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Gordon H Kraft Angel Investment in BBNC. MPEG2 BroadCast X.25 Network Multiplexers, etc.

Gordon H Kraft Angel Investment in BBNC. MPEG2 BroadCast X.25 Network Multiplexers, etc.

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    Broadband Networks, Inc.   bbnc mar Broadband Networks, Inc. bbnc mar Document Transcript

    • BBNChttp://www.bbnc.com/ [3/20/2000 9:48:01 AM]
    • Welcome to BroadBand Networkshttp://www.bbnc.com/html/frames.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:18 AM]
    • Body Framehttp://www.bbnc.com/html/body.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:20 AM]
    • About Executive Summary: BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC) was founded by Ralph Manfredo in 1998 with the strategy of providing end-to-end solutions for broadcast quality MPEG-2 digital video streams over ATM networks. BBNC products are considered amongst the best quality in video broadcast through out the world. Currently, products are installed and operational in over 11 countries. Through partnerships, BBNC is ready to deploy MPEG 2 Video Encoders for nearly every application. From Distance Learning to Video on Demand, BBNC products are the proven solution to high bandwidth video delivery.Since its founding, BBNC has continued to develop products which can be used in broadband situations.In the near future new products will be announced which will revolutionize the broadcast industry. Keepthis site book-marked for important announcements.Current product offerings includes: ● MPEG-2 encoder; single and multi-channel configurations ● MPEG-2 decoder; single and multi-channel configurations ● MPEG-2 CODEC; single and multi-channel configurations ● ATM Multiplexer for which patents have been awarded or are pending ● ATM De-Multiplexer Board for which patents have been awarded or are pending ● Fault Tolerant Redundant Multi-Channel Systems ● Network Management System for Control of all Systems on the Network BroadBand Networks Corporation 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 Santa Clara, California 95050 Ph.: 408.988.2060 FAX: 408.988.2188http://www.bbnc.com/html/about.htm (1 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:48:22 AM]
    • About Survey: sales@bbnc.com Directions to BBNChttp://www.bbnc.com/html/about.htm (2 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:48:22 AM]
    • Directions to BBNC BroadBand Networks Corporation 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 Santa Clara, California 95050 Ph.: 408.988.2060 FAX: 408.988.2188 All ROADS LEAD TO BBNC From Highway 880 Take 880 South or North and exit on Montague Expressway (West) Turn left on Trimble (Montague bends to the right at the intersection) Cross over Highway 101 to Central Expressway (right turn) Turn Left on Lafeyette Turn Right on Richard Avenue BBNC is on the Left side at 990 Richard Avenue; Suite 112 From US 101 Take 101 South or North and exit on Trimble Road (West) Turn Right on Central Expressway Turn Left on Lafeyette Turn right on Richard Avenue BBNC is on the Left side at 990 Richard Avenue; Suite 112http://www.bbnc.com/html/directions.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:23 AM]
    • Ralph P. ManfredoRalph P. ManfredoPresident, CEO, FounderOver 15 years of high technology management experience. During his career, he has introducednumerous products that were industry firsts in the networking marketplace. Most recently, Manfredo heldmanagement positions with NUKO Information Systems, Inc. BBNC is the successor of that company.Manfredo managed a leveraged buy out of his old company. Manfredo’s experience includes founder ofSPECTRUM NETWORKS CORPORATION, San Jose, CA, President & CEO; FERRANTI DATACOM,INC., Sunnyvale, CA - Director, Marketing & Sales and NUKO Information Systems, Inc. Product LineManager. As part of the buy out, Manfredo acquired all intellectual properties, patents, trademarks andphysical inventories of the old company. As such, BBNC is positioned to build and ship upon demandwithout customer interruption. BBNC under Manfredo’s direction will continue to maintain all existingequipment and customers as part of BBNC’s commitment to supporting the NUKO product line.Manfredo has a B.S.E.E, Syracuse University, Utica New York campus.http://www.bbnc.com/html/ralph.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:25 AM]
    • Jeffrey Kraft Jeffrey Kraft Vice President, Chief Operating Officer, Board Member Mr. Kraft was recently President of Artificial, Inc.; a developer of advanced e-Commerce website development company. Prior to this, he was President of MAST; a developed of neural network software applications used in partnership with on- line trading software applications. Prior to these activities, Mr. Kraft was a Vice President of DiagSoft, Inc. DiagSoft, Inc., was acquired by Sykes Enterprises, Inc., Kraft was a key employee and contributor to the success of DiagSoft.http://www.bbnc.com/html/jeff.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:25 AM]
    • Lynn Wubbels Lynn Wubbels CFO, Board Member Mr. Wubbels has a broad background in public accounting practice including tax and A&A. His significant experience with start-up companies and a key team member in the success of several companies that were either acquired by strategic investors or went public through an IPO. He is experienced in debt restructuring, workouts, major acquisitions and public offerings. Wubbels ran a startup through acquisition by a key industry company. Experienced as both a general and special referee in legal disputes. Experienced as a trustee for both large and small estates. Wubbels has significant experience with software companies.http://www.bbnc.com/html/lynn.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:26 AM]
    • Overview BroadBand Networks Millennium 2000 family consists of single and multi-channel MPEG encoder/decoder/CODEC systems and video networking products. BBNC’s video products are fully compliant with ISO/IEC 13818. Encoders, Decoders and CODECs support NTSC, PAL and Inverse Telecine. All BroadBand Networks products have been designed to meet the rigorous reliability requirements of Bellcore. Product reliability has been predicted based on Bellcore TR-NWT-000332 Parts Count Method. Click on Highlighted Model Number for PDF Data Sheet Single Channel Systems BBNC-2100E – The BBNC-2100E is a single channel MPEG encoder system with full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2100E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). Included with the BBNC-2100E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2110E – The BBNC-2110E is a single channel MPEG encoder system with ½ D1 resolutions up to 352 x 480 (NTSC) and 352 x 576 (PAL) at 4:2:0 formats for use in low bit rate applications of 1 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2110E supports closed captioning (CC). Included with the BBNC-2110E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2120E – The BBNC-2120E is a single channel MPEG encoder system with built-in ATM Multiplexer. The encoder supports full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2120E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). The ATM Multiplexer supports up to three (3) encoders and is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2120E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2130E – The BBNC-2130E is a single channel MPEG CODEC system with full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2130E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). Included with the BBNC-2130E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2140E – The BBNC-2140E is a single channel MPEG CODEC system with ½ D1 resolutions up to 352 x 480 (NTSC) and 352 x 576 (PAL) at 4:2:0 formats for use in low bit rate applications of 1 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2140E supports closed captioning (CC). Included with the BBNC-2140E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2150E – The BBNC-2150E is a single channel MPEG CODEC system with built-in ATM Multiplexer. The encoder supports full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2120E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). The ATM Multiplexer supports up to three (3) encoders and is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2150E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2160E – The BBNC-2160E is a single channel MPEG CODEC system with built-in ATM DeMultiplexers. The encoder supports full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2120E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audiohttp://www.bbnc.com/html/products.htm (1 of 3) [3/20/2000 9:48:27 AM]
