Bo eyarnell herbactions

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Bo eyarnell herbactions

  1. 1. Actions of Medicinal Plants 1 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDFor more details visit: http://www.ashwagandha.tk Compendium of Pharmacological Actions of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents Compiled and copyrighted by Eric Yarnell, NDThis file may be freely distributed for non-commercial purposes as long as its content is not altered in any way. Alphabetic by Action Herbs marked with an asterisk (*) are ecologically threatened; use with caution if at all.Generally organized within each category by relative potency, where this is known (if no potency categories are listed, then they are unknown). Other organizational structures are stated where used. These lists are not complete.I. Abortifacient (Riddle 1991) A. Tanacetum vulgareII. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor A. central 1. Potent a) Various Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (Elgorashi, Stafford and van Staden 2004). (1) galantamine (Galanthus nivalis, Narcissus tazetta, Leucojum aestivum) (2) huperzine A (Huperzia serrata) b) physostigmine (Physostigma venenosum) 2. Mild a) Polygonum aviculare (knotweed) (Bill Mitchell, ND) b) Rosmarinus officinalis c) Salvia miltiorrhizaIII. Addiction control agent, anti-addiction A. alcoholism (antidipsotropic) 1. Potent a) Pueraria lobata (kuzu, kudzu) 2. Mild a) hyperforin, Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) b) Salvia miltiorrhiza (Chinese sage) c) all nervines B. narcotics, opioids 1. Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) 2. Piper methysticum (kava)
  2. 2. Actions of Medicinal Plants 2 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 3. Withania somniferum (ashwagandha) C. nicotine 1. Avena sativa (oats) 2. Lobelia inflata (lobelia) 3. Piper longum (long pepper)IV. Adenylate cyclase activator A. forskolin (Plectranthus barbatus)V. Aldose reductase inhibitor A. baicalin (Scutellaria baicalensis) (Zhou & Zhang 1989) B. chlorogenic acid (Varma 1986) C. coumarins 1. esculetin, esculin (Varma 1986) D. ellagic acid (Terashima, et al. 1991) 1. found in Caesalpinia ferrea--see herb monograph E. flavonoids (Chaudhry, et al. 1983; Varma 1986; Varma & Kinoshita 1976) 1. quercetin, myricitrin, those methoxylated at C6 or C8 (Tomás- Barberán, et al. 1986) 2. quercetin, quercitrin, dihydroquercetin, isoquercetin, isoquerceitryl-2-malonate, quercitryl-2-acetatechrysin, apigenin, apiin, naringin, morin, rutin, hyperoside, hesperidin, herperidin chalcone (Varma 1986) 3. nepetrin and other flavonoids from Rosmarinus officinalis and Sideritis spp (Shimizu, et al. 1984) 4. Those from Polygonum hydropiper active in vitro (Haraguchi, et al. 1996). F. isoliquiritigenin and whole extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra) (Zhou & Zhang 1989) G. isoquercitrin (Camellia sinensis)VI. 5-Alpha-hydroxylase inhibitor A. fatty acids (Serenoa repens)VII. 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitor A. epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Camellia sinensis) B. fatty acids (Serenoa repens)VIII.5-Alpha-reductase stimulator A. glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra)IX. Alteratives (in order by particular organ affinities) A. Circulatory 1. Crataegus spp 2. Zanthoxylum spp B. Gall bladder
  3. 3. Actions of Medicinal Plants 3 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1. Fumaria officinalis C. Endocrine, general 1. Podophyllum peltatum, water extracts (not resin) D. Hepatic and gastrointestinal 1. Alnus serrulata (tag alder) 2. Arctium lappa 3. Chionanthus virginicus 4. Gonolobus condurango 5. Iris versicolor 6. Mahonia aquifolium 7. Rumex crispus 8. Scrophularia spp 9. Taraxacum officinale radix E. Immune/systemic 1. Echinacea spp. F. Kidney 1. Parietaria judaica G. Lymphatic 1. Calendula officinalis 2. Galium aparine (also urinary tract) 3. Trifolium repens 4. Viola odorata H. Nervous system 1. Avena sativa 2. Stachys betonica 3. Stillingia sylvatica I. Rheumatologic/musculoskeletal 1. Guaiacum spp 2. Jeffersonia diphylla 3. Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) 4. Sassafras spp 5. Smilax spp 6. Stillingia sylvatica J. Thyroid 1. Fucus vesiculosus K. Urinary tract 1. Equisetum arvense 2. Galium aparine 3. Urtica dioicaX. Analeptic, central nervous system stimulant A. direct 1. caffeine 2. cocaine (Erythroxylum coca) 3. strychnine 4. theobromine 5. theophylline
  4. 4. Actions of Medicinal Plants 4 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND B. over circulatory reflex 1. camphor 2. lobeline (Lobelia inflata)XI. Analgesic A. See also anticholinergics B. central acting 1. Potent a) Aconitum carmichaelii (Sichuan aconite) b) Aconitum napellus (monk’s hood) c) Bryonia cretica (bryony) d) codeine (Papaver somniferum) e) Corydalis yanhusuo (yanhusuo) f) Gelsemium sempervirens (gelsemium) g) morphine (Papaver somniferum) h) opium (Papaver somniferum) i) Pulsatilla vulgaris (pasque flower) 2. Moderate a) salycilates b) Valeriana sitchensis, Valeriana officinalis c) Piper methysticum 3. Mild a) Angelica sinensis (danggui) b) Angelica pubsecens (danggui) c) Convolvulus fatmensis (Atta and El-Sooud 2004) d) Conyza dioscaridis (Atta and El-Sooud 2004) e) Passiflora incarnata f) Plantago major seeds (Atta and El-Sooud 2004) g) Scutellaria lateriflora h) usnic acid, diffractaic acid (Phyllanthus corcovadensis) C. local acting/topic anesthetic 1. Potent a) Capsicum spp (cayenne), capsaicin 2. Moderate a) Atropa belladonna b) Echinacea angustifolia (for throat) c) Spilanthes acmella (paracress) (for throat)XII. Angiogenesis inhibitor A. Relative potency not clear. B. Allium sativum C. Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed) D. genistein (Glycine max) E. Humulus lupulus, xanthohumol F. Hypericum perforatum, hyperforin G. phytoestrogens (Fotsis, et al. 1998)
  5. 5. Actions of Medicinal Plants 5 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND H. Magnolia liliflora I. Rubus spp, gallic acid J. Salvia miltiorrhiza (Chinese sage) (Kang, et al. 2003) K. Typha spp (cattail) L. Zingiber officinale, [6]-gingerolXIII.Androgenic A. chyrsin (Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata) B. Tribulus terrestrisXIV. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ACE inhibitor A. All mild. B. see also diuretic below C. Allium sativum (garlic) D. lithospermic acid (Salvia miltiorrhiza) E. proanthocyanidins (Crataegus laevigata, Vitis vinifera, Cupressus sempervirens) (Meunier, et al. 1987) F. secoiridoid glycosides eg oleuropein, ligstroside, excelcioside, oleoside 11-methyl ester, oleoside (Olea europaea and Olea lancea folium) G. triterpenoids (Ganoderma lucidum) (Morigawa, et al. 1986)Anodyne: see analgesicXV. Anthelmintic, anti-amebic, anti-parasitic, anti-protozoal A. By plant or constituent 1. Potent a) ascaridol b) aspidine c) Azadiractha indica (neem) d) Cinchona spp (Peruvian bark)—quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine e) Dryopteris filix-mas (male fern) radix (filicin) f) emetine (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) g) Staphysagria h) Tanacetum vulgaris (tansy) 2. Mild-to-moderate a) Allium sativum (garlic) bulbus (allicin) b) Areca catechu c) Artemisia annua (sweet Annie) herba (artemisinin = qinghaosu) d) Artemisia maritima herba (santonin) e) berberine-containing herbs f) Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin) seed g) Cucurbita moschata seed h) lapachol (Tabebuia avellanadae) i) Melia spp
  6. 6. Actions of Medicinal Plants 6 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND j) papain k) Prunus mume (wu mei) l) Punica granatum (pomegranate) m) Quisqualis indica (shi jun zi) 3. Uncertain potency a) Cocculus indicus b) flavaspidinic acid B. By parasite 1. Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) a) berberine-containing herbs b) Chenopodium ambrosioides (epazote) c) Prunus mume (wu mei) d) Quassia spp e) santonin from Artemisia paucifolia f) Spigelia marylandica g) turpentine 2. Entamoeba histolytica a) berberine (Mahonia, Berberis, Hydrastis, Coptis, Xanthorrhiza) b) emetine (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) c) quinine (Cinchona spp) d) tetrandrine and other alkaloids (Stephania tetrandra) 3. Giardia lamblia a) Allium sativum b) Alpinia galanga c) berberine d) emetine (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) e) epicatechin f) Piper spp g) propolis h) Zingiber zerumbet 4. Hookworms a) Chenopodium ambrosioides oil b) Monarda c) thymol from Thymus vulgaris 5. Leishmania spp (kala azar) (de Carvalho & Ferreira 2001) a) Acanthus illicifolius--India b) Ampelocera edentula--South America c) Anacardium occidentale (cashew) cortex--Brazil d) Annona spinescens--South America? e) Anthostema senegalense--Guinea-Bissau f) Asparagus africanus--Kenya g) berberine (Ghosh, et al. 1985--see berberine file) h) Dictyoloma peruviana--Bolivia i) Dracaena spp (soap tree)--West Africa j) Echinacea purpurea
  7. 7. Actions of Medicinal Plants 7 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND k) Faramea guianensis--Guyana l) Galipea longiflora--South America m) Glycyrrhiza glabra (flavonoid chalcones) n) Guatteria foliosa--South America o) Hedera helix p) Holorrhena curtisii q) Kalanchoe pinnata r) Khaya senegalensis--Guinea-Bissau s) Nycanthes arbor-tristis t) Oxandra espintana u) Pera benensis--Bolivia v) Periandra mediterranea--saponins w) Peschiera van heurkii--Bolivia x) Picrorrhiza kurroa y) Piper aduncum z) Polyalthia macropoda--Malaysia aa) Rollinia emarginata--South America bb) Saracha punctate cc) Swertia chirata dd) Vernonia amygdalina--Ethiopia ee) Vernonia brachycalyx--East Africa 6. Naegleria fowleri (Fowlers amoeba) a) artemisinin from Artemisia annua (Cooke, Lallinger & Durack 1987) 7. Plasmodium spp (malaria) (Vasanth, Gopal & Rao 1990) a) Ailanthus altissima b) alkaloids (Stephania tetrandra) c) artemisinin (Artemisia annua) d) Azadiractha indica e) Cochlospermum tinctorium f) echitamine (Alstonia constricta) g) Enicostemma litorrale h) Eucalyptus robusta i) eurycomalactone (Eurycoma longifolia) j) febrifugine (Dichroa febrifuga; chang shan) k) Glycyrrhiza glabra--see disease monograph l) gossypol (Thespepsia populnea) m) Harrisonia perforate n) helenalin (Arnica spp) o) isoquinoline alkaloids eg berberine (Isawa, et al. 1998) p) japonicine (Hypericum japonicum) q) lapachol (Stereospermum suaveolens, Tabebuia spp, etc.) r) Phyllanthus amara--see herb monograph s) Polyalthia nemoralis t) Polygonum multiflorum--see disease monograph u) quassinoids (Brucea javanica, Castela spp, Perriera
