Subtitution cipher Caesar Shift (1400s)
  34. 34. History of CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Queen Mary’s Cipher (Babington Plot) Plot to free Queen Mary, incite a rebellion, and murder Queen Elizabeth. The conspirators communicated with Queen Mary, who was being held prisoner by Elizabeth, via enciphered smuggled letters.
  35. 35. History of CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Nomenclator – 23 symbols representing letters, and 35 symbols representing words Cracked by Thomas Phelippes at the first Cipher school in England established in 1586 by Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth’s Secretary and head of security.
  36. 36. History of CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Mary replied to a letter from Babington using the compromised cipher. Phelippes added a forged postscript from Queen Mary asking Babington for the identities of the conspirators. He supplied them.
  37. 37. History of CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Mary was beheaded Babington and the six conspirators were emasculated, disemboweled, and then executed.
  38. 38. History of CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Al-Kindi (800AD) Frequency Analysis Lipograms English: ETAOINSHR German: ENIRSATUD French: EAISTNRUL Spanish: EAOSNRILD Italian: EAIONLRTS Finnish: AITNESLOK Thats right, this is a lipogram - a book, paragraph or similar thing in writing that fails to contain a symbol, particularly that symbol fifth in rank out of 26 (amidst d and f) and which stands for a vocalic sound such as that in kiwi. I wont bring it up right now, to avoid spoiling it..."
  39. 39. LipogramsQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah The most famous lipogram: Georges Perec, La Disparition (1969) 85000 words without the letter e: Tout avait lair normal, mais tout saffirmait faux. Tout avait lair normal, dabord, puis surgissait linhumain, laffolant. Il aurait voulu savoir où sarticulait lassociation qui lunissait au roman : sur son tapis, assaillant à tout instant son imagination, … English translator, Gilbert Adair, in A Void, succeeded in avoiding the letter e as well Gottlob Burmann (1737-1805) R-LESS POETRY. An obsessive dislike for the letter r; wrote 130 poems without using that letter, he also omitted the letter r from his daily conversation for 17 years…
  40. 40. History of Cryptography Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Gilbert Vernam (AT&T) 1918 Enigma (WW2) Vernam Cipher 3DES AESClaude Shannon of Bell Labs (ca. 1945) proved the one time padguaranties perfect security as long as: •The key is a truly random number •The key is as long as the message •The key is used only once
  41. 41. DES CrackerQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah This board is part of the EFF DES cracker, which contained over 1800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days.
  42. 42. Key DistributionQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Public Key Cryptosystem RSA (Factoring) Others: McEliece ElGamal ECC
  43. 43. Modern CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Public-Key Cryptosystem (RSA, ECC) Public Key Infrastructure Authentication method Diffie-Hellman key exchange Session key created for symmetric cryptography Use AES or 3DES
  44. 44. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Diffie-Hellman
  45. 45. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Diffie-Hellman
  46. 46. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Diffie-Hellman
  47. 47. Diffie-HellmanQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Copyright, 2000-2006 by NetIP, Inc. and Keith Palmgren, CISSP
  48. 48. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Execution Time 2 LINPUT SIZE L n P NP EXP Computational Complexity
  49. 49. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Moore’s law Shor’s algorithm Quantum Computer
  50. 50. Quantum CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah In April 2004, the EU decided to spend €11 million developing secure communication based on quantum cryptography — the SECOQC project — a system that would theoretically be unbreakable by ECHELON or any other espionage system. European governments have been leery of ECHELON since a December 3, 1995 story in the Baltimore Sun claiming that aerospace company Airbus lost a $6Billion contract with Saudi Arabia in 1994 after the NSA reported that Airbus officials had been bribing Saudi officials to secure the contract. Source: Wikipedia http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/820758.stm
  51. 51. Quantum CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Quantum Key Distribution Bit = 0’s or 1’s Qubit = 0’s, 1’s, or “0 and 1”.
  52. 52. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah BOTH Which path is taken? Qubit
  53. 53. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah What do you see? measurement Qubit
  54. 54. QubitQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah or 0 1 Ψ =α 0 +β 1 Ψ = 000 + 001 + 010 + 011 + 100 + 101 + 110 + 111 L qubits encode 2L numbers
  55. 55. Heisenberg Uncertainty PrincipleQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah measuring polarisation states of photons H V +45 -45 PBS (H/V) PBS (45/-45)
  56. 56. BB84Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah 0→H 1→V 0 → 45 1 → -45 Key generation 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 … 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 … 45 H -45 V V -45 H -45 … Base selection Base discussion Over public channel + + X + + + X X … Base selection X + X + + X + X … Encoding V H -45 V V H -45 -45 …
  57. 57. BB84Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah No Cloning Theorem : It is not possible to copy an unknown quantum state with perfect fidelity. Bound on copying fidelity is such that Eve will not succeed in tapping the channel even if using the best possible quantum copying machine. Wootters and Zurek; Dieks 1982
  58. 58. BB84Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/481/smolin.htm
  59. 59. Entangled StateQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah (−) 1 Ψ = (H s V i − eiα V s H i) 2 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995)
  60. 60. EntanglementQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah –“If, without in any way disturbing a system, we can predict with certainty… the value of a physical quantity, then there exists an element of physical reality corresponding to this physical quantity” LOCAL REALISM PERFECT EAVESDROPPING!
  61. 61. Local RealismQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Local realism is refuted by quantum theory Entangled photons do not have predetermined values of polarization… …so eavesdropper has nothing to measure Quantum mechanics allows eavesdropper free communication Any post-quantum theory that refutes local realism allows eavesdropper free communication.
  62. 62. Ekert 91Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Ψ ( −) = 1 (H V − V H ) 2 Perfect Security for error < 15% Ψ ( −) = 1 ( + 45 − 45 − − 45 + 45 ) 2
  63. 63. History of Q. CryptographyQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah S. Wiesner 1970 C.H. Bennett & A. Ekert 1991 G. Brassard 1984 Prepare and Entanglement Measure Based Protocols Protocols
  64. 64. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Vienna Alps (23.4 km) Experiments
  65. 65. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah 10 Jan 2004 Rise of the Quantum Island
  66. 66. GovernmentsQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah US (US$ 100M = SG$ 166M) US Army, NSA, DARPA, NIST, etc Japan (SG$ 41.5M) ERATO, ICORP, PRESTO Europe (€ 15M = SG$ 30M) Australia (AU$ 10M = SG$ 13M) Singapore (SG$ 8M) A*Star, DSTA, DSO
  67. 67. CommercialQuantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah MagiQ (US) BBN (US) id-Quantique (Swiss) QinetiQ (UK) D-wave (Canada) Elsag (Italy) Fujitsu & Toshiba (UK + Japan) Lockheed Martin (US) Q-tool (Germany)
  68. 68. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Satellite QKD network Hybrid System The Future
  69. 69. Quantum Information Technology Group – Quantumlah Think like a physicists!

×