    • Overview programming (SAP). The ATM DeMultiplexers drives up to nine (9) decoders and is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2160E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2100D – The BBNC-2100D is a single channel MPEG decoder that supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). The decoder supports resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. The BBNC-2100D has both analog and digital audio and video outputs. Multi-channel Systems BBNC-2200E – The BBNC-2200E is a Fault Tolerant multi-channel MPEG encoder system with N+1 redundancy of all critical components which are "hot swap" capable. The BBNC-2200E supports up to nine (9) MPEG encoder channels with built-in ATM multiplexers, Audio/Video/MPEG router switch, and monitoring Decoder. The encoders support full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2200E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). The ATM Multiplexer supports up to three (3) encoders and is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2200E is BBNC’s Millennium Management System. BBNC-2210E – The BBNC-2210E is a Fault Tolerant multi-channel MPEG CODEC system with N+1 redundancy of all critical components which are "hot swap" capable. The BBNC-2210E supports up to nine (9) MPEG CODEC channels with built-in ATM multiplexers, Audio/Video/MPEG router switch, and monitoring Decoder. The CODECs support full D1 resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. Capable of encoding and decoding MPEG-1, MPEG1+ and MPEG-2, the BBNC-2210E supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). The ATM Multiplexer supports up to three (3) encoders and is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2210E is BBNC’s Millennium Management System. BBNC-2220N - The BBNC-2200N consists of two independent ATM multiplexers each capable of supporting three (3), six (6) or nine (9) input ports. Each ATM MUX is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). BBNC-2230N - The BBNC-2230N consists of two independent ATM DeMultiplexers each with nine (9) output ports. Each ATM Demux is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). BBNC-2200D - The BBNC-2200D is a multi-channel MPEG decoder system that supports closed captioning (CC) and secondary audio programming (SAP). The decoder supports resolutions up to 704 x 480 (NTSC) and up to 704 x 576 (PAL) in 4:2:0 format at encode rates of 3 Mbps through 15 Mbps. The BBNC-2100D has both analog and digital audio and video outputs. Network Products BBNC-2300N - The BBNC-2300N is a stand-alone ATM Multiplexer capable of supporting three (3), six (6) or nine (9) input ports. Each ATM MUX is available with DS3, E3, OC-3c or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2300E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface. BBNC-2310N - The BBNC-2310N is a stand-alone ATM DeMultiplexers capable of supporting nine (9) output ports. Each ATM Demux is available with DS3, E3, OC-3C or STM-1 network interface modules (NIMs). Included with the BBNC-2310E is BBNC’s Millennium Graphical User Interface.http://www.bbnc.com/html/products.htm (2 of 3) [3/20/2000 9:48:27 AM]
    • Overview Network Management Products BMS-2000™ – The BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC) BroadBand Management System 2000 is an SNMPv2 compliant network management system designed to run with Hewlett-Packard’s OpenView® on a Sun SPARCstation ™ or higher workstation running Sun Solaris® . BMS can manage all BBNC products across the network including. BMS is an integral part of BBNC’s fault tolerant operation. BMS-2000 is MIB-II compliant and is also compliant with ATM Forum RFC1695http://www.bbnc.com/html/products.htm (3 of 3) [3/20/2000 9:48:27 AM]
    • Millennium BBNC 2100E Single Channel Encoder System Features Product Overview • Real Time MPEG-2 BBNC’s MILLENNIUM BBNC- encoding 2100E provides a single channel • MPEG-2 over ATM using real-time MPEG-2 encoding OC-3c, STM-1 DS3 or E3 solution. networks • Compact design The BBNC-2100E offers a • Simultaneous bi- standards-based open directional communication architecture for MPEG-2 • Control of picture quality through digital filtering and broadcast quality video enhancement applications. It supports many • User friendly GUI for video sources such as D1, YUV configuration maintenance and S-Video. The BBNC-2100E • Modular design facilitates also supports a range of video compression rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 18.4 Mb/s. easy reconfiguration • SNMP based network BBNC’s single channel encoder system is a Plug and Play product, complete with management compatibility the necessary CPU, operating system and control software preloaded. HighView, • Current IBM Mpeg-2 BBNC’s user-friendly graphical interface, allows intuitive control of all system encoder chip sets • Integrated Encoder / parameters. Decoder design The BBNC-2100E can accept video input from multiple devices such as VTRs, VCRs, cameras, live and satellite feeds. BBNC’s BBNC-2100E digitizes and compresses a single video channel and one or two stereo audio channels andmultiplexes them into an MPEG-2 compliant transport stream.ATM network requirements are supported with the optional BBNC-2300N ATM Trunking Multiplexer. The BBNC-2300Nwill take serial MPEG Transport stream data from up to three BBNC MILLENNIUM BBNC-2100E encoders, multiplexthem and output the multiplexed data to an industry standard ATM communications network.The BBNC-2100E provides alarms and indicator lights for easy diagnosis. Alarms are trapped and the information is sentto the optional MILLENNIUM Management System (HMS) network. BBNC’s architecture provides SNMP-based networkmanagement compatibility for customers who wish to design their own network management system. The BBNC-2100Ecan be accessed remotely for service and configuration requirements. Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 contained in this document and reserves the right to make changes Santa Clara, California 95050 USA without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2100E Single Channel Encoder System Deliverables Options • 3 RU UL/FCC • SNMP (ASN-1 Qualified Chassis compatible) Network • SPARC CPU with 16 management MIB MB DRAM • ATM Multiplexing • Hard Disk with Sun up to three channels OS Software • Millennium Network • SNMP Network Management System; Management MIB HP OpenView based • Manuals • Single board supports up to 9 channels Specifications • Mpeg-2 4:2:0 MP@ML or 4:2:2 High Profile • Support for 525/60 and 625/50 in analog composite (NTSL/PAL), component analog and component digital video inputs • Multiple internal resolutions via resampling and filtering of luma and chroma • Horizontal resolution: 576 (PAL) and 480 (NTSC) • 4”3 and 16:9 aspect ratio supported • MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame motion estimation • IPB frame encoding from 1.5Mb/s to 20 Mb/s • Wide multi level motion vector search range • Supports open and closed multiple GOP structuresCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATIONReserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112contained in this document and reserves the right to make changes Santa Clara, California 95050 USAwithout notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2100E Single Channel Encoder SystemMPEG-2 Video EncoderVideo Range MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame encoding (MP@ML) at bit rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sVideo Input Analog: NTSC, PAL, S-Video Digital: D1MPEG-2 Output 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sAudio EncoderAudio Input Analog: Two stereo channels each p to 384 Kb/s audio stream, mono, stereo, joint stereo, dual channelMPEG Output Mpeg-1 Layer 2Audio Output MPEG-1 layer 2 encoding (Musicam) at bit rate from 64 Kb/s to 384 Kb/sSynchronizer and PES MUXData Output TS MPEG-2 transport stream over serial RS-422, serial TAXI and DS-2 at link rates up to 18.4 MBPSManagement Remote Control via SNMP based managerPhysical SpecificationsDimensions 5.25” H x 17” W x 25” D, (134mm H x 434mm W x 638mm D)Power SpecificationsAC Voltage Range 100 to 265 V AC Auto detecting ± 10%Line Frequency 47/63 Hz, Auto sensingPower Consumption 80 WEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating Temperature 10° C to 32°c (50°to 90° F)Non-Operating Temperature -25°C to 60°C (-13°F to 140°F)Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m) Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 contained in this document and reserves the right to make changes Santa Clara, California 95050 USA without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2130E Single Channel (CODEC) Encoder / Decoder System Features Product Overview BBNC’s Millennium BBNC 2130E provides a single channel solution • Real Time MPEG-2 encoding encoder / decoder (CODEC) for • MPEG-2 over ATM using OC- real-time MPEG-2 encoding. 3c, STM-1 DS3 or E3 networks • Compact design The BBNC 2130E offers a • Simultaneous bi-directional standards based open architecture communication for MPEG-2 broadcast quality video • Control of picture quality applications. It supports many through digital filtering and video sources such as D1, YUV and enhancement S-Video. The BBNC 2130E also • User friendly GUI for supports a range of video configuration maintenance compression rates from 1.5Mb/s to • Modular design facilitates easy 20Mb/s. reconfiguration • SNMP based network BBNC’s single channel CODEC management compatibility system is a “Plug and Play” product complete with all the necessary CPU, operating system • Current IBM Mpeg-2 encoder and control software pre-loaded. HighView, BBNC’s user friendly graphical interface allows chip sets intuitive control of all system parameters • Integrated Encoder / Decoder design The BBNC 2130E can accept video input from multiple devices such as VTR’s, VCR’s, cameras, live and satellite feeds. BBNC’s BBNC 2130E digitizes and compresses a single video channel and one or two stereo audio channels and multiplexes them into an MPEG-2 compliant transport stream.ATM network requirements are supported with the optional BBNC 2300N ATM Trunking Multiplexer. The BBNC 2300N will take serialMPEG-2 transport stream data from up to three BBNC Millennium encoders, multiplex them and output the multiplexed data to anindustry standard ATM communications network.The BBNC 2130E provides alarms and indicator lights for easy diagnosis. Alarms are trapped and the information is sent to theoptional Millennium Management System (MMS) network. BBNC’s architecture provides SNMP based network managementcompatibility for customers who wish to design their own network management system. The BBNC 2130E can be accessed remotelyfor service and configuration requirements. Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2130E Single Channel (CODEC) Encoder / Decoder System Deliverables Options • 3 RU UL/FCC Qualified • SNMP (ASN-1 compatible) Chassis Network management MIB • SPARC CPU with 16 MB • ATM Multiplexing up to three DRAM channels • Hard Disk with Sun OS • Millennium Network Software Management System; HP • SNMP Network Management OpenView based MIB • Manuals • Single board supports up to 9 channels Specifications • Mpeg-2 4:2:0 MP@ML or 4:2:2 High Profile • Support for 525/60 and 625/50 in analog composite (NTSL/PAL), component analog and component digital video inputs • Multiple internal resolutions via resampling and filtering of luma and chroma • Horizontal resolution: 576 (PAL) and 480 (NTSC) • 4”3 and 16:9 aspect ratio supported • MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame motion estimation • IPB frame encoding from 1.5Mb/s to 20 Mb/s • Wide multi level motion vector search range • Supports open and closed multiple GOP structuresCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USAthe right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2130E Single Channel (CODEC) Encoder / Decoder SystemMPEG-2 Video EncoderVideo Range MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame encoding (MP@ML) at bit rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sVideo Input Analog: NTSC, PAL, S-Video Digital: D1MPEG-2 Output 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sAudio EncoderAudio Input Analog: Two stereo channels each p to 384 Kb/s audio stream, mono, stereo, joint stereo, dual channelMPEG Output Mpeg-1 Layer 2Audio Output MPEG-1 layer 2 encoding (Musicam) at bit rate from 64 Kb/s to 384 Kb/sSynchronizer and PES MUXData Output TS MPEG-2 transport stream over serial RS-422, serial TAXI and DS-2 at link rates up to 18.4 MBPSManagement Remote Control via SNMP based managerPhysical SpecificationsDimensions 5.25” H x 17” W x 25” D, (134mm H x 434mm W x 638mm D)Power SpecificationsAC Voltage Range 100 to 265 V AC Auto detecting ± 10%Line Frequency 47/63 Hz, Auto sensingPower Consumption 80 WEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating Temperature 10° C to 32°c (50°to 90° F)Non-Operating Temperature -25°C to 60°C (-13°F to 140°F)Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m) Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2140E Single Channel (CODEC) ½ Encoder / Decoder System D1 The BBNC-2140E utilizes • Real Time MPEG-2 an advanced motion encoding JPEG video CODEC that • MPEG-2 over ATM using integrates the power of OC-3c, STM-1 DS3 or E3 ATM with state-of-the-art networks broadcast quality video • Compact design and audio. The 2140E • Simultaneous bi- offers an affordable directional communication alternative to high end • Control of picture quality through digital filtering and MPEG-2 I-frame enhancement solutions. The feature rich • User friendly GUI for 2140E provides configuration maintenance simultaneous encoding • Modular design facilitates and decoding functions of easy reconfiguration PAL/NTSC video at 60 • SNMP based network fields/30 frames per second at 640 x 480 resolution. Video is transmitted using management compatibility mJPEG compression under user selectable compression ratios. • Current IBM Mpeg-2 encoder chip sets The 2140E supports both a single video camera and a single high resolution • Integrated Encoder / display monitor for excellent broadcast quality video and stereo audio. Decoder design The 2140E provides two (2) ATM OC-3c interfaces designed for network flexibility and performance. The 2140E transports video and audio over a single ATM network interface to reach across the campus or across the world. An auxiliary ATM interface is available for connecting a workstation or PC to expand the magnitude ofuser applications. The 2140E may also be cascaded to other 2140E units via the auxiliary ATM port. The BBNC-2140E isequipped with an SNMP agent and is operational under a SNMP client such as HP OpenView.ATM network requirements are supported with the optional BBNC 2300N ATM Trunking Multiplexer. The BBNC 2300Nwill take serial MPEG-2 transport stream data from up to three BBNC Millennium encoders, multiplex them and output themultiplexed data to an industry standard ATM communications network.The BBNC 2140E provides alarms and indicator lights for easy diagnosis. Alarms are trapped and the information is sentto the optional Millennium Management System (MMS) network. BBNC’s architecture provides SNMP based networkmanagement compatibility for customers who wish to design their own network management system. The BBNC 2140Ecan be accessed remotely for service and configuration requirements.Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATIONReserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112contained in this document and reserves the right to make changes Santa Clara, California 95050 USAwithout notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2140E Single Channel (CODEC) ½ Encoder / Decoder System D1 Deliverables • 3 RU UL/FCC Qualified Chassis • SPARC CPU with 16 MB DRAM • Hard Disk with Sun OS Software • SNMP Network Management MIB • Manuals • Single board supports up to 9 channels Options • SNMP (ASN-1 compatible) Network management MIB • ATM Multiplexing up to three channels • Millennium Network Management System; HP OpenView based Specifications • Mpeg-2 4:2:0 MP@ML or 4:2:2 High Profile • Support for 525/60 and 625/50 in analog composite (NTSL/PAL), component analog and component digital video inputs • Multiple internal resolutions via resampling and filtering of luma and chroma • Horizontal resolution: 576 (PAL) and 480 (NTSC) • 4”3 and 16:9 aspect ratio supported • MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame motion estimation • IPB frame encoding from 1.5Mb/s to 20 Mb/s • Wide multi level motion vector search range • Supports open and closed multiple GOP structures Applications Features • Surveillance • Broadcast quality video • Distance learning • Low latency • Telemedicine • ATM interface • Tele-Conferencing • Multiple video input ports • Public Address • Selectable compression ratio • On Demand Video • Simultaneous bi-directional communication • Near On Demand Video • Multi-unit cascade ability • SNMP control High performanceCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATIONReserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112contained in this document and reserves the right to make changes Santa Clara, California 95050 USAwithout notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2140E Single Channel (CODEC) ½ Encoder / Decoder System D1MPEG-2 Video EncoderVideo Range MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame encoding (MP@ML) at bit rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sVideo Input Analog: NTSC, PAL, S-Video Digital: D1MPEG-2 Output 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sAudio EncoderAudio Input Analog: Two stereo channels each p to 384 Kb/s audio stream, mono, stereo, joint stereo, dual channelMPEG Output Mpeg-1 Layer 2Audio Output MPEG-1 layer 2 encoding (Musicam) at bit rate from 64 Kb/s to 384 Kb/sSynchronizer and PES MUXData Output TS MPEG-2 transport stream over serial RS-422, serial TAXI and DS-2 at link rates up to 18.4 MBPSManagement Remote Control via SNMP based managerPhysical SpecificationsDimensions 5.25” H x 17” W x 25” D, (134mm H x 434mm W x 638mm D)Power SpecificationsAC Voltage Range 100 to 265 V AC Auto detecting ± 10%Line Frequency 47/63 Hz, Auto sensingPower Consumption 80 WEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating Temperature 10° C to 32°c (50°to 90° F)Non-Operating Temperature -25°C to 60°C (-13°F to 140°F)Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATIONReserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112contained in this document and reserves the right to make changes Santa Clara, California 95050 USAwithout notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2150E Single Channel (CODEC) Encoder / Decoder System Features Product Overview BBNC’s Millennium BBNC 2150E provides a single channel solution • Real Time MPEG-2 encoding encoder / decoder (CODEC) for • MPEG-2 over ATM using OC- real-time MPEG-2 encoding. 3c, STM-1 DS3 or E3 networks • Compact design The BBNC 2150E offers a • Simultaneous bi-directional standards based open architecture communication for MPEG-2 broadcast quality video • Control of picture quality applications. It supports many through digital filtering and video sources such as D1, YUV and enhancement S-Video. The BBNC 2150E also • User friendly GUI for supports a range of video configuration maintenance compression rates from 1.5Mb/s to • Modular design facilitates easy 20Mb/s. reconfiguration • SNMP based network BBNC’s single channel CODEC management compatibility system is a “Plug and Play” product complete with all the necessary CPU, operating system • Current IBM Mpeg-2 encoder and control software pre-loaded. HighView, BBNC’s user friendly graphical interface allows chip sets intuitive control of all system parameters • Integrated Encoder / Decoder design The BBNC 2150E can accept video input from multiple devices such as VTR’s, VCR’s, cameras, live and satellite feeds. BBNC’s BBNC 2150E digitizes and compresses a single video channel and one or two stereo audio channels and multiplexes them into an MPEG-2 compliant transport stream.ATM network requirements are supported with the optional BBNC 2300N ATM Trunking Multiplexer. The BBNC 2300N will take serialMPEG-2 transport stream data from up to three BBNC Millennium encoders, multiplex them and output the multiplexed data to anindustry standard ATM communications network.The BBNC 2150E provides alarms and indicator lights for easy diagnosis. Alarms are trapped and the information is sent to theoptional Millennium Management System (MMS) network. BBNC’s architecture provides SNMP based network managementcompatibility for customers who wish to design their own network management system. The BBNC 2150E can be accessed remotelyfor service and configuration requirements. Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2150E Single Channel (CODEC) Encoder / Decoder System Deliverables Options • 3 RU UL/FCC Qualified • SNMP (ASN-1 compatible) Chassis Network management MIB • SPARC CPU with 16 MB • ATM Multiplexing up to three DRAM channels • Hard Disk with Sun OS • Millennium Network Software Management System; HP • SNMP Network Management OpenView based MIB • Manuals • Single board supports up to 9 channels Specifications • Mpeg-2 4:2:0 MP@ML or 4:2:2 High Profile • Support for 525/60 and 625/50 in analog composite (NTSL/PAL), component analog and component digital video inputs • Multiple internal resolutions via resampling and filtering of luma and chroma • Horizontal resolution: 576 (PAL) and 480 (NTSC) • 4”3 and 16:9 aspect ratio supported • MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame motion estimation • IPB frame encoding from 1.5Mb/s to 20 Mb/s • Wide multi level motion vector search range • Supports open and closed multiple GOP structuresCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USAthe right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2150E Single Channel (CODEC) Encoder / Decoder SystemMPEG-2 Video EncoderVideo Range MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame encoding (MP@ML) at bit rates from 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sVideo Input Analog: NTSC, PAL, S-Video Digital: D1MPEG-2 Output 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sAudio EncoderAudio Input Analog: Two stereo channels each p to 384 Kb/s audio stream, mono, stereo, joint stereo, dual channelMPEG Output Mpeg-1 Layer 2Audio Output MPEG-1 layer 2 encoding (Musicam) at bit rate from 64 Kb/s to 384 Kb/sSynchronizer and PES MUXData Output TS MPEG-2 transport stream over serial RS-422, serial TAXI and DS-2 at link rates up to 18.4 MBPSManagement Remote Control via SNMP based managerPhysical SpecificationsDimensions 5.25” H x 17” W x 25” D, (134mm H x 434mm W x 638mm D)Power SpecificationsAC Voltage Range 100 to 265 V AC Auto detecting ± 10%Line Frequency 47/63 Hz, Auto sensingPower Consumption 80 WEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating Temperature 10° C to 32°c (50°to 90° F)Non-Operating Temperature -25°C to 60°C (-13°F to 140°F)Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m) Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2100D MPEG-2 Decoder Features • MPEG-2 Decoder Product • Main Profile@Main Level Overview • Composite PAL/NTSC Video BBNC’s BBNC • Digital Video CCIR 601 2100D is a single • Analog Audio channel real-time • Digital Audio SPDIF MPEG-2 decoder. • Closed Captioning The BBNC 21—D • RS-422 Serial MPEG-2 Input takes MEPG-2 • RS-232 Console Port Transport Stream • Front Panel Status LED’s • Compact Design input and converts it into video and audio outputs. Analog Video output can be • 19” 1 RU Rack Mount Chassis configured to NTSC or PAL. BBNC 2100D’s attractive and compact 1RU design can be used as a rack mount decoder in a standard 19” Telco chassis or as a standalone desktop unit. Configuration to the unit is provided via a RS-232 console port. Status of the unit is shown via front panel LED’s. BBNC-2100D can be used in many different applications: • Using the BBNC 2310 ATM Demultiplexer for Video transmission over ATM networks. Up to nine decoders can be used for this cable head end application. • Can be used with ASSL modems to transport MPEG-2 video over twisted pair copper Monitoring decoder in conjunction with the BBNC 2100E single channel and BBNC 2200E multiple channel encoders.SpecificationsInput MPEG-2 Transport Stream RS-422 Serial Bit Rate: 1.5Mb/s to 20 Mb/s Connector: RJ45Video Output PAL/NTSC RS-170A NTSC ITU PAL Connector: BNC Resolution: 720 x 480 @ 30Hz (NTSC), 720 x 576 @ 25Hz (PAL) 360 x 480 @ 30Hz (NTSC), 360 x 576 @ 25Hz (PAL)Output Connector: RCA (Analog), XLR (Digital) Audio Modes: Stereo, Joint Stereo, Mono, Dual ChannelPhysical Dimensions Dimensions: 19” W, 1.75” H, 9” D Operating Temperature: 0°to 40°C, (32°to 110°F) Storage Temperature: -20°to 60°C (-4°to 140° F) Humidity: 0% to 95% Non Condensing Altitude: 0 to 2500 mPower Specifications AC Voltage Range: 100 to 265 V AC, Auto detecting ± 10% Line Frequency: 47/63 Hz, Auto Sensing Power Consumption: 15W Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • BBNC-2200E MULTI-CHANNEL MPEG-2 ENCODER SYSTEMFEATURES• 1-32 channels of real-time The BBNC-2200E has a standards- The BBNC BBNC-2300N ATM trunking MPEG-2 encoding based open architecture for MPEG-2 multiplexer is a key component of the broadcast quality video applications. The VF-10000 solution. Each ATM• MPEG-2 over ATM using BBNC-2200E is available as a fully subsystem accepts up to 18 channels of OC-3, STM-1, OC-12, integrated network ready system MPEG-2 Transport Stream and DS-3, E3 including encoders, CPU, ATM combines them into a single OC-3 or multiplexer, audio/video/data router, STM1 ATM data stream output. It can enclosure, and a sophisticated SNMP also provide DS3 or E3 ATM data• CCIR 601 and AES/EBU based network and system manager. stream output that supports up to seven input capability The system can be configured for full MPEG-2 transport streams. A standard redundancy and hot swappable modules BBNC-2300N has one nine channel• I, IP, and IPB framing for increased network integrity. multiplexer board. A second board can• Selectable video resolutions be added for a total of 18 channels for The BBNC-2200E supports video each subsystem. A dedicated Sun sources including CCIR601, NTSC, PAL Microsystems SPARC CPU provides• Variable bit rates (1.5 to and audio sources includes analog as program control and monitoring of 15Mbs) well as AES/EBU. system status.• ATM AAL5 The BBNC-2200E encoder subsystems System and network management is provide, I, IP or IBP MPEG-2 encoding. provided by the BBNC Millennium• Redundancy They take video and audio inputs and Management System (HMS). The HMS create a single serial MPEG-2 transport system runs under HP OpenView on a• Hot swappable modules The BBNC-2200E is a member of stream. The encoder modules accept SPARC workstation. It monitors and the BBNC Millennium family of video and audio inputs in either analog or collects historical data on the input and• Compact design encoding systems and is the most digital formats and outputs the fully output channels. It also provides the flexible encoding system in the world. compliant MPEG-2 Transport Stream capability to monitor system status and• Sophisticated SNMP The BBNC-2200E is a multi-channel over an RS-422 interface. The BBNC- address system parameters on a local or management system solution available in configurations 2200E maximizes network efficiency by remote basis. that include up to 32 channels. providing variable bit rates from 1.5 to 15• User friendly GUI for for individual channels. reconfiguration and status The basic 32 channel system uses monitoring an SDH add/drop multiplexer to multiplex four STM1 output streams into a single STM4 output stream. 1 Video Inputs 2 Video MPEG-2 MPEG-2 D1, YUV Digitizing Video SVHS, PAL 3 & Filtering Encoder NTSC Transport System . Program (PES) . . 32 Network Interface ATM MUX Fast & Wide SCSI 1 Audio Inputs Audio MPEG-2 2 Audio Digitizing Encoder Analog 3 . Video . Server . 18 Data Buffer Data In BBNC-2200E Block Diagram
    • BBNC-2200E MULTI-CHANNEL MPEG-2 ENCODER SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS • MPEG-2 Main Profile at Main Level (MP@ML) profile conformance • Support for 525/60 and 625/50 in analog composite (NTSC/PAL), component analog and component digital video inputs • Multiple internal resolutions via resampling and filtering of luma and chroma: Horizontal Resolution: 704,352 Vertical Resolution: 576(PAL) and 480(NTSC) • 4:3 and aspect ratios supported • MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame motion estimation and DCT • I, P and B-frame encoding from 1.5 to 15 Mbps • Wide multi-level motion vector search range • Supports open and closed multiple GOP structures including I only, IP and IBP Video Encoder Subsystem MPEG output 1.5-15 Mbps MPEG-2 format Video input Analog: NTSC, PAL, S-Video Digital: DT CCIR601 (Serial) Audio Encoder Subsystem Audio input Analog MPEG output Two stereo channels each up to 384Kb/ MPEG-1 Layer 2 audio stream, mono stereo, joint stereo, dual channel ATM MUX Data input Serial RS-422 or Serial TAXI Output OC-3c, STM-1 DS3 or E3 Network format UDP/IP over ATM AAL5 Processor Sun Sparc Management Remote control via SNMP-based manager Environmental Specifications Operating temperature 5°C to 35°C (50°F to 90°F) Encoders Non-operating temperature -20°C to 80°C (-13°F to 140°F) (Up to 32) Operating humidity Non-condensing up to 80% (10-80%) Non-operating humidity Non-condensing up to 95% (10-80%) Physical Specifications Dimensions 24.13” W x 36.0” D x 76.13” H Weight 1100Lbs. (510Kg.) Power Specifications Voltage range 120 VAC + 15% Line frequency 50/60 Hz + 10% Amps 10.2 A ATM Mux (2) BroadBand Networks Corporation 2393 Qume Drive, San Jose, CA 95131 U.S.A. (1) 408-232.0100 fax (1) 408-232.0106 BBNC-2200E website: http://www.BBNC.comMillennium Cabinet Configuration