  8. 8. Actions of Medicinal Plants 8 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND madagascariensis, Picrasma spp, Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Quassia spp, Simaba cedron, Simaruba glauca, Soulamena tomentosa) v) quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine (Cinchona spp) w) taccalonolides (Tacca plantaginea) x) vinblastine (Catharanthus roseus) 8. Tenia spp (tapeworms) a) Aspidium b) Curcurbita pepo seed c) Punica granatum 9. Trichomonas vaginalis a) Aesculus hippocastanum b) Calendula officinalis c) Echinacea spp d) propolisXVI. Anti-adhesion A. berberine B. proanthocyanidins (Vaccinium spp)XVII.Antiallergenic, anti-allergic A. Potent 1. Ephedra sinica B. Moderate 1. Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis C. Mild 1. Ambrosia spp (ragweed) folium 2. Euphrasia stricta 3. Euphorbia hirta 4. Luffa 5. Solidago canadensis (goldenrod) 6. Urtica dioica leafXVIII. Anti-androgenic A. glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra)XIX. Anti-anginal A. See also spasmolytics. B. Moderate 1. Ammi visnaga (khella) 2. Lobelia inflata C. Mild 1. Allium sativum (garlic) 2. Crataegus laevigata (hawthorn) 3. Salvia miltiorrhiza (dan shen)
  9. 9. Actions of Medicinal Plants 9 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDXX. Anti-arrhythmic, antidysrhythmic A. Not all these herbs are useful or indicated for every type of arrhythmia. B. Potent 1. ajmaline (Rauvolfia serpentina) 2. atropine (Atropa belladonna) 3. Convallaria majalis (lily-of-the-valley) 4. Digitalis purpurea (foxglove) 5. papaverine 6. quinidine, quinine (Cinchona spp) 7. sparteine (Cytisus scoparius) C. Moderate 1. Hylocereus undatus 2. Selenicereus grandiflora D. Mild 1. Angelica archangelica 2. Angelica sinensis 3. Apocynum spp 4. Crataegus laevigata 5. proanthocyanidins and flavonoids (Crataegus laevigata) 6. tetrandrine and other alkaloids (Stephania tetrandra)XXI. Antibacterial, antiseptic, antimicrobial A. see also antimycobacterial below B. see also antibiotic resistance reversal agents C. Moderate to Potent 1. alkaloids, multiple (Abbasoglu, et al. 1991) 2. allicin (Allium sativum) 3. berberine-containing herbs (Hydrastis, Berberis, Mahonia, Coptis, Xanthorrhiza) 4. essential oils (Lis-Balchin, et al. 1997) a) Lavandula spp b) Rosmarinus officinalis c) Salvia officinalis d) Santalum albidum e) Thymus vulgaris 5. benzethonium chloride (semisynthetic agent in grapefruit seed extract) (Ionescu, et al. 1990) 6. Tanacetum vulgare herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) D. Mild 1. Allium cepa bulbus (Izzo, et al. 1995) 2. Aloe vera 3. Cichorium intybum root (Izzo, et al. 1995) 4. coumestrol (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense, etc.) 5. flavonoids
  10. 10. Actions of Medicinal Plants 10 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND a) myricetin, datiscetin, kaempferol, quercetin (anti- vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) (Xu & Lee 2001) 6. genistein (prunetol, sophoricol, genisteol) (Pueraria lobata, Baptisia tinctoria, Cytisus scoparius, Glycine max, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Medicago sativa, Pueraria lobata, Trifolium pratense, etc.) 7. lapachol (Tabebuia avellanadae) 8. Marrubium vulgare herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) 9. Origanum vulgare herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) 10. Sambucus nigra flos (Izzo, et al. 1995) 11. Silybum marianum herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) E. By microbe 1. Escherichia coli a) Anthriscus cerefolium herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) b) Fumaria officinalis herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) c) Grossheimia macrocephala herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) d) Hieracium piloselloides herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) e) Malva silvestris folia et flos (Izzo, et al. 1995) f) Tussilago farfara herba (Izzo, et al. 1995) 2. Helicobacter pylori a) Allium sativum (Cellini, et al. 1996) b) Aristolochia paucinervis--see herb monograph c) Camellia sinensis catechins--see herb monograph d) Cinnamomum spp., ethanol extract (Tabak, et al. 1996) e) Coptis chinensis (goldthread) (Zhang, Yang & Yang 1992) f) Corydalis yanhusuo (Zhang, Yang & Yang 1992) g) Magnolia officinalis (Zhang, Yang & Yang 1992) h) Magnolia sieboldii--see herb monograph i) Panax ginseng polysaccharides--see herb monograph j) Panax notoginseng (Zhang, Yang & Yang 1992) k) Pistachia lentiscus (mastic gum) l) Prunus mume (Zhang, Yang & Yang 1992) m) Rheum palmatum (rhubarb) (Zhang, Yang & Yang 1992) n) Terminalia spinosa (Fabry, et al. 1996; Fabry, Okemo & Ansorg 1996) o) Thymus vulgaris, aqueous extract (Tabak, et al. 1996) p) Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)--see herb monographXXII.Antibiotic resistance reversal agents, chemotherapy resistancereversal agents A. Multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1) inhibitors 1. genistein, other isoflavones (Glycine max) B. P-glycoprotein inhibitors 1. capsaicin (Capsicum spp) (Nabekura, eta l. 2005) 2. Curcuma longa (Nabekura, eta l. 2005)
  11. 11. Actions of Medicinal Plants 11 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 3. Feijoa sellowiana pericarpium (Motohashi, et al. 2000) 4. Ficus citrifolia 5. indole-3-carbinol 6. quercetin 7. reserpine (Rauvolfia serpentina) 8. resveratatrol (Nabekura, et al. 2005) 9. Rosmarinus officinalis 10. theanine (Camellia sinensis) 11. Zingiber officinale (Nabekura, et al. 2005) C. Miscellaneous 1. apigenin 2. berberine and flavonoids (Berberis spp) 3. curcumin 4. 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (Liu, et al. 2001) 5. flavone 6. galangin (Liu, et al. 2001) 7. genistein 8. kaempferol 9. verapamilAnticarcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-tumor: see antineoplastic andapoptosis modulatorXXIII. Anticholinergic A. Potent (in order from highest to lowest) 1. Atropa belladonna (belladonna) 2. Brugmansia spp (angel trumpet) 3. Datura stramonium (thornapple) 4. Solanum dulcamara (dulcamara, nightshade) 5. Hyoscyamus niger (henbane) 6. Mandragora officinarum (mandrake), other species B. Moderate 1. Garrya spp (silk tassel)XXIV.Anticoagulant (interfere with clotting cascade)--see also plateletaggregation inhibitors A. dicoumarol B. heparin C. heparinoidsXXV. Antidepressant A. Potent 1. Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) 2. Pausinystalia yohimbe (yohimbe) 3. Peganum harmala (Syrian rue) 4. Strychnos nux-vomica B. Moderate 1. Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort)
  12. 12. Actions of Medicinal Plants 12 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 2. Ignatia amara 3. kavalactones (Piper methysticum) C. Mild 1. Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) 2. Aralia racemosa 3. Eleutherococcus senticosus 4. Melissa officinalis 5. Oplopanax horridum 6. Panax spp 7. Selenicereus grandiflora 8. Turnera diffusa (damiana)XXVI.Anti-diabetic See also hypoglycemic. Reference throughout, unless otherwise stated, is Bergner 2002-3. A. Insulin Secretagogues 1. Note: Because these herbs may actual worsen the underlying cause, their use is not recommended for insulin-resistant patients. 2. Brickellia californica (prodigiosa)** 3. Capsicum frutescens (cayenne) 4. Gymnema sylvestre (gurmar)—hasn’t shown secretagogue effects clinically 5. Ocimum canum (dog basil) (Nyarko, et al. 2002) 6. Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) radix 7. Syzygium cumini = S. jambolana (jambolan)** 8. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) leaf (Devi, et al. 2003) 9. Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) leaf (Farzami, et al. 2003) 10. Theobroma cacao (chococlate) (J Nutr 2003;133(10):3149-52)** May decrease liver release of glucose. B. Insulin Sensitizers 1. berberine (Ko, et al. 2005) a) Another rat study suggested it elevated serum insulin levels, raising the possibility that this constituent is simultaneously an insulin secretagogue (Leng, et al. 2004) 2. Cinnamomum spp (cinnamon) 3. Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) 4. Galega officinalis (goat’s rue), guanidine a) Presumed insulin sensitizer based on mechanisms of guanidine-derived drugs (eg metformin). 5. Grifola frondosa (maitake) 6. Hibiscus spp (Sachdewa & Khemani 2003) 7. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) 8. Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)
  13. 13. Actions of Medicinal Plants 13 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 9. Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) rootlets 10. Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) C. Unknown Mechanism 1. Vaccinium spp (blueberry, bilberry) folium 2. Oplopanax horridus (devil’s club) 3. Phaseolus vulgaris (bean) 4. Polygonatum multiflora D. Other Mechanisms 1. Allium cepa (onion), allyl propyl disulfide a) Mechanism: competes for binding sites on enzymes that degrade insulin in liverAbdominal obesity (diabetes, hypoglycemic, hypocholesteremic): Eleutherococcus senticosus diabetes (Baranov, 1982) Ocimum sanctum hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic (Williamson, 2002) Panax quinquefolium hypoglycemic (Assinewe et al., 2003) Rhodiola rosea antihyperglycemic activity (Wagner et al., 1994) Tinospora cordifolia hypoglycemic (Willamson, 2002)Memory enhancing actions of Asiasari radix extracts via activation ofinsulin receptor and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) I/II inrat hippocampus. Brain Research 974:193-201.The effect of nerobol and ecdysterone on insulin-dependent processes linkednormally and in insulin resistance. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 35(5):77-81.Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as anadaptogen: a closer look. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Oct;72(3):345-93.Wild ginseng prevents the onset of high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia andobesity in ICR mice. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;27(7):790-6.A novel insulin-releasing substance, phanoside, from the plant Gynostemmapentaphyllum. J Biol Chem 2004;279(40):41361-7.Use of natural plant exudates (Sanguis Draxonis) for sustained oral insulindelivery with dramatic reduction of glycemic effects in diabetic rats. JControl Release 2004;97(3):467-75.Dynamical influence of Cordyceps sinensis on the activity of hepaticinsulinase of experimental liver cirrhosis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int2004;3(1):99-101.The insulinotropic activity of a Nepalese medicinal plant Biophytumsensitivum: preliminary experimental study. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;78(1):89-93. (Oxalidaceae)