    • Millennium BBNC 2210E MPEG-2 Multi-Channel Encoder System Features Product Overview • 1 to 9 channels of real time The Millennium BBNC 2210E is a fully MPEG encoding / decoding integrated network ready, multi-channel per chassis encoder system. It provides from one to nine encoder / decoder (CODEC) channels • MPEG-2 over ATM using of real time MPEG-2 encoding capability. OC-3c, STM-1, DS3, or E3 networks The BBNC 2210E provides a cost-effective • Redundancy capabilities can solution for multiple CODEC installations. It features redundancy, fault tolerance and switch channels instantly software control at a system level. The • Simultaneous bi-directional HighView user-friendly graphical interface communication allows intuitive control of all system • Integrated MPEG-2 decoder parameters. for monitoring The Millennium BBNC 2210E offers a • User-friendly GUI for standards based open architecture for configuration maintenance MEPG-2 broadcast quality video applications. It supports many video • Elimination of down time sources such as D1, YUV and S-Video. with hot-swappable boards The BBNC 2210E also supports a range of • Modular design facilitates video compression rates from 1.5Mb/s to 20 easy reconfiguration Mb/s. • SNMP based network The system also offers the ability to change bit rates for efficient network bandwidth management compatibility management. The system interface software provides the capability to set bandwidth of • Remote diagnostic capability each channel form 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/s. The BBNC 2210E system gives the networks operator greater control over final picture quality for each individual channel. Based on source content, this feature is extremely useful if the source material is damaged or dirty. An optional onboard decoder allows monitoring of the output stream.The optional BBNC 2300N ATM Trunking Multiplexer subsystem provides advanced ATM networking capability. The BBNC 2300N hasthe ability to Mux serial data from the three to nine channels of video on a single ATM stream. A second BBNC 2300N can be added tothe system providing an additional 9 channels for redundancy. The BBNC 2300N supports OC-3c, STM-1 fiber networks and DS3, E 3copper networks.An integrated audio, video and data router is also available. It provides routing of analog and digital signals and is a key component onthe BBNC 2210E redundancy capability. The audio, video and data router will route any input to any like output.The BBNC 2210E provides alarms and indicator lights for easy diagnosis. Alarms are trapped and the information is sent to theMillennium management system which operates under HP OpenView. The BBNC 2210E can be accessed remotely for service andconfiguration requirements. Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2210E MPEG-2 Multi-Channel Encoder System Deliverables• Equipment Cabinet System Options• Redundant Power Supplies• 21 Slot VME Card Cage• Primary and Secondary Fan • Full Redundancy Tray • Multiple Redundancy at Video Typical System Layout• SPARC CPU with 16Mb Input DRAM • Multiple Redundancy at Audio• Hard Disk with SUN OS Input Software • Video/Audio/Data Router• SNMP Network • Redundant SPARC CPU & Hard Management MIB Disk with Software AUDIO/VIDEO SWITCH• 1 to 9 Encoder Board Subassemblies ATM Multiplexer SET TOP BOX• Manuals • Up to Nine (9) Channels • SNMP (ASN.1 compatible) PRIMARY FAN ASSY Network Management MIB • SPARC CPU with Hard Disk and Software 21 SLOT 9U CARD CAGE ATM MUX ASSYCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USAthe right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2210E MPEG-2 Multi-Channel Encoder System SpecificationsStandard Functions • MPEG-2 Main Profile at Main Level (MP@ML) profile conformance • Support for 525/60 and 625/50 in analog composite (NTSC/PAL), component analog and component digital video inputs • Multiple internal resolutions via resampling and filtering of luma and chroma • Horizontal Resolution: 704, 353 • Vertical Resolution: 576 (PAL), 480 (NTSC) • 4:3 aspect ratio supported • MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame motion estimation • IPB-frame encoding from 1.5Mb/s to 20Mb/s • Wide multi-level motion vector search range • Supports open and closed multiple GOP structuresMPEG-2 Video Encoder SubsystemVideo Range MPEG-2 adaptive field/frame encoding 4:2:0 (ML@MP) or 4:2:2 High Profile at bit rates from 1.5Mb/s to 20Mb/sVideo Input Analog: NTSC, PAL, S-Video Digital : D1MPEG-2 Output 1.5 Mb/s to 20 Mb/sAudio Encoder SubsystemAudio Input Analog: Two Stereo channels each up to 384 Kb/s audio stream, mono, stereo, joint stereo, dual channelMPEG Output MPEG-1 Layer 2Synchronizer and PES MUXData Output TS MPEG-2 transport stream over serial RS-422, serial TAXI and DS-2 at link rates up to 18.4 MBPSATM MUXData Input TS Serial RS-422 or Serial TAXIOutput OC-3c, STM-1 DS3 or E3Network Format ATM AAL5Processor SUN SPARCManagement Remote Control via SNMP based managerMonitor Decoder SubsystemData Serial RS-422Output RS-170 Composite Video and Stereo Audio and Digital Composite video Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2210E MPEG-2 Multi-Channel Encoder SystemEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating temperature 10 C to 32 C (50 F to 90 F)Non Operating Temperature 25 C to 60 C (-13 F to 140 F)Operating Humidity Non-condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non-condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non-operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Physical SpecificationsDimensions 23.5” W, 31.0” D, 73.0” H 597mm W, 787mm D, 1854.5mm HPower Specifications Voltage: 208V AC ± 15% Line Frequency: 50/60 Hz ± 10% Amps: 20A Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2300N ATM Multiplexer System Features Product Overview The BBNC 2300N ATM• Multiplexes up to nine MPEG-2 Multiplexer is a key component of Transport Streams onto one ATM interface the BBNC Millennium system,• Applies ATM Adaptation Layer 5 enabling the implementation of (AAL5) by converting two BBNC’s video networking Transport Stream packets into solution over standard ATM eight ATM cells per ATM Forum networks. The BBNC 2300N specification provides the ability to multiplex• Inserts appropriate VPI/VCI up to nine MPEG-2 video addressing onto each of the streams, coming from the nine multiplexed video streams BBNC Millennium encoders onto• Supports both VBR (Variable Bit a single ATM network interface Rate) and CBR (Constant Bit Rate) compatible with the ATM Forum• Supports an enterprise ATM MIB UNI 3.1 specification. As a result, the BBNC 2300N is treated as a standard ATM for SNMP management edge device.• Supports a variety of ATM The BBNC 2300N Multiplexer is housed in a compact three RU (Rack Unit) chassis. It physical Interfaces consists of a motherboard, supporting three channels and two daughter boards supporting• Compatible with ATM Forum an additional three channels each. In addition, the BBNC 2300N contains a CPU board for UNI 3.1 control and SNMP management, a hard disk and a power supply. Optional multiplexing redundancy may be implemented with the addition of a second ATM Multiplexer. The redundant ATM Multiplexer is fed from the second output port of the Millennium encoder. The resulting two ATM interface outputs (one from each set of Deliverables Multiplexer boards) are fed into a standard ATM switch. Only one ATM link out of the ATM switch will be active at a time. The back-up ATM Multiplexer will be selected under SNMP control when the primary ATM Multiplexer fails. The BBNC ATM Multiplexer supports a variety of ATM physical interfaces including DS3,• 3 Rack unit VME Chassis OC3c, E3 and STM1. This is achieved by using a stand-based physical layer daughter board, interfacing to the standard ATM Forum UTOPIA bus.• Single board supports up to 9 channels The BBNC 2300N implements a rich set of and enterprise Management Information Base• Manuals (MIB) to control ATM, MPEG-2, and redundancy specific parameters. The BBNC 2300N can be managed by and off the shelf SNMP management station. The BBNC 2310N ATM Multiplexer supports a variety of ATM physical interfaces, including DS3, OC3c, E3 and STM1. This is achieved by using a standards based physical layerCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USAthe right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2300N ATM Multiplexer SystemSpecificationsProcessor Sun SPARC CPU running Sun OSInput 3.6 or 9RS 422 or TAXI streams variable bit rate (1D20 Mb/s)Out put DS3, OC3c, STM1, E3Connectors Input: RJ45 for RS422 or Serial TAXI Output: SC for OC3c/STM1Control RS232A – DB9 RS232B – DB9 10Base-T EthernetEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating Temperature 10° C to 32°c (50°to 90° F)Non-Operating Temperature -25°C to 60°C (-13°F to 140°F)Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non Operating Altitude Up to 30,000 ft ( 9144 m)Physical SpecificationsDimensions 5.25” H x 17” W x 25” D, 134mm H x 434mm W x 638mm DPower SpecificationsAC Voltage Range 100 to 265 V AC Auto detecting ± 10%Line Frequency 47/63 Hz, Auto SensingPower Consumption 80 WDC Voltage 48VDC Optional Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2310N ATM DeMultiplexer System Features Product Overview The BBNC 2310N ATM• Demultiplexer one ATM input Demultiplexer is a key component of into 9 MPEG-2 Transport the BBNC Millennium system, Streams enabling the implementation of• Compatible with ATM Forum BBNC’s video networking solution UNI 3.1 over standard ATM networks. The• Converts ATM Adaptation BBNC 2310N ATM Demultiplexer Layer 5 (AAL5) into Transport provides the ability to demultiplexer Stream packets an ATM interface input, compatible• Decodes appropriate VPI/VCI with the ATM Forum UNI 3.1 addresses off each of the specification, into 9 MPEG-2 video multiplexed video streams streams. These are in turn fed into• Supports both VBR (Variable BBNC’s single and multi channel Bit Rate) and CBR (Constant decoders (BBNC 2100D). As a Bit Rate) result the BBNC 2100D is treated as• Supports an enterprise ATM a standard ATM edge device. MIB for SNMP management The BBNC 2310N ATM Demultiplexer is housed in a compact 3 RU (Rack Mount) VME• Supports a variety of ATM chassis. In addition, the BBNC 2310N contains a CPU board for control and SNMP physical interfaces management, a hard disk and a power supply. Optional Demultiplexer redundancy may be implemented, with the addition of a second BBNC 2310N unit. The BBNC 2310N ATM Multiplexer supports a variety of ATM physical interfaces, including DS3, OC3c, E3 and STM1. This is achieved by using a standards based physical layer Deliverables daughter board, VIA a standard ATM forum UTOPIA bus. The BBNC 2310N implements a rich enterprise Management Informational Base (MIB), to control ATM specific parameters. The result is that when the BBNC 2310N can be managed by an off the shelf SNMP management station.• 3 Rack unit VME Chassis• Single board supports up to 9 channels• ManualsCopyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USAthe right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • Millennium BBNC 2310N ATM DeMultiplexer SystemSpecificationsProcessor Sun SPARC CPU running Sun OSInput Physical Transmission options: DS3, OC-3c, STM01, E3 ATM Mapping / Framing Options: DS3 Direct or PLCP Mapped, OC-3c or STM-1 SONET MappedOut put 9x RS422 Streams Variable bit Rate (1 – 20 Mb/c)Connectors Input: SC for OC3c/STM-1 BNC for DS3/E3 Output: RJ45 for RS 422Control RS232A – DB9 RS232B – DB9 10Base-T EthernetEnvironmental SpecificationsOperating Temperature 10° C to 32°c (50°to 90° F)Non-Operating Temperature -25°C to 60°C (-13°F to 140°F)Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 80%Non Operating Humidity Non Condensing up to 95%Operating Altitude Up to 10,000 ft ( 3,048 m)Non Operating Altitude Up to 30,000 ft ( 9144 m)Physical SpecificationsDimensions 5.25” H x 17” W x 25” D, 134mm H x 434mm W x 638mm DPower SpecificationsAC Voltage Range 100 to 265 V AC Auto detecting ± 10%Line Frequency 47/63 Hz, Auto SensingPower Consumption 80 WDC Voltage 48VDC Optional Copyright BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION BROADBAND NETWORKS CORPORATION 1999. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 any errors or omissions contained in this document and reserves Santa Clara, California 95050 USA the right to make changes without notice 408-988-2060 FAX 408-988-2188 URL www.bbnc.com
    • News Press Releases December 28, 1998 January 4, 1999 January 5, 1999 February 12, 1999 April 15, 1999 April 19,1999 Technical Briefings INTELLIGENT VIDEO SERVICES NETWORK BBNC 2110E MPEG 2 ENCODER OVER INVERSE MUX NASA Experiments: MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite QOS Experiments Characterization, Modeling and Multiplexing of Real-Time MPEG-2 Video Plan to meet with us at any of the following shows sales@bbnc.com May 7 - 10, 2000 New Orleans, LA March 1 - 3, 2000 TeleCon East Washington, DC www.ncta.com www.abctelecon.com May 7 - 10, 2000 Networld + Interop 2000 www.zdevents.com April 8 - 13, 2000 NAB 2000 Las Vegas, NV www.nab.org June 4 - 8, 2000 SuperCom 2000 Atlanta, GA www.supercom 2000.comhttp://www.bbnc.com/html/news.htm [3/20/2000 9:48:58 AM]
    • New Page 1 Press Release: December 28, 1998 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Jeffrey O. Kraft Ralph P. Manfredo BroadBand Networks Corporation (408) 232-0100 jkraft@bbnc.com rmanfredo@bbnc.com BroadBand Networks Corporation Announces Acquisition of NUKO Assets SAN JOSE, CA, December 28, 1998 ⎯ BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC) a Silicon Valley start-up announced today the acquisition of all assets of NUKO Information Systems Inc. (NASDAQ:NUKO). Among the assets acquired were all raw material, finished goods inventory (FGI) and test equipment necessary to manufacture and service NUKO’s Highlander line of both single and multi-channel MPEG encoder and decoder systems. In addition to the inventory, BBNC also acquired all NUKO intellectual property pertaining to the hardware designs, firmware designs, PLD designs and software designs for all NUKO products. Products include encoders, decoders, and ATM multiplexers, ATM demultiplexers and the Highlander Management System, an SNMP network management system. Also included in the acquisition are all patents; all patents pending, trade marks and copyrights. The acquisition represents a$30M R & D expenditure along with a combined inventory valued at over $8M and test equipment valued at over $300,000. NUKO Information Systems customers include Nortel (NASDAQ:NTL), ADC Telecom (NASDAQ:ADCT), Westell (NASDAQ:WSTL), Samsung, Daewoo, NASA, Bell South (NYS:BLS), Telus Multimedia (TORONTO:T*), and Korea Telecom. In addition, NUKO had strategic alliances with Cisco Systems (NASDAQ:CSCO), Oracle Corporation (NASDAQ:ORCL) and Digital Equipment Corporation (NYS:DEC). As part of its commitment to customer support, BroadBand Networks will provide ongoing support to all NUKO customers and will continue to provide those customers NUKO products. Founded by Ralph P. Manfredo, President & CEO; Kit Sakamoto, Vice President of Sales; and Neil Mammen, Chief Technical Officer; the company provides video networking solutions to the emerging digital video market. The company, incorporated as a California corporation on August 13, 1998, is headquartered in San Jose, Ca. ⎯ more ⎯ BroadBand Networks Corporation Announces Acquisition ⎯ p.2/ BroadBand Networks Corporation, is a leading provider of end-to-end solutions, which enable thehttp://www.bbnc.com/html/Press1228.htm (1 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:48:59 AM]
    • New Page 1 networking of digital video signals. Designed using open-systems and standards-based MPEG-2 compression technology, BBNC products enable users to digitally encode, compress, transmit, decode and store video signals for a complete range of applications including, distance learning, broadcast television, conferencing, entertainment, and authoring. In addition to the MPEG-2 products, BBNC also has a line of ATM multiplexers and ATM demultiplexers that meet the ATM Forum standard UNI-3.0/3.1. Through its Intelligent Broadband Service Network (IBSN) solution, BBNC is advancing the state-of-the-art video communications for the 21st century. More information is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.bbnc.com. ⎯ ### ⎯ Copyright BBNC Information Systems, Inc. 1998. All Rights Reserved BBNC shall not be responsible for any errors or omissions contained at this Web Site, and reserves the right to make changes without notice. Sales Inquiries: please contact sales@bbnc.com Comments: please contact webmaster@bbnc.com BroadBand Networks Corporation 2391 Qume Dr. San Jose, CA 95131 U.S.A. TEL: 1.408.232.0100 FAX: 1.408.232.0106http://www.bbnc.com/html/Press1228.htm (2 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:48:59 AM]
    • Tech Info Welcome to BBNCs Technical Support Center. This area is currently unavailable. Please contact support by telephone, fax or email. Telephone: (408) 988.2060 Fax: (408) 988.2188 Email: support@bbnc.comhttp://www.bbnc.com/html/tech.htm [3/20/2000 9:49:01 AM]
    • Technical Briefings Technical Briefings INTELLIGENT VIDEO SERVICES NETWORK BBNC 2110E MPEG 2 ENCODER OVER INVERSE MUX NASA Experiments: MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite QOS Experiments Characterization, Modeling and Multiplexing of Real-Time MPEG-2 Videohttp://www.bbnc.com/html/briefings.htm [3/20/2000 9:49:02 AM]
    • INTELLIGENT VIDEO SERVICES NETWORK Richard A Mizer A special report prepared for Broadcast Engineering’s Advanced TV 96 Conference______________________________________________________ EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis special report describes a new approach to providing residential broadband servicesthat is the result of the ever changing technological options being pursued by telephonecompanies, cable companies, direct broadcast satellite, and other service providers. Whileinitial attempts by the telephone companies focused on either all fiber or hybrid fiber-coax architectures, more recently their focus has been on wireless distribution via digitalMMDS. However, it is likely that many serving arrangements will coexist, and anintelligent video services network needs to be designed that can support multipledistribution technologies.A concept called the “integrated headend” will be proposed that combines many differentsources and formats of video and other information services for more economical andmanageable acquisition and distribution. It will include offair feeds from local affiliates,national programming off satellite transponders, direct fiber feeds of special events,advertising or educational content, file server based services such as video on demand,transaction based services and internet access. These services will then be distributedover an ATM/SONET-based infrastructure to scaleable miniheadends that willinterconnect to the local residential communities.Finally, several new approaches are proposed to optimize the quality of service and userinterface to the services, specifically, a remote authoring system that allows movies to beloaded into the file server over the network, the relocation of the encoder to the videosource to maximize video quality, a next generation file server that services both VideoInformation Providers and Internet Service Providers, and an internet-based user interfacethat provides program listings, preview capability and ordering of video on demand,interactive games and other internet services from either a PC or next generation settop.