  14. 14. Actions of Medicinal Plants 14 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDInsulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueousextracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(3):849-52.XXVII. Anti-diarrheal See also astringent. A. Astringents 1. tannins 2. Uzara spp. 3. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) dried fruit (NOT fresh) B. Polysaccharides 1. carob (Ceratonia silliquia) 2. mucilage 3. pectin 4. rice C. Motility slowing agents 1. Papaver somniferumXXVIII. Anti-emetic A. Potent 1. Aconitum napellus 2. cocaine (Erythoxylon coca) 3. scopolamine (Datura spp) B. Mild-to-Moderate 1. Alpinia galanga 2. Magnolia officinalis (hou po) bark 3. Matricaria recutita (chamomile) 4. Mentha spp (mints) 5. Pimpinella anisum (anise) 6. Zingiber officinalisXXIX.Anti-estrogenic A. indoles (Brassicaceae vegetables) B. isoflavonoids, isoflavones (Glycine max (soy) 1. daidzein 2. genistein C. lignans (Linum usitatissimum) D. quercetin 1. ligand interaction with estrogen receptors thus interferes with estradiol bindingXXX. Anti-fibrotic, anticirrhosis A. bromelain B. Centella asiatica (gotu kola) C. colchicine (Colchicum autumnale) D. silymarin (Silybum marianum) E. sho-saiko-to and saiko-keishi-to formulae (Bupleurum falcatum,
  15. 15. Actions of Medicinal Plants 15 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND Scutellaria baicalensis, etc.) F. tetrandrine (Stephania tetrandra)XXXI.Antifungal A. by plant 1. fungicidal a) berberine (Hydrastis canadensis, Berberis spp., etc.) b) biochanin A (pratensol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, etc.) c) coumestrol (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense, etc.) d) naphthoquinones (Tabebuia avellenadae) 2. fungistatic a) biochanin A (pratensol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, etc.) b) genistein (prunetol, sophoricol, genisteol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Cytisus scoparius, Glycine max, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Medicago sativa, Pueraria lobata, Trifolium pratense, etc.) 3. possibly fungicidal or fungistatic a) Aloe vera b) daidzein (Genista tinctoria, Glycine max, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria psuedohirsuta, Trifolium pratense, etc.) c) protoanemonin (Martin, San Roman & Dominguez 1990) 4. Allium sativum (garlic) 5. berberine-containing herbs 6. naphthoquinones from Diospyros 7. Echinacea spp 8. Hyssopus tincture 9. Larrea tridentata (chaparral) (Zamora 1984) 10. Melaleuca alternafolia (tea tree) 11. Origanum spp volatile oil 12. Thymus vulgaris oleum B. By organism 1. Candida albicans a) Terminalia spinosa (Fabry, et al. 1996) 2. Cryptococcus neoformans a) Allium sativum (Davis, Shen & Cai 1990) b) catechin (Levitz, et al. 1995)XXXII. Anti-gastritis and anti-ulcer (peptic) A. Potent 1. atropine (Atropa belladonna) 2. Capsicum frutescens (cayenne) B. Mild-to-Moderate
  16. 16. Actions of Medicinal Plants 16 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1. Aloe vera gel 2. azulene (Matricaria recutita) 3. Calendula officinalis 4. Curcuma longa 5. demulcents 6. Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) (flavonoids, glycyrrhetinic acid) including DGL 7. Symphytum officinale (comfrey) 8. Theobroma cacao (chocolate)XXXIII. Antigonadotropic A. Actaea racemosa B. Lithospermum officinale C. Rheum raponticum D. Vitex agnus-castusXXXIV. Antigout A. Potent 1. colchicine (Colchicum autumnale) 2. demecolcine (Colchicum autumnale) B. Mild 1. Apium graveolens (celery) 2. other diuretic herbsXXXV.Anti-metastatic A. Allium spp B. modified citrus pectin C. Playtocodon grandiflorum D. proanthocyanidins E. sulforaphane F. Withania somnifera, withanolidesXXXVI. Anti-migraine A. Cannabis sativa B. Clematis spp C. hydrogenated secale alkaloids D. Petasites hybridus (butterbur) E. Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew)XXXVII. Antimycobacterial (Newton, et al. 2000) A. Adhatoda vasica B. Allium sativum (allicin) C. Aloe vera (aloe) D. Bidens pilosa E. Cetraria islandica (Iceland moss) F. Ferula communis G. Galipea officinalis (Angustura bitters)
  17. 17. Actions of Medicinal Plants 17 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND H. Geum macrophyllum I. glycyrrizin J. Guaiacum officinale K. Humulus lupulus (hops) L. Inula helenium M. Myroxolon balsamum var pereirae N. Physalis angulata (Pietro, et al. 2000)XXXVIII. Antineoplasticsee also apoptosis modulator, antimetastatic A. bullatin, bullatacin, other Annonaceous acetogenins 1. inhibit NADH oxidase in plasma membrane of cancerous cells B. benzyl isothiocyanate (broccoli, cabbage) C. betulinic acid D. Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) (Vinitketkumnuen, et al. 1996) E. diindolylmethane (DIM) 1. Natural metabolite of indole-3-carbinol, inhibits estrogen- dependent breast cancer cells by binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Chen, et al. 1998). 2. Induces apoptosis in cancer cells independent of p53 (Ge, et al. 1996). F. catechin 1. stimulates deactivation of aflatoxin B1 by glutathione G. eleutherosides (Eleutherococcus senticosus) H. esculetin (Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, Ceratostigma willmottianum) 1. stimulates apoptosis in leukemia cells (Chu, et al. 2001) I. eugenol 1. stimulates deactivation of aflatoxin B1 by glutathione J. flavonoids (Kuo 1996) K. garam masala (mix of Piper nigrum, cloves, Cinnamomum, mace, nutmeg, bay, cardamom, cumin and Zingiber) (Rao & Hashim 1995) L. indole-3-carbinol (Brassicaceae family vegetables) 1. Ultimately upregulates 2 hydroxylase pathway for estrogen catabolism, thereby decreasing the amount of estrogen that goes through 16alpha hydroxylase pathyway. 16alpha hydroxy metabolites are responsible for the toxic effects of estrogen—the 2 hydroxy metabolites are far less toxic. M. limonenes (from lemon) 1. inhibits isoprenylation of a certain cellular growth- associated proteins subset N. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) O. naringin 1. stimulates deactivation of aflatoxin B1 by glutathione P. Panax ginseng Q. phenethyl isothiocyanate (PETIC) (cabbage, fermented cabbage products, turnips)
  18. 18. Actions of Medicinal Plants 18 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1. inhibits lung cancer in rodents by sacrificial metabolism by P450 which inhibits other chemicals from being broken down by it R. polysaccharides (Echinacea spp.) S. saponins (Konoshima 1996) T. Tabebuia avellanadae U. tangeretin (from tangerines) 1. has IGF-1-like property of improving E cadherin cell binding V. tannins, catechins (Camellia sinensis) W. vanillin 1. stimulates deactivation of aflatoxin B1 by glutathione X. Cytostatic 1. colchicine (Colchicum) 2. etoposide 3. podophyllin 4. vinblastine, vincristine (Catharanthus roseus) Y. Cytotoxic (anti-tumor) 1. ajoene (Allium sativum) 2. Allium ascalonicum (shallots) 3. Allium cepa 4. allicin (Allium sativum) 5. flavones, also effective in multidrug-resistant cell lines (Choi, eta l. 1999) Z. Review of Taxus, Podophyllum, Camptotheca, Catharanthus and drugs derived from them (Mantle, Lennard & Pickering 2000).XXXIX. Antioxidant A. chlorogenic acid (apricot, Echinacea spp., grapes, potato) B. curcumin C. Ginkgo biloba D. fisetin 1. protects LDL from oxidation E. flavonoids 1. protect LDL from oxidation (Viana, et al. 1996) F. hispidulin 1. weakly scavenges superoxide radicals G. miscellaneous (Anderson, Mantle & Thomas 1996) H. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) 1. protects LDL from oxidation 2. weakly scavenges superoxide radicals I. quercetin 1. protects LDL from oxidation 2. scavenges superoxide radicals J. Rosmarinus officinalis K. rutin 1. powerful superoxide radical scavenger L. Solanum tuberosum (potato, esp. russet): quercetin (in the skin), flavone aglycones, chlorogenic acid, glutathione, patatin (water- soluble glycoprotein)
  19. 19. Actions of Medicinal Plants 19 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND M. Vaccinium myrtillus N. Vitis vinifera O. In order of potency from strongest to weakest (Halliwell, et al. 1995): 1. Rosmarinus 2. Salvia 3. Thymus 4. Origanum 5. Zingiber 6. Curcuma 7. Capsicum 8. LaurusAnti-parasitic: see anthelmintic aboveAnti-platelet aggregation: see platelet aggregation inhibitorAntiprotozoal: see anthelmintic aboveXL. Antipruritic, anti-itch A. capsaicin (Capsicum frutescens) B. Cimicifuga dahurica rhizome (Tohda, et al. 2000) C. Cnidium monirrieri fruit (Tohda, et al. 2000) D. Forsythia suspensa fruit (Tohda, et al. 2000) E. Patrinia villosa root (Tohda, et al. 2000) F. Schizonepeta tenuifolia flowering top (Tohda, et al. 2000) G. Scrophularia ningpoensis root (Tohda, et al. 2000)XLI. Antipsoriatic A. anthranol B. furanocoumarin (psoralen w/ UV light) C. khellin (Ammi visnaga, w/ UV light)XLII.Antipyretic A. Potent 1. Aconitum napellus 2. Gelsemium sempervirens 3. quinine 4. Veratrum album B. Moderate 1. salicylates a) Betula alba (birch) b) Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) c) Populus tremuloides (aspen) d) Salix alba (willow)XLIII. Antirheumatic
  20. 20. Actions of Medicinal Plants 20 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND A. topical 1. camphor 2. capsaicin (Capsicum spp.) 3. Eucalyptus 4. Lavandula officinalis 5. mustard oils 6. Pinus volatile oil 7. Rosmarinus volatile oilAntispasmodic: see spasmolyticXLIV.Antitussive (cough suppressant) A. codeine (Papaver somniferum) B. emetin e(Caephalis ipecacuanhae) C. noscapin D. Prunus serotina bark (not fruit) E. Tussilago farfaraAnti-thyroid: see thyrostaticXLV. Anti-varicose veins, venotropic A. All are roughly equal in potency. B. Collinsonia canadensis C. escin (Aesculus hippocastanum) D. flavonoids (Vaccinium myrtillus) E. Hamamelis virginica F. heparinoids G. Melilotus (coumarin) H. Ruscus aculeatus I. rutinXLVI.Antivenom A. Extensive listing of antivenomous plants from Colombia tested on mice (Otero, et al. 2000). B. Echinacea sppXLVII. Antivertiginous A. atropine (Atropa belladonna) B. scopolamine (Datura stramonium) C. Zingiber officinalisXLVIII. Antiviral A. acemannan or acetylated mannose (Aloe vera) B. catechin C. curcumin (Curcuma longa) D. Eleutherococcus senticosus (eleuthero) E. Eucalyptus