    • EVOLUTION OF VIDEO SERVICE “The Information Age began when Samuel B Morse tapped out ‘What hath God wrought?’ on the first telegraph; the music business began when Edison spoke the words ‘Mary Had a Little Lamb’ and heard them played back moments later from a tin-foil drum. The telephone arrived when Mr. Bell spilled some acid on his pants and shouted, ‘Mr. Watson, come here, I need you!’ -- and Mr. Watson heard him on a contraption in another room. Hollywood began when Edison filmed a sneeze. Television, represents the culmination of all inventions that went before it; the marriage of movies and radio; sight and sound merged with the electromagnetic spectrum. The crowning achievement of an age of invention.”Since the 1950s broadcast television has filled homes across America with news,entertainment, sports and a myriad of sights and sounds that would be otherwiseunattainable. Technology has evolved from black and white to color TV, stereo sound,and soon High DefinitionTelevision, a medium so good its been thought to look betterthan real life. And as the evolution has taken place, viewers have become morediscriminating, and out of this has grown intense competition for the viewing audience.Cable TV came along in the 1970s, offering more choices, as new and more diverseprogramming could be brought into homes on many more channels than broadcasttelevision offered, and expectations of picture quality increased as well.In the 1990s, as digital broadcast satellite was introduced with amazing success, a notunfamiliar provider of information services decided television was the ideal complementto the voice and data services they brought into countless millions of homes acrossAmerica already. And with the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Reform Act, thecompetition between telephone companies and those traditional providers will escalate tobring breakthrough changes to the industry. Such things as digital TV, Video on Demand,Interactive Games, Home Shopping, Viewer Choice of cameras at sporting events, and onand on, will be common place in the 21st century household.The technology platforms the telephone companies will use to provide these new servicesare evolving as well, from traditional CATV architectures to the new fiber-basedapproaches including hybrid fiber-coax, and fiber-to-the-home. Meanwhile, as thedeployment of an all new physical plant runs into such obstacles as powering andoverbuilding, and the massive physical construction and city permits it requires, asolution that has been considered interim, but which in fact may be around for quite awhile, has emerged from obscurity, MMDS, or Multipoint Multichannel DistributionSystem.
    • A final consideration is the interconnection of the sources of video programming, be itsports, news, advertising, education or whatever, from both the local affiliate and thenational programmers like ESPN, with the distribution networks that go to homes. Feedscome in a variety of formats, including radio frequency off-air transmission towers usedby local affiliates, satellite receive only dishes that pick up dozens of signals off varioussatellites in the sky, ads for either local or regional distribution are sent to cable headendseach day, and fiber links that connect special events, or even college courses. Also therewill be massive file servers storing movies and other programming for video on demand.It is not economical to provide all these technologies at each headend, especially when alocal headend may serve only several thousand subscribers. Instead it is important tocentralize these resources, and then distribute the content to the local headend for furtherdistribution to the home. The regional hub, often called a “super-headend”, would includesatellite receivers, file servers, fiber links and all other technology required to receivemore than 500 channels of programming, and then send that programming over aSONET-based fiber optic network to all the mini-headends which it serves.A new conceptual approach called the “Integrated Headend”, which includes not only thetransport media to acquire and distribute the programming content, but also the networkmanagement systems necessary to ensure the proper functionality of all this technology,for operations, administration, maintenance and provisioning. It must also include theflexibility to distribute content over a variety of systems, including HFC, MMDS,satellite, etc., since the geographical terrain will differ sufficiently to prevent one solutionfrom serving everywhere. And it will need to evolve with technological breakthroughsthat will occur at a much faster pace than at any time in the past.If you step back for a moment, and think of the excitement Philo T. Farnsworthexperienced in the fall of 1927, when he and his friends became the first humans to gazeinto the shimmering eye of electronic television, and the relative complexity of the firstpicture tube, which he dubbed the “Image Oscillate”, which was simply an Erlenmeyerflask coated with a then very rare substance called cesium, and realize that he hadfulfilled the dream he had as a boy of 13 on a farm in Rigby, Idaho, is our challenge anyless great.
    • FIGURE 1. Evolution of Video ServiceVIDEO SERVICESVideo services and corresponding telephone company tariffs exist or are expected toemerge for applications such as:• coverage of live events for broadcast backhaul• film and video production and post-production• supertrunking for transport of cable television from earth stations to head-ends• studio-to-transmitter links• business training and video conferencing• distance learning• remote arraignment• telemedicine• ad insertion• HDTV for live events and Cinema of the Future• Video Dial Tone and Video on DemandThese will consume many times more network switching and transport resources than allof today’s voice and data traffic, even with new advances in digital video codingtechnology.
    • Compressed versus Uncompressed Video On the network -- Uncompressed HDTV requires 1.2 Gbps, component digital video requires 270 Mbps, composite NTSC requires 143 Mbps; Compression by proprietary codecs reduces these requirements to 45 Mbps, and MPEG2 standards will provide various quality levels, from 3 Mbps for movies and 6 Mbps for sports, up to 20 Mbps for Advanced Television. Storage devices -- uncompressed video files will require terabytes of storage even for a single movie, while MPEG2 compression will reduce that to gigabytes.Quality versus Bandwidth A direct correlation between video quality and compression rate force this trade- off, with the customer and the service provider making decisions about impairments, available bandwidth, number of channels, and quality of service. You get what you pay for.Scalability The concept of “quality per view” will become a reality. New MPEG technology will have the capability of originating in the highest quality format, and throwing away bits for customers not able to receive the high resolution pictures.INTEGRATED HEADENDThe convergence of the business broadband video network and the residential broadbandvideo network over ATM/SONET technology will provide an integrated platform forexisting and future services. Additional benefits of this architecture include:• provides for a new range of services, such as customer choice of viewing angle fromthe multiple cameras found at a sporting event• providing for all distribution technologies including MMDS, HFC, SDV, ADSL andDBS depending on geographical or topological limitations, and scalability from smallrural communities to urban sprawl• a new media server providing both Video Information Providers and Internet ServiceProviders with new applications and service capabilities, as well as higher performance• a three layer approach to management: application management, service managementand network management• linking acquisition and distribution networks into a virtual headend providesimproved picture quality because of single encode/decode stage(Note. Codec at the source versus codec at the headend -- qualitative comparison: video transported overanalog facilities increases noise content, MPEG codecs struggle to compress the noise componentsreducing the bandwidth available of original content. If codec is place at the source, better original signal iscompressed resulting in better final product.)