  21. 21. Actions of Medicinal Plants 21 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND F. hypericin, pseudohypericin (Hypericum perforatum) G. lapachol (Tabebuia avellanadae) H. Lomatium spp I. Phyllanthus amarus J. polysaccharides (Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea)—hyaluronidase inhibitor K. quercetin L. quinine (Cinchona) M. Salvia officinalisTable . In Vitro Antiviral Botanicals and ConstituentsBotanical or Constituent Virus Inhibited Reference3-methyl-but-2-enyl HSVcaffeate (from Populusnigra & propolis)5,7,4-trihydroxy-8- influenza A and Bmethoxyflavone (fromScutellaria baicalensis)Allium sativum (garlic) CMV CMV (Guo, et al. 1993) HSV-1 and –2Astragalus membranaceous Coxsackie type Bcastanospermine (from HIVAustralian treeCastanospermum australeand Brazilian treesAlexa canaracunensis(tunadi) andClathrotropismacrocarpa)catechin polio, parainfluenza 3, influenza (Mantani, et RSV, HSV 1, influenza al. 2001)Cetraria islandica HIVcurcumin (from Curcuma HIV-1longa)delta-9- HSV 1 & 2 HSV 1 & 2 (Blevins &tetrahydrocannabinol Dumic 1980)Echinacea purpurea influenza, vesicular stomatitisapigenin (a flavonoid) HSV 1glycyrrhizic acid (from vaccinia, HSV 1,Glycyrrhiza glabra) vesicular stomatitis, HBV, HCV, HEV, HIV, Newcastle disease SARS virus Marburg virusHouttuynia cordata HSV, influenza, HIV Hayashi, Kamiya & Hayashi 1995
  22. 22. Actions of Medicinal Plants 22 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDhypericin (from HIV, HSV 1 & 2, CMV (Barnard, et al.Hypericum perforatum and vesicular stomatitis, 1992)other spp.) parainfluenza vaccinia, CMVHyssopus officinalis Newcastle disease, HSV(aqueous extract)lantadenes from Lantana EBVcamara (lantana)lapachol (from Tabebuia polio, vesicularspp.) stomatitisMaprounea africana HIVMelissa officinalis Newcastle disease,(aqueous extract) parainfluenzae 1, 2, 3Melissa officinalis HSV, vacciniapolyphenolsMelissa officinalis Newcastle disease, mumpstanninsMentha x piperita Newcastle disease, HSV,(aqueous extract) vacciniaOriganum majorana Newcastle disease, HSV(aqueous extract)Paeonia suffruticosa HSV, anti-attachment HSV (Hsiang, et al. 2001)procyanidin HSV 1propolis (from Populus influenza, HBV, HSV 1, HSV 1 (Ambros, et al.spp. via bees) vaccinia, Newcastle 1994) diseasequercetin rabies, HSV 1, other herpes virusesRheum officinale HSV, anti-attachment HSV (Hsiang, et al. 2001)Salvia cyprea (aqueous Newcastle disease, HSVextract)SP-303 from Croton HSV 1 & 2, influenza, RSV (Gilbert, et al.lechleri parainfluenza, HAV, HBV, 1993) RSVSwertia franchetiana HIVThymus serpyllum Newcastle disease, HSV(aqueous extract)Abbreviations: CMV = cytomegalovirus, HIV = human immunodeficiency virus,HSV = herpes simplex virus, RSV = respiratory syncytial virus, HAV =hepatitis A virus, HBV = hepatitis B virus, HCV = hepatitis C virus, HEV =hepatitis E virusTable . Herbs or Constituents With Proven Efficacy in Human ViralInfectionsHerb or constituent Disease
  23. 23. Actions of Medicinal Plants 23 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDMelissa officinalis herpes simplex infection (Wöhlbling & Leonhardt 1994)glycyrrhizin (from chronic viral hepatitis (Suzuki, et al.Glycyrrhiza glabra) 1985)silymarin (from Silybum viral hepatitis (Berenguer & Carrasco 1977;marianum) Poser 1971)XLIX.Anxiolytic A. apigenin (Matricaria recutita) B. Hypericum perforatum C. kavalactones (Piper methysticum)L. Aphrodisiac A. Crocus sativus (saffron) B. Mucuna pruriens C. Pausinystalia yohimbe D. Ptychopetalum olacoides E. Turnera aphrodisiaca F. Withania somnifera (ashwaganda)LI. Apoptosis Modulator A. allicin (Allium sativum) (Thatte, Bagadey & Dahanukar 2000) B. bryonolic acid (Trichosanthes kirilowii) (Thatte, Bagadey & Dahanukar 2000) C. crocin (Crocus sativus) (Thatte, Bagadey & Dahanukar 2000) D. Semicarpus anacardium (Thatte, Bagadey & Dahanukar 2000) E. sho-saikoto formula (Thatte, Bagadey & Dahanukar 2000) F. Viscum album (Thatte, Bagadey & Dahanukar 2000)LII. Aromatase inhibitor Aromatase converts androstenedione to estrone that can then be converted to estradiol in peripheral tissues. A. coumestrol B. enterodiol and its precursors lignans, O- demethylsecoisolariciresinol (ODSI), demethoxysecoisolariciresinol (DMSI) and didemethylsecoisolariciresinol (DDSI) C. enterolactone and its precursor lignans 3-demethoxy-3O- demethylmatairesinol (DMDM) and didemethoxymatairesinol (DDMM) D. flavonoids (Kellis & Vickery 1984) E. kaempferol F. luteolin G. phytoestrogens (Adlercreutz, et al. 1993) H. Urtica dioica rootLIII.Astringent; Tannin-rich plants A. All relatively equally effective. B. Abies (Spruce) C. Agrimonia (Agrimony)
  24. 24. Actions of Medicinal Plants 24 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND D. Alnus (Alder) E. Arbutus (Madrone) F. Arctostaphylos (Manzanita, Uva-Ursi) G. Betula (Birch) H. Ceanothus (Red Root) I. Cinnamomum (Cinnamon) J. Cola nitida (Cola Nuts) K. Ephedra (ma huang, Mormon tea) L. Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) M. Fraxinus (Ash) N. Geranium (Cranesbill, Alum Root) O. Guaiacum (Lignum Vitae) P. Hamamelis (Witch Hazel) Q. Heuchera (American Alum Root) R. Jatropha cineria (Sangre de Drago) S. Juglans (Walnut, Butternut) T. Krameria (Rhatany) U. Ligustrum (Privet) V. Myrica (Bayberry), now Morella W. Orobanche (Broomrape) X. Paullinia (Guaraná) Y. Polygonum bistorta (Bistort Root) Z. Potentilla AA. Prunus (Wild or Choke Cherry) BB. Punica (Pomegranate) CC. Quercus (Oak DD. Rheum (Rhubarb) EE. Rhus (Sumach) FF. Rosa (Rose) GG. Rubus (Blackberry, Raspberry) HH. Rumex hymenosepalus (Cañaigre) II. Trillium (beth root) JJ. Vaccinium (Blue-/Huckle-/Bilberry) KK. Xanthium (Cocklebur)LIV. ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase) inhibitor A. cardiac glycosides (Convallaria, Digitalis, Apocynum, Urginea, Stropanthus, Nerium) B. digoxin, digitoxin, ouabain (Digitalis purpurea)LV. 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors A. 11-beta-HSD normally converts active cortisol to inactive cortisone. B. glycyrrhizic acid (Glycyrrhiza glabra)LVI. 5-beta-reductase inhibitor (catabolizes cortisol) A. glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
  25. 25. Actions of Medicinal Plants 25 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDLVII.Bitters A. alkaloids 1. berberine and cogeners a) Berberis haematocarpa (algerita) b) Berberis vulgaris (barberry) c) Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread) d) Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal) e) Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape) f) Mahonia repens (creeping barberry) g) Xanthorhiza simplicissima (goldroot) 2. quinine (Cinchona spp) B. citrus flavanones (Citrus spp (bitter orange) C. iridoids or sesquiterpene lactones 1. Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 2. Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) 3. Chionanthus virginicus (fringetree) 4. Cnicus benedictus (blessed thistle) 5. Fraxinus americana (white ash) 6. Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian) 7. Marrubium vulgare (horehound) 8. Menyanthes trilobata (bogbean) 9. Rumex crispus (yellow dock) 10. Swertia chirata (chiretta) 11. Swertia radiata (deers ears) 12. Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 13. Verbena spp (vervain) D. quassinoids 1. Picrasma excelsa (Jamaica quassia) 2. Quassia amara (Surinam quassia) E. aromatic bitters (non-bitter tasting digestive stimulants) 1. Acorus calamus (calamus) 2. Alpinia galanga (galangal) 3. Angelica archangelica (garden angelica) 4. Capsicum spp (cayenne) 5. Zingiber officinale (ginger)LVIII. Bone marrow stimulant, anti-pancytopenic A. Angelica sinensis B. Astragalus membranaceus C. berbamine (Berberis spp) D. Panax ginseng E. Panax quinquefoliusLIX. Bronchodilator A. Potent 1. Datura stramonium
  26. 26. Actions of Medicinal Plants 26 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 2. ephedrine (Ephedra sinica) 3. lobeline (Lobelia inflata) B. Mild-to-Moderate 1. forskolin (Plectranthus forskohlii) 2. spasmolytics, generalLX. Broncholytic A. atropine (Atropa belladonna) B. caffeine (Camellia sinensis) C. ephedrine (Ephedra sinica) D. khellin (Ammi visnaga) E. papaverine (Papaver somniferum) F. theophylline (Camellia sinensis)LXI. Calcium channel blocker, calcium channel antagonist A. Angelica sinensis B. apigenin (Apium graveolens, Ginkgo biloba) C. Foeniculum vulgare D. khellin (Ammi visnaga) E. tetrandrine and other alkaloids (Stephania tetrandra)LXII.cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor (cyclic AMP phosphodiesteraseinhibitor) A. caffeine B. dihydrofuranocoumarins (Angelica sinensis) C. flavonoids (Crataegus oxyacantha, Citrus reticulata, Iris florentina)--see herb monographs D. glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra) E. miscellaneous (Nikaido, et al. 1981; Nikaido, et al. 1989; Ohmoto, et al. 1988; Nikaido, et al. 1988) F. papaverine G. quercetin H. silymarin (Silybum marianum) I. Sophora flavescens (Ohmoto, et al. 1986) J. theophylline K. Viscum album (European mistletoe), butanol extract, probably due to flavonoids, phenol carboxylic acids, phenylpropanes and lignansLXIII. Cardiovascular circulation stimulant A. choline B. nicotinic acid C. quinidine D. theobromine E. theophyllineCarminative: see spasmolyticLXIV.Cholagogue or choleretic
  27. 27. Actions of Medicinal Plants 27 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND All bitters are also cholagogue and/or choleretic to some degree. A. Berberis spp B. chelidonine (Chelidonium) C. curcumin (Curcuma longa) D. cynarin (Cynara scolymus) E. Mahonia spp F. Mentha spp. G. Petasites H. Peumus boldo I. Taraxacum officinaleLXV. Chronotropic A. negative (slows HR) 1. digoxin (Digitalis purpurea) 2. reserpine (Rauvolfia serpentina)LXVI.Circulatory stimulant, cerebral A. escin (Aesculus hippocastanum) B. Ginkgo biloba C. hydrogenated secale alkaloids D. Rosmarinus officinalisLXVII. Circulatory stimulant, peripheral A. Potent 1. Capsicum frutescens 2. Rauvolfia serpentina (raubasine, ajmaline) 3. Zanthoxylum spp 4. Zingiber officinale B. Mild 1. Crataegus laevigata 2. Ginkgo biloba 3. Rosmarinus officinalisLXVIII. Contraceptives A. Azadirachta indica (neem) B. genistein (prunetol, sophoricol, genisteol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Cytisus scoparius, Glycine max, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Medicago sativa, Pueraria lobata, Trifolium pratense, etc.) C. Gossypium (cotton), antisperm D. Montanoa tomentosa (zoapatle), antisperm E. Tripterygium wilfordii, antisperm F. Vicoa indica (banjauri), Asteraceae 1. female antifertility in monkeys (Rao AJ, Ravindra N, Moudgal NR (1997) Ind Acad Sci 71:918)LXIX.Coronary artery dilator
  28. 28. Actions of Medicinal Plants 28 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND A. adenosine B. Crataegus laevigata C. daidzein (Genista tinctoria, Glycine max, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria psuedohirsuta, Trifolium pratense, etc.) D. visnadine (Ammi visnaga)LXX. Corrigent, corrigen, flavor enhancer A. Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) B. Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) C. miraculin—makes other things taste sweet D. Pimpinella anisum (anise) E. Pungents 1. Cinnamomum spp (cinnamon) 2. Syzygium spp (clove) 3. Zingiber officinale (ginger) F. Sugar-substitutes, botanical sweeteners 1. abrusosides (Abrus precatorius) 2. glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra) 3. periandrin V (Periandra dulcis) 4. polypodosides (Polypodium glycyrrhiza) 5. pterocaryosides (Pterocarya paliurus) 6. steviosides (Stevia rebaudiana)LXXI.Cyclooxygenase inhibitor A. COX-1 and COX-2 1. allicin (Allium sativum, A. cepa) 2. Atracylodes lancea 3. salicylic acid B. COX-2 specific 1. apigenin (Rosmarinus officinalis, Matricaria recutita) 2. Camellia sinensis 3. carnosol (Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum sanctum) 4. cerebrosides (Phytolacca americana) 5. curcumin 6. essential fatty acids 7. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Herold, et al. 2003) 8. humulone (Humulus lupulus) 9. Inula britannica--see Inula monograph 10. kaempferol (Liang, et al. 1999) 11. oleanic acid (Mutoh, et al. 2000) 12. parthenolides (Tanacetum parthenium) 13. Plantago lanceolata (Herold, et al. 2003) 14. Tripterygium wilfordii 15. tryptanthin (Isatis tinctoria) 16. ursolic acid (Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum sanctum) (Ringbom, et al. 1998) 17. wogonin, other flavonoids (Scutellaria baicalensis)
  29. 29. Actions of Medicinal Plants 29 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 18. zerumbone (Zingiber zerumbet)--see Zingiber monographLXXII. Decongestant A. Bidens pilosa (tickseed) B. Ephedra sinica (ma huang) C. Eriodictyon californica (yerba santa) D. Lycium pallidum (wolfberry)LXXIII. Demulcent, Emollient, Mucilaginous, Bulk-Forming Laxative A. Althaea officinalis (marshmallow) B. Alcea rosea (hollyhock) C. Borago officinalis (borage) leaf D. Cetraria islandica (Iceland moss) E. Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) F. glycerin G. Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) H. Inula helenium (elecampane) I. Linum usitatissimum (flax) J. Malva neglecta (cheeseweed) K. Plantago lanceolata (lance-leaf plantain), Plantago major (broadleaf plantain) L. Plantago ovatum (psyllium, ispaghula) M. Sphaeralcea spp (globemallow) N. Sticta pulmonaria (lung moss) O. Symphytum officinale (comfrey) P. Tilia spp (linden) Q. tragacanth R. Tussilago farfara (Eastern coltsfoot) S. Ulmus fulva (slippery elm) T. Verbascum thapsus (mullein)LXXIV. Diaphoretic Actions: capillary vasodilating, immune stimulating (increased cytokines -> fever), direct effects on hypothalamus? A. Achillea millefolium (yarrow) B. Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) C. Aristolochia serpentaria D. Asclepias tuberosa (pleurisy root) E. Corallorhiza odontorhiza (coral root) F. Encelia farinosa (brittlebush, incienso) G. Ephedra sinica H. Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) I. Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) J. Monarda spp K. Pilocarpus jaborandi (jaborandi) L. Sambucus spp (elder) flos
  30. 30. Actions of Medicinal Plants 30 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND M. Tilia cordata (lime flower, linden)LXXV.Diuretic, aquaretic A. see also angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor B. Multiple herbs shown to be diuretic in animals in very high doses (Ribeiro, et al. 1988; Cáceres, et al. 1987). C. Diuretics 1. cardioactive glycosides (Convallaria majalis, Urginea, Apocynum spp) 2. methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) 3. Moringa oleifera in large doses in rats (Cáceres, et al. 1992). 4. Stephania tetrandra D. Aquaretics 1. Potent a) Juniperus communis (juniper) b) Levisticum officinale (lovage) c) Solidago canadensis (goldenrod) 2. Mild a) Agathosma betulina (buchu) b) Equisetum arvense (horsetail) c) Galium aparine (cleavers) d) Hydrangea arborescens (seven barks) e) Orthosiphon stamineus (Java tea) f) Parietaria diffusa (pellitory-of-the-wall) g) Petroselinum crispum (parsley) h) Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) leaf i) Urtica dioica leafLXXVI. Emetic A. Brassica alba (white mustard) B. Cephaelis ipecacuanha C. Lobelia inflata D. Sanguinaria canadensis E. Urginea maritimaLXXVII. Emmenagogues A. Achillea millefolium (yarrow) B. Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh) C. Chamaelirium luteum (false unicorn root) D. Hedeoma pulegoides (American pennyroyal) E. Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) F. Mentha pulegoides (European pennyroyal) G. Mitchella repens (partridge berry) H. Ruta graveolens (rue)LXXVIII. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor
  31. 31. Actions of Medicinal Plants 31 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND A. hypericin (Hypericum perforatum)LXXIX. Escharotic See also vesicant. A. Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)LXXX.Estradiol 2-hydroxylase induction (turns estradiol --> 2-hydroxyestradiol) A. indole-3-carbinol (broccoli, cabbage)LXXXI. Expectorant A. Relaxing expectorants 1. Antispasmodic, indicated for patients with spasmodic, usually nonproductive coughs 2. Angelica archangelica 3. Grindelia spp 4. Hyssopus officinalis 5. Pilosella officinarum 6. Pimpinella anisum 7. Prunus serotina 8. Verbascum thapsus a) Also contains saponins and thus can act like a stimulating expectorant, and contains complex carbohydrates and thus can act like a demulcent. Thus, depending on the form and dose administered, this herb could be used for any type of cough. B. Stimulating expectorants: induce coughing, tend to loosen mucus, indicated for patients with wet or productive coughs 1. Alkaloid-containing a) 2. Cardiac glycosides-containing a) Asclepias tuboersa 3. Saponin-containing a) Aralia californica b) Bellis perennisTable. Summary of Botanical Expectorants (in alphabetical order)Stimulating Relaxing Expectorants MixedExpectorants Expectorants aAralia californica Angelica archangelica Inula heleniumAsclepias tuberosac Drosera rotundifolia Marrubium vulgare bAspidosperma quebracho Grindelia sppBellis perennisa Hyssopus officinalis bCephaelis ipecacuanha Pilosella officinarumGlycyrrhiza glabraa Pimpinella anisum
  32. 32. Actions of Medicinal Plants 32 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDHedera helixa Prunus serotina bLobelia inflata Verbascum thapsusPolygala senegaaPrimula verisaSanguinaria canadensisbSaponaria officinalisaStillingia sylvaticabTrifolium pratenseaUrginea maritimacStimulating Expectorant Types: a = saponin-containing, b = alkaloid-containing, c = cardiac glycoside-containingSource: Yarnell E. Natural Pulmonology (Healing Mountain Publishing),forthcoming.Note some expectorants may have overlapping actions—for example, Lobelia isalso quite antispasmodic and Glycyrrhiza is also demulcent.LXXXII. Fibrinolytic A. see also thrombolytic below B. allicin (Allium sativum, Allium cepa) 1. cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition C. bromelain D. guggulsterones (Commiphora mukul)--mild E. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng) 1. via stimulation of urokinase F. legumes (Gupta & Chatterjee 1982)Fungicidal: see anti-fungalFungistatic: see anti-fungalLXXXIII. Galactagogue A. Asparagus racemosa (shatavari)--shatavarin-I B. Bryenia patens (kamboji) and Leptadenia reticulata (jeevanti) formula (Patel, Parikh & Patel 1982) C. Physostigma venenosum D. Pilocarpus jaborandi E. Pimpinella anisum F. Ricinus communis leaf topically G. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) folium H. Urtica dioica (nettle) folium (Bingel & Farnsworth 1994) I. Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree) Pradhan SK; Agrawal OP (1986) “A comparative study of variousgalactogogues on the yield and composition of milk in dairy cows” IndianJournal of Indigenous Medicine (4): 21-4
  33. 33. Actions of Medicinal Plants 33 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDLXXXIV. Ganglioplegic A. coniine B. nicotine C. lobelineLXXXV. Glutathione reductase inhibitor A. anthocyanidin B. catechinLXXXVI. Glutathione S-transferase inhibitor A. butein B. 2-hydroxyl chalcone C. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) D. quercetin E. tannic acidLXXXVII. Goitrogens (Langer 1983)--see also thyrostatics All of these are only clearly known to cause problems in settings of iodine deficiency. A. cyanogenic glycosides 1. Brassica spp. (broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts) 2. Linum usitatissimum: quantities contained are very small B. flavone (Gaitan & Cooksey 1989) C. flavonoids 1. apigenin and luteolin glycosides (Digitaria exilis (Fonio millet) and Pennisetum dasystachyum (pearl millet) a) Goitrogenic in large amounts in iodine deficient people (Sartelet, et al. 1996). 2. Mechanisms: inhibit thyroid peroxidase, inhibit T4  T3 conversion peripherally, thyroid hormone receptor antagonism (Fitzpatrick 2000) D. isoflavones (Glycine max (soy) semen) (Fitzpatrick 2000)LXXXVIII. Guanylate cyclase inhibitor A. Momordica charantiaLXXXIX. Hallucinogen (psychedelic, psychotomimetic, psychointegrator) Despite a wide variety of chemical constituents and botanical families, the underlying action of all hallucinogens/psychointegrators is on serotonergic neurons, producing hallucination (Siegel 1984; Hollister 1984; Jacobs 1984; Mandell 1985; Aghajanian 1994). Autonomic nervous system effects induce limbic system, which in turn increase integration of the front cortex with the limbic system and increase interhemispheric coherence (Mandell 1985). Some such as Datura stramonium and similar Solanaceae plants, however, act primarily through anticholinergic mechanisms.