    • FIGURE 2. Integrated Services Intelligent Video Services Networking Content Origination Access Network Internet Web Servers Media Servers (Service Provider) Media Servers ADSL Satellite TELCO TELCO Enterprise Node Satellite Uplink FTTC Internet Internet BCS - interactive Microwave/RF Media Servers TELCO Edge videoServers VOD switch FTTH VOD Servers Internet SOHO PC VOD Servers MMDS Live Events Private Network Analog Kiosk Authoring CATV Headend HFC BCS - interactive Media Servers Enterprise Node Post Production VOD Servers Web Servers home set-top TV/Broadcast Studio Highlander Multichannel Edge Video Switch Content Creation Distribution Network Content Exhibition Integrated Services 16 NUKO srb101895ADVANCED ARCHITECTUREThe hardware components that comprise the Intelligent Video Services Network are: ATM/SONET -- Switching/Transmission equipment that provides the Backbone Broadband Network to interconnect Business Broadband and Residential Broadband service Full Service Network -- Distribution technology options include HFC/SDV/ADSL/MMDS/DBS High-Performance Data Recording and Mass Storage -- A new approach enables next generation services by Video Information Providers and Internet Service Providers MPEG2 Codecs and “Unity” SetTop -- Encoders placed at the video source provide the highest quality service to SetTop(s) at the residential destinationNETWORK PLATFORM• ATM/SONETIn the first months of 1992, a new telecommunications technology exploded from virtualobscurity to general awareness. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is paving the wayfor the rapid introduction of a wide range of advanced high-speed voice, data and videocommunications applications. ATM should be distinguished fro Synchronous TransferMode (STM), which actually describes the way the digital telephone network has workedsince its inception under the guise of time division multiplexing (TDM). STM signals are
    • the familiar DS1s and DS3s used in today’s network; ATM on the other hand relies ontransport by the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET).SONET is an optical standard for transmission. It allows fiber-optic transmissionequipment manufactured by different vendors to interoperate. It was designed originallyfor the public network. However, SONET has been finding ways into customer premises,making SONET end-to-end transport possible. SONET technology does not represent adramatic departure from existing technology nor does it significantly alter the direction orpace of network evolution. With or without SONET, optical fiber has become theprimary medium for high-speed telecommunications, and the broadband networkelements being introduced into the fiber network have become more intelligent to providemore flexibility, maintainability, and manageability.The SONET backbone network can facilitate a smoother introduction of ATM. The mainidea is to employ the high speed SONET ring as an access network for ATM switches,saving on the number of switches at the initial phase of ATM deployment. The SONETring transports the ATM cells to the ATM switch through dedicated OC-3c channels. TheATM switch does the cell switching, and outputs ATM cells to the appropriate outputports. When the ATM switch runs out of ports or when the aggregate traffic exceeds theswitch capacity, you can add more switches to the network. Since SONET is amultiplexing technology, it is expected that SONET ADMs (add-drop multiplexers) aresimpler to implement, and therefore less expensive than ATM switches.• Full Service Network Hybrid Fiber-Coax (HFC)At the central office, optical fibers carrying broadcast analog video services fro a CATVheadend are transmitted to Fiber Nodes. Telephony signals are converted to modulatedRF by the Host Digital Terminal and transmitted over coaxial cable to the opticaldistribution shelf, which combines the signals with broadband digital services such as“movies on demand”. At the CATV headend, baseband video and audio signals fro asatellite receiver are passed through a BTSC encoder and TV modulator to createcomposite Intermediate Frequency signals. These signals are digitized, multiplexed, anddistributed via fiber optics to multiple mini-headends.At the residence, a Network Interface Unit provides twisted pair interfaces for voicegrade services and a coaxial cable port for broadcast and digital video services. Thenetwork-side interface for all signals is a coaxial cable carrying modulated RF signalsusing Frequency Division Multiplexing and Time Division Multiple Access. The analogbroadcast signals use the Amplitude Modulation - Vestigial Sideband techniquescommonly implemented by Cable TV providers. The digital signals for voice gradeservices use Quadrature Phase Shift Keying modulation. Digital signals for broadbandservices use Quadrature Amplitude Modulation.
    • Switched Digital Video (SDV)Switched Digital Video supports a full range of telephone and video applications. Thesystem can deliver full services or it can be incrementally upgraded to provide variouslevels of services. For instance, the system could initially be configured to delivertelephone services and broadcast television, and later upgraded to provide interactivemultimedia services. Fiber-to-the Home (FTTH) and Fiber-to-the-Curb (FTTC) areexamples of the technical implementation of this service.The SDV architecture is made up of three elements, the Host Digital Terminal (HDT), theOptical Network Unit (ONU) and the SuperTrunk. The HDT provides the switchingfunction, the software processing and the optical interface. The ONU provides the opticaltermination and interface to the customer. Channel units are plugged into the ONU toprovide telephony services. The SuperTrunk provides a very economical asymmetricdigital video distribution from the video headend to the HDT. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)There are nearly 600 million copper access lines worldwide today, and that figure shouldreach 750 million by the beginning of next century. Asymmetrical Digital SubscriberLine technology makes the most of what is already there, carrying data in frequencies notused by voice transmissions. By dividing the 1 MHz above the voice band you get morethan 6 Mbps over regular copper wire. The result is a 10-to-one asymmetry that is perfectfor the Internet, which is focused on downstream communications, including video. Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (MMDS)MMDS delivers video signals to homes, using microwave transmission channels that fallbetween the 2.5 and 1.7 GHz frequency bands. Offering up to 33 analog channels,MMDS requires direct line of sight between the transmitter and receiving antenna forhigh quality reception. Obstructions such as buildings and trees create shadows anddegrade signals. MPEG compression applies in MMDS just as in CATV and DBS. Each6 Mhz analog channel represents five to 10 digital channels depending on thecompression scheme.A typical wireless cable system requires a centrally located headend facility equippedwith transmitters, antennas and satellite dishes, as well as scrambling and descramblingequipment. Each subscriber must be equipped with a rooftop antenna, a down-converterand an addressable set-top converter. Because the system does not require a hard-wirecable network, the construction cost per subscriber is significantly less than that of awireline cable system.
    • Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS)Direct Broadcast Satellite is a high-flying option for providing some broadband services,such as video, interactive entertainment and shopping. In less than two years DirecTVhas signed 1.4 million customers, while PrimeStar has added 1.1 million. Even AT&Tand MCI are now high profile DBS investors. DBS makes great financial sense as a“green fields” approach for long distance carriers that have little or no embedded wire inthe local loop.Initially the intent was only for broadcast video. By the end of this year, customersequipped with DirecTV’s 18-inch satellite dish and a PC capable of storing the largevolumes of data will be able to receive “multimedia magazines that contain video clips,sound bytes and text into an on-screen presentation. Although the satellite has capacity tosend 30 million bits per second, the data path is mostly a one way street. Requeststypically are handled over traditional phone lines, limiting the options for truly interactiveservices.• High-Performance Data Recording and Mass StorageArchived storage in hardened buildings will be capable of sustained data transfer at morethan 32 megabytes (256 megabits) per second. The hardware has high-speed serial andparallel I/O, demand-driven variable rate buffering, connectivity with HIPPI/IPI-3, SCSI-2 and Raw Data (45 Mbps) I/O, and an initial storage capacity above 39 terabytes on afootprint of 36 square feet. Distributed storage will utilize RAID (Redundant Array ofInexpensive Drives) arrays with standard SCSI-2 interface and fault tolerant data storage.The next generation technology will incorporate features required by both VideoInformation Providers (VIPs) and Internet Service Providers (ISPs).• MPEG2 Codecs and “Unity” SetTopsMPEG2 is expected to cover a very wide spectrum of applications. On the low end, it isuseful for videoconferencing and image database storage and retrieval. In the middle it isintended for all kinds of entertainment distribution, including broadcasting, satellite,cable, telco, and packaged media. At the high end, it covers applications of highdefinition television. Developers of MPEG2 chose to make it more of a toolkit than afully defined standard. This allows for different implementations of encoders anddecoders to be optimized for particular applications. For example, scalability, which usesmultiple bit streams to transmit some of the data with high error correction overhead, orto give it a high priority in switching networks such as ATM that are subject tocongestion to guarantee delivery of at least a minimum level of performance.
    • The “Unity” SetTop has wireless, ADSL, Switched Digital Video, Hybrid Fiber-Coaxand DBS reception capabilities. It’ll integrate MPEG2 digital video and audio with aRISC-based computing system to manage the user interface and execute server-basedinteractive applications, such as video-on-demand, information services and transaction-based applications.FIGURE 3. Intelligent Video Services Network IVSN Architecture 70 MHz 70 MHz Satellite Satellite HPA Satellite U/ C Modulator HPA Satellite U/C Modulator Modulator Modulator Block Upconverter Block Upconverter IRD/ U/C Set Top Box MMDS IRD/ Satellite U/C Modulator HPA Set Top Box Sonet Demux & I/F Sonet Demux & I/F Modulator (QAM) Microwave tower U/C Super Block Upconverter U/C IRD/ Set Top Box Satellite dish Radio Tower Trunking Sonet Demux & I/F AD Insertion Central SONET U/C HUB MMDS Satellite Modulator U/C HPA Movies Modulator (