  34. 34. Actions of Medicinal Plants 34 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND A. Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) (muscarine) B. Anadenanthera peregrina (yopo, paricá, niopo) = Piptadenia peregrina (bufotenine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, other indole alkaloids) C. Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca) = B. inebrians (beta-carboline alkaloids such as harmine, harmiline) D. Cannabis indica (marijuana) (tetrahydrocannabinols) E. Datura stramonium (jimson weed) (atropine, etc.) F. Ipomoea (morning glory) (lysergic acid) G. Lophophora williamsii (peyote) (mescaline = phenylethylamine) H. Mandragora officinarum (mandrake) I. Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) (myristicin, elemicin) J. psilocybin and other indolealkylamines (Psilocybe spp, Conobybe spp, Paneolis spp, Stropharia spp) K. Trichocereus spp L. Turbinia spp M. Virola calophylla (virola) (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) N. miscellaneous 1. McKenna 1996XC. Hepatic agent, hepatoprotective A. cynarin (Cynara scolymus) B. catechin C. curcumin (Curcuma longa) D. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng) E. gomisin (Schisandra chinensis) F. lecithin G. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) H. orotic acid I. Schisandra chinensis J. silymarin (Silybum marianum) K. Taraxacum officinalis radixXCI. Histidine decarboxylase inhibitor A. Allium sativum? B. catechinXCII.Hyaluronidase inhibitor A. polysaccharides (Echinacea spp.)XCIII. Hypertensive (antihypotensive, pressor agent) A. caffeine B. ephedrine (Ephedra sinica) C. glycyrrhetinic acid (Glycyrrhiza glabra) D. sparteineXCIV.Hypoglycemic (see also antidiabetic) A. Momordica charantia
  35. 35. Actions of Medicinal Plants 35 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND B. trigonelline (Trigonella foenum-graecum) C. miscellaneous (Oliver-Bever & Zahnd 1979)XCV. Hypolipidemic agent, hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic A. allicin (Allium sativum, A. cepa) B. biochanin A (pratensol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, etc.) C. forskolin (Plectranthus forskohlii) D. germacranolide and guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, tenulin, deoxyelephantopin, eupahyssopin) (Hall, et al. 1980) E. guggulsterones (Commiphora mukul) 1. stimulate hepatic uptake of LDL F. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng) G. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) H. policosanol = octacosanol (Saccharum officinarum) I. tannic acidXCVI.Hypotensive (antihypertensive) A. Potent 1. ajmaline (Rauvolfia serpentina)raubasine (Rauvolfia serpentina) 2. raupine (Rauvolfia serpentina) 3. rescinnamine (Rauvolfia serpentina) 4. reserpine (Rauvolfia serpentina) 5. serpentine (Rauvolfia serpentina) 6. ester alkaloids (Veratrum spp) B. Mild 1. Allium sativum 2. Angelica sinensis 3. Crataegus laevigata 4. Dendranthemna x morifolium (chrysanthemum) 5. forskolin (Plectranthus forskohlii) 6. Ganoderma lucidum 7. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng) 8. Hibiscus 9. Lonicera 10. Olea europaea 11. Rhododendron 12. Salvia miltiorrhiza 13. Viscum albumXCVII. Immunomodulator, immune modulator, phytocytokine, adaptogen(Alonso-Osorio 2001) A. Acanthopanax sessiflorum (wu jia pi) B. Albizzia lebbeck C. Albizzia julibrissin (silk tree) D. Andrographis paniculata
  36. 36. Actions of Medicinal Plants 36 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND E. Angelica sinensis (dong quai)—polysaccharides, coumarins F. Aralia elata (Japanese angelica tree) G. Aralia manshurica (Manchurian spikenard) H. Aralia racemosa (spikenard) I. Aralia schmidtii (Sakhalin spikenard) J. Astragalus membranaceus (astragalus) K. Centella asiatica (gotu kola) L. Cicer arientinum (chickpea) M. Codonopsis pilosula (dang shen) N. Echinopanax elatus (Asian devil’s club) O. Eleutherococcus senticosus (eleuthero) P. Eucommia ulmoides (hardy rubber tree) Q. Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) R. Hoppea dichotoma S. Lentinula edodes (shiitake) T. Leuzea carthamnoides (maral root) U. Ocimum tenuifolium (holy basil) V. Oplopanax horridum (devil’s club) W. Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) X. Panax notoginseng (tienchi ginseng) Y. Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) Z. Pfaffia paniculata (suma) AA. Rhodiola rosea (roseroot stonecrop) BB. Schisandra chinensis (wu wei zhi) CC. Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) DD. Trametes versicolor (yun zhi) EE. Trichopus zeylanicus (arogyappacha) FF. Viscum album (European mistletoe)--lectins GG. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha)XCVIII. Immunostimulant A. acemannan or acetylated mannose (Aloe barbadensis) B. achyrocline C. Baptisia tinctoria D. catechin E. Echinacea spp F. Eupatorium perfoliatum G. Thuja occidentalis H. vincetoxicum I. dendritic cell stimulators J. macrophage phagocytosis stimulators 1. BCG vaccine 2. beta-1,3-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevesiae cell wall glycoprotein) 3. Echinacea spp 4. Viscum album K. NK cells stimulators
  37. 37. Actions of Medicinal Plants 37 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1. function: Larix occidentalis (arabinogalactans), Chelidonium majus (semisynthetic agent Ukrain by injection), Astragalus membranaceus (lignans), AHCC 2. number and function: Viscum album (Iscador extract, rhamnogalacturonan)XCIX.Inflammation modulator, anti-inflammatory, anti-phlogistic A. Categorization by major constituents 1. Miscellaneous anti-inflammatories a) Aesculus hippocastanumˆ b) Echinacea spp c) Hypericum perforatum (1) 5-Lipoxygenase inhibiting (Herold, et al. 2003). d) Plantago lanceolata (1) COX-2 inhibiting (Herold, et al. 2003). 2. Enzymes a) bromelain b) papain 3. Essential fatty acid, omega-6 a) Borago officinalis (borage) b) Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) c) Ribes niger (black currant) 4. Essential fatty acids, omega 3 a) Cannabis sativa (hemp) b) Linum usitatissimum (flax) c) Juglans regia (walnut) d) Perilla frutescens (perilla) e) Portulacca oleracea (purslane) f) Typha spp (cattail) 5. Flavonoid anti-inflammatories a) Crataegus spp (hawthorn) b) Scutellaria baicalensis (Baical skullcap) 6. Resin anti-inflammatories a) Boswellia serrata (frankincense) b) Capsicum frutescens (cayenne) c) Commiphora molmol (myrrh) d) Curcuma longa (turmeric) e) Guaiacum officinalis (lignum vitae) f) Liquidambar orientalis (storax) g) Myroxylon balsamum (tolu balsam) h) Myroxylon pereirae (peru balsam) i) Populus balsamifera (poplar) gemma j) Styrax benzoin (benzoin) k) Zingiber officinale (ginger) 7. Salicylate anti-inflammatories a) Betula spp (birch) b) Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet)
  38. 38. Actions of Medicinal Plants 38 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND c) Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) d) Populus spp (poplar, aspen, cottonwood) e) Salix spp (willow) f) Viburnum prunifolium (black haw) 8. Sulfur anti-inflammatories a) Allium cepa (onion) b) Allium sativum (garlic) c) Armoracia rusticana (horsh radish) d) Brassica nigra (black mustard) e) Sinapis alba (white mustard) 9. Terpenoid/phenylpropanoid anti-inflammatories a) Achillea millefolium (yarrow) b) Betula spp (birch) c) Cinnamomum camphora (camphor) d) Guaiacum officinale (lignum vitae) e) Juniperus communis (juniper) f) Matricaria recutita (chamomile) g) Melaleuca leucadendron (cajeput) h) Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) i) Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) j) Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) k) Zingiber officinale (ginger) 10. Triterpenoid/steroidal anti-inflammatories a) Bupleurum falcatum (Chinese thoroughwax) b) Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) c) Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) (1) Dual 5-lipoxygenase and COX-2 inhibitor (Herold, et al. 2003). d) Smilax spp (sarsaparilla) e) Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) f) Yucca spp (yucca) B. Dermatological anti-inflammatory agents 1. Aloe vera (aloe) gel (polysaccharides) a) inhibits thromboxane formation 2. Arnica montana (arnica) flos 3. Calendula officinalis (calendula) flos 4. escin (Aesculus hippocastanum) 5. Matricaria recutita 6. mucilage 7. Plantago spp (plantain) 8. Salix alba 9. Symphytum officinale (comfrey) herba or radix (polysaccharides)C. Inotropic A. negative (decreases contractility)
  39. 39. Actions of Medicinal Plants 39 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1. Angelica sinensis B. positive (increases contractility) 1. Convallaria majalis 2. Crataegus laevigata 3. digitoxin (Digitalis purpurea) 4. forskolin (Plectranthus forskohlii) 5. helenalin (Arnica montana)CI. Insect Repellant A. Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime) volatile oil (Tawatsin, et al. 2001) B. Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella grass) volatile oil (Tawatsin, et al. 2001) C. Curcuma longa (turmeric) volatile oil (Tawatsin, et al. 2001) D. Ocimum americanum (hairy basil) volatile oil (Tawatsin, et al. 2001) E. Ocimum selloi (basil pepper) volatile oil F. vanillin (Tawatsin, et al. 2001)CII. Insecticidal: see also anti-parasitic A. Annonaceous acetogenins B. Azadiracta indica (neem) (azadiractans) C. lemon peel oil (Mwaiko & Savaeli 1994)CIII.Interleukin synthesis or secretion A. inhibitor 1. Urtica dioica (of Il-1) B. stimulator 1. Echinacea spp. (of Il-1), in vitro only 2. epigallocatechin gallate (Camellia sinensis) (of Il-1)CIV. Intestinal Permeability Increasers A. bromelain B. lectins C. piperine D. saponinsCV. Intoxicant A. fermented palm sap: humans, palm civets, bats, monkeys and elephants become intoxicated when they drink it B. fermented wheat, rye, corn and many other plants yield ethanol C. Madhuca indica (mohwa tree)--fermented flowers are made into daroo wine in India; sloth bears also get intoxicated from eating the flowersCVI. Iodothyronine deiodinase inhibitor converts T4  T3 A. apigenin B. luteolin
  40. 40. Actions of Medicinal Plants 40 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND C. quercetin D. rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid, luteolin-7beta-glucoside (Melissa officinalis, Lithospermum officinale, Lycopus virginicus)Lactagogue: see GalactagogueCVII.Laxatives, cathartic All cholagogues are also mildly cathartic. A. Anthraquinone glycosides (Rheum palmatum, Frangula purshiana, Rhamnus frangula, Senna alexandrina, Aloe vera latex, Juglans cinerea, Rumex crispus, etc.) B. Fatty acids (Ricinus communis oleum) C. Resins (Convolvulaceae, Podophyllum, Colocynthis citrullus)CVIII. Laxatives, osmotic A. Ficus B. fruit acids (eg fructose) C. Manna D. TamarindusCIX. Laxative, polysaccharide (bulk-forming)—see DemulcentCX. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor A. allicin (Allium sativum, A. cepa) B. Atractylodes lancea C. curcumin (Curcuma longa) D. Glycyrrhiza glabra E. NDGA (Larrea tridentata) F. Tanacetum parthenium G. Zingiber officinaleCXI. Lymphatic, lymphagogue A. Upper body: 1. Calendula officinalis 2. Galium spp 3. Phytolacca americana —most generic for entire body though 4. Viola tricolor B. Abdomen, spleen: 1. Ceanothus greggii 2. Polymnia uvedalia (bear’s foot) C. Pelvis: 1. Fouquieria splendensCXII.Miotic (constricts pupil) A. physostigmine (Physostigma venenosum)
  41. 41. Actions of Medicinal Plants 41 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND B. pilocarpine (Pilocarpus jaborandi)CXIII. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor A. Hypericum perforatum 1. weak MAO A inhibitor in vitro only B. isoliquiritinigenin, glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra) C. nicotine 1. inhibits MAO B, which catabolizes dopamineMucilaginous Herbs—see demulcentCXIV.Muscle relaxant, central A. kavain (Piper methysticum)CXV. Muscle relaxant, peripheral A. C-toxiferine B. tubocurarine (Curare)CXVI.Mydriatic (dilates pupil) A. atropine (Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger)CXVII. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitor A. Annonaceous actogenins (uvaricin, etc. isolated from the genera Annona, Asimina, Goniothalamus, Rollinia, Uvaria and Xylopia)CXVIII. Nervine, neurotonic A. Potent 1. Pulsatilla spp B. Moderate 1. Myristica fragrans 2. Piper methysticum 3. Valeriana officinalis 4. Valeriana sitchensis 5. Zizyphus spinosa C. Mild 1. Avena sativa 2. Cypripedium spp * 3. Humulus lupulus 4. Leonurus cardiaca 5. Matricaria recutita 6. Nepeta cataria 7. Passiflora incarnata 8. Scutellaria lateriflora 9. Stachys betonica 10. Verbacum thapsus flos 11. Verbena sppCXIX.NFkappaB inhibitors, inflammation modulating
  42. 42. Actions of Medicinal Plants 42 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND A. curcumin (Curcuma longa) (Singh & Aggarwal 1995) B. Zingiber officinaleCXX. Nitric oxide synthase activator A. Allium sativumCXXI.Nootropic (Howes & Houghton 2003) A. Acorus calamus B. Angelica archangelica C. Bacopa monniera D. Biota orientalis E. Celastrus paniculatus F. Centella asiatica G. Clitoria ternatea H. Codonopsis pilosula I. Crocus sativus J. Evodia rutaecarpa K. Galanthus nivalis L. Ginkgo biloba M. Huperzia serrata N. Lycoris radiata O. Magnolia officinalis P. Narcissis spp Q. Polygala tenuifolia R. Rosmarinus officinalis S. Salvia spp T. Vinca minorCXXII. Parasympathocomimetic (parasympathomimetic) A. acetylcholine B. arecoline (Areca catechu) C. choline D. nicotine (Nicotiana tabacum) E. muscarine F. physostigmine (eserine) (Physostigma venenosum) G. pilocarpine (Pilocarpus jaborandi) H. reserpine (Rauvolfia serpentaria): indirect via depletion of catecholamine storage granules in central nervous systemPain relieving: see analgesic aboveCXXIII. Partus PreparatorDo not use in ethanol as it relaxes the uterus. A. Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) = Cimicifuga racemosa B. Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)--use with caution C. Gossypium herbaceum
  43. 43. Actions of Medicinal Plants 43 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDCXXIV. P-glycoprotein (Pgp, P-gp) inhibitor, multidrug resistanceinhibitor in cancer cells A. Atractylodes lancea B. epigallocatechin gallate (ECCG), theanine (Camellia sinensis) C. Feijoa sellowiana D. Ficus citrifolia E. flavonoids especially quercetin F. indole-3-carbinol (via its metabolite diindolylmethane) G. methoxyhydrnocarpin, a flavonoid in Berberis spp H. reserpine I. Rosmarinus officinalis J. Stephania tetrandra alkaloidsCXXV.Phenolsulfotransferase inhibitor A. Hepatic sulfating enzyme. B. apigenin C. chrysin D. curcumin (Curcuma longa) E. ellagic acid F. fisetin G. galangin H. genistein I. kaempferol J. myricetin K. quercetinPhosphodiesterase (cAMP) inhibitor: see cAMP-phosphdiesterase inhibitorCXXVI. Phospholipase (PLP) A2 inhibitor A. Boswellia serrata B. curcumin (Curcuma longa) C. Tanacetum parthenium D. Zingiber officinaleCXXVII. Phospholipase C inhibitorCXXVIII. Phytoestrogenic agent, phytoestrogenSummary of known phytoestrogenic constituents:IsoflavonesCoumestansLignans (some)Phenylpropanoids (some)Anthraquinones (some) A. biochanin A (pratensol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, etc.) B. coumestrol (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera, Glycine max, Medicago
  44. 44. Actions of Medicinal Plants 44 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND sativa, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense, etc.) C. daidzein (Genista tinctoria, Glycine max, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria psuedohirsuta, Trifolium pratense, etc.) D. genistein (prunetol, sophoricol, genisteol) (Baptisia tinctoria, Cytisus scoparius, Glycine max, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Medicago sativa, Pueraria lobata, Trifolium pratense, etc.) E. Foeniculum vulgare (fennel)--anethole F. Glycine max (soy)--isoflavones G. Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) H. Humulus lupulus (hops) I. Linum usitatissimum (flax)--lignans J. Medicago sativum (alfalfa)--isoflavones K. Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) L. Pimpinella anisum (anise)—anethole M. Serenoa repens N. Trifolium pratense (red clover)--isoflavonesZhang CZ, Wang SX, Zhang Y, Chen JP, Liang XM. “In vitro estrogenicactivities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for themanagement of menopausal symptoms.” J Ethnopharmacol 2005;98(3):295-300.The estrogenic activity of 70% EtOH extracts of 32 traditional Chinesemedicinal plants, selected according to their reported efficacy for thetreatment of menopausal symptoms, was assessed using a recombinant yeastsystem with both a human estrogen receptor expression plasmid and areporter plasmid. Among them, 11 (34%) species proved to be active.Polygonum cuspidatum had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP) (3.28x 10(-3)), followed by Rheumpalmatum (3.85 x 10(-4)), Cassia obtusifolia(3.49 x 10(-4)), Polygonum multiflorum (2.87 x 10(-4)), Epimediumbrevicornum (2.30 x 10(-4)), Psoralea corylifolia (1.90 x 10(-4)),Cynomorium songaricum (1.78 x 10(-4)), Belamcanda chinensis (1.26 x 10(-4)), Scutellaria baicalensis (8.77 x 10(-5)), Astragalus membranaceus (8.47x 10(-5)) and Pueraria lobata (6.17 x 10(-5)). The EC(50) value of 17beta-estradiol used as the positive control was 0.205+/-0.025 ng/ml (RP=100).This study gave support to the reported efficacy of Chinese medicines usedfor hormone replacement therapy.CXXIX. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) antagonist and inhibitor A. androsin (Picrorhiza kurroa) (Dorsch & Wagner 1991) B. Arctium lappa (burdock) (Iwakami, et al. 1992) C. coumarins (Puecedanum praeruptorum) (Takeuchi, et al. 1988) D. curcumin (Curcuma longa) E. eugenol F. Forsythia suspensa G. forskolin (Coleus forskohlii) H. ginkgolides (Ginkgo biloba) (Nunez, et al. 1986; Braquet, et al. 1985)
  45. 45. Actions of Medicinal Plants 45 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND I. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng) J. glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra) K. kadsurenone, a lignan (Piper futokadsura) (Shen, et al. 1985) L. lignans (Schisandra chinensis) (Lee, et al. 1999) M. pinusolide (Biota orientalis) N. tetragalloyl quinic acid (Galphimia glauca) (Dorsch & Wagner 1991) O. Tussilago farfara 1. sesquiterpene L-652,469 (Hwang, et al. 1987) P. (+)-yangambin (Ocotea duckei) (receptor antagonist)CXXX.Platelet aggregation inhibitor A. allicin (Allium sativum, A. cepa) B. bromelain C. capsaicin (Capsicum spp) D. Galega officinalis E. ginkgolides (Ginkgo biloba) F. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng) G. alpha-linolenic acid (Linum usitatissimum) H. quercetin I. ruscogenin (Ruscus aculeatus) J. Zingiber officinale (ginger) (negative clinical study exists)CXXXI. Prolactin modulators, anti-prolactin, prolactinogogue, prolactinstimulator A. Prolactin amphoterics 1. Vitex agnus-castus B. Prolactin inhibitors C. Prolactin stimulators: see also lactagogues 1. Rauvolfia serpentina 2. resveratrol 3. Trigonella foenum-graecumCXXXII. Prostatic agent A. Cucurbita pepo (fatty acids) B. Hypoxis rooperi (African star grass) C. Prunus africanum (pygeum) D. Serenoa repens (fatty acids and sterols) 1. inhibit 5-alpha-reductase 2. inhibit movement of dihydrotestosterone-bound cytosolic receptor into nucleus 3. spasmolytic (alpha adrenergic antagonist) 4. phytoestrogen E. Urtica dioica root (blocks SHBG receptor) F. Beta-SitosterolCXXXIII. Protease inhibitor A. triterpene acids (Geum japonicum) (Xu HX, et al. J Nat Prod
  46. 46. Actions of Medicinal Plants 46 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1996;(7))CXXXIV. Protein Kinase C inhibitor A. hypericin (Hypericum perforatum) B. quercetin (Ferriola, Cody & Middleton 1989)CXXXV. Protein-Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (see also Tyrosine kinaseinhibitor) A. emodin (Rheum palmatum) B. hydroxystilbene, O-glycosides (Rheum officinale)CXXXVI. Redifferentiator, Cancer Normalizer A. berberine B. vitamin ACXXXVII. Rhinologic A. ephedrine B. galphimia (Luffa) C. pseudoephedrine D. Urtica dioicaCXXXVIII. Rubefacient A. Brassica nigra (black mustard) B. Capsicum spp (cayenne) C. Juniperus spp (juniper) D. Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) E. turpentineCXXXIX. Sedative, Tranquilizer, Hypnotic, see also nervine A. Avena sativa B. Chamaesyce hirta C. Eschscholzia californica D. Gelsemium sempervirens E. Humulus lupulus F. isoeugenol (Syzygium aromaticum) G. kavain (Piper methysticum) H. Matricaria recutita I. Melissa officinalis J. Passiflora incarnata K. Pulsatilla spp L. Rosa spp. oil M. reserpine, other alkaloids (Rauvolfia serpentina) N. Scutellaria spp. O. Valeriana spp P. Zizyphus spinosaCXL. Secretolytic (respiratory) A. Potent
  47. 47. Actions of Medicinal Plants 47 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 1. Atropa belladonna 2. Datura stramonium 3. Ephedra sinica B. Mild-to-Moderate 1. Glycyrrhiza glabra 2. Grindelia spp 3. Hedera helix 4. Primula spp. 5. Polygala senegaCXLI.Sialagogue A. Brassica alba (white mustard) B. Capsicum spp C. Echinacea angustifolia D. Physostigma venenosum E. Pilocarpus jaborandi F. Piper cubeba G. Piper nigrum H. Sanguinaria canadensis I. Zingiber officinaleCXLII. Spasmolytic A. Potent 1. anticholinergics a) atropine (Atropa belladonna) b) Datura stramonium c) Hyoscyamus niger d) Mandragora officarinum e) Soldanum dulcamara 2. papaverine B. Moderate 1. anticholinergics a) Garrya flavescens (silk tassel) b) Garrya wrightii (Wright’s silk tassel) 2. Paeonia lactiflora 3. Viburnum opulus 4. Viburnum prunifolium C. Mild 1. Angelica sinensis 2. carminatives a) Acorus calamus b) Carum carvi c) Cinnamomum zeylanicum d) Coriandrum sativum e) Foeniculum vulgare f) Melissa officinalis g) Mentha x piperita
  48. 48. Actions of Medicinal Plants 48 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND h) Mentha spicata i) Pimpinella anisum j) Piper nigrum k) Syzygium aromaticum l) Zingiber officinale 3. daidzein (Genista tinctoria, Glycine max, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria psuedohirsuta, Trifolium pratense, etc.) 4. Dioscorea villosa (wild yam) 5. Piper methysticum 6. Pueraria lobataCXLIII. Styptic, anti-hemorrhagic A. See also astringents. B. Capsella bursa-pastoris C. Panax notoginseng (tienchi ginseng) D. Trillium spp (bethroot)CXLIV. Sympatholytic, adrenergic antagonist, beta blocker, alpha blocker A. alkaloids such as ergotoxin, ergotamine (Secale) B. ergometrin C. liposterolic compounds (Serenoa repens): alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists D. reserpine (Rauvolfia serpentina): depletes norepinephrine from storage granules in neurons in CNS thus general central sympatholytic (parasympathomimetic) E. rose and patchouli volatile oils (Haze, et al. 2002) F. yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe): presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic antagonistCXLV.Sympathomimetic, adrenergic agonist A. ephedrine, pseudoephedrine (Ephedra sinica): alpha-1 and both beta adrenergic agonists B. pepper, estragon, fennel, grapefruit volatile oils (Haze, et al. 2002) C. tyramineCXLVI. Thrombolytic, thrombosis inhibitor A. see also fibrinolytic above B. Allium cepa C. Allium sativum D. Ginkgo bilobaCXLVII. Thyrostatic--see goitrogens also A. Fucus vesiculosus B. Lithospermum ruderale, L. officinale C. Lycopus virginicus, L. europaeus D. Melissa officinalis E. Thymus serpyllum
  49. 49. Actions of Medicinal Plants 49 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, NDCXLVIII. Thyrostimulant, thyrotropic, thyrotrophic A. Fucus vesiculosis (bladderwrack) B. guggulsterones (Commiphora mukul)CXLIX. Tonic A. Definition: herbs that strengthen and improve function in an organ, tissue, or the entire body. They are gentle, non-toxic, and generally require higher doses taken long-term for optimal effects. They have broad effects generally that are sustained even when the herb is stopped. They do not suppress. They also support normal function in healthy people and can be taken preventively. Bidirectional or modulating effects are not inherent in their definition. Often contain nutrients and can be nourishing, but only if taken in food doses. 1. “Replete deficiency in function or integrity.”CL. Topoisomerase-I inhibitor (uncoils DNA before cell division) A. acacetin B. apigenin C. camptothecins 1. topotecan (Hycamtin) is an FDA-approved drug for advanced ovarian cancer D. catechins E. epipodophyllotoxins (etoposide) F. genistein (Glycine max) G. kaempferol H. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) I. podophyllin resin J. quercetinCLI. Topoisomerase-II inhibitor A. genistein (Glycine max, Pueraria lobata, etc.)CLII.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion or synthesis A. inhibitor 1. Arnica spp 2. berbamine (Berberis spp) 3. Camellia sinensis 4. curcumin (Curcuma longa) (indirect via PLPA2 inhibition) 5. DHEA 6. Echinacea spp 7. gentiopicroside (Gentiana lutea) (Kondo, Takano & Hojo 1994) 8. ginsenosides (Panax ginseng)--see herb monograph 9. Hypericum perforatum 10. melatonin 11. Panax ginseng 12. Perilla frutescens (perilla) folium 13. Phytolacca americana
  50. 50. Actions of Medicinal Plants 50 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND 14. quercetin 15. Silybum marianum 16. Tanacetum parthenium (indirect via PLPA2 inhibition) 17. tetrandrine (Stephania tetrandra) 18. Tripterygium wilfordii 19. Urtica dioica (inhibits secretion of TNF-alpha) 20. Zingiber officinale B. stimulator 1. Echinacea spp. polysaccharides--stimulate secretion in vitro 2. sho-saiko-to formula stimulates synthesis of TNF-alphaCLIII. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor A. genistein (Glycine max, Pueraria lobata, etc.) B. quercetin (Levy, et al. 1984)CLIV.Uterine Tonic A. Aletris farinosa B. Angelica sinensis C. Caulophyllum thalictroides D. Chamaelirium luteum E. Rubus idaeusCLV. Vasodilator (see coronary artery dilator as well) A. apigenin (Apium graveolens, Ginkgo biloba) B. Ginkgo biloba C. khellin (Ammi visnaga) D. Rosmarinus officinalisCLVI.Vesicant, suppurant, pustulant See also escharotic. A. cantharis B. croton oil C. Podophyllum peltatum—podophyllin, podophyllotoxin D. Ranunculus spp—fresh plant topicallyCLVII. Wound Healing, Vulnerary A. asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside (Centella asiatica) B. Aristolochia C. Arnica montana D. Azadirachta indica E. Calendula officinalis F. Digitalis spp (topically) G. Lophophora williamsii H. Matricaria recutita
  51. 51. Actions of Medicinal Plants 51 © 2007 Eric Yarnell, ND I. polysaccharides (Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea) J. polysaccharides (Aloe vera) 1. including stimulation of fibroblast activity K. Symphytum officinale (comfrey) radix or herba (allantoin)CLVIII. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor A. morin (Chlorophora tinctoria) 1. moderately effectiveCLIX.ReferencesAbbasoglu U, Sener B, Gunay Y, Temizer H (1991) "Antimicrobial activity ofsome isoquinoline alkaloids" Arch Pharm 324:379-80Adlercretuz H, Bannwart C, Wahala K, et al. (1993) "Inhibition of humanaromatase by mammalian lignins and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens" J SteroidBiochem Mol Biol 44:147-53Aghajanian G (1994) "Serotonin and the action of LSD in the brain"Psychiatric Annals 2463(?? 26 #63?):137-41Alonso-Osorio MJ (2001) “Phytotherapy and immunomodulators” CircularFarmaceutica 59:40-44Alsat E (1987) "Lomatium dissectum" Comp Med May/June:32-4Ambros M, Lurton E, Boustie J and Girre L (1994) "Comparison of the anti-herpes simplex virus activities of propolis and 3-methyl-but-2-enylcaffeate" J Nat Prod 57(5):644-7Anderson D, et al. (1991) "In vitro virucidal activity of selectedanthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives" Antiviral Res 16:185-96Anderton JG, Mantle D, Thomas TH (1996) "Antioxidant herbal preparations" JR Soc Med 89(9):540 [letter]Atta AH, El-Sooud KA (2004) “The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptianmedicinal plant extracts” J Ethnopharmacol 95(2-3):235-8. see abstract at end of monographBarnard D, et al. (1992) "Evaluation of the antiviral activity ofanthraquinones, anthrones and anthraquinone derivatives against humancytomegalovirus" Antiviral Res 1992;17:63-77Beládi I, Pusztan R, et al. (1977) "Activity of some flavonoids againstviruses" Ann NY Acad Sci 284:358-64Belidi I, et al. (1981) "In vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of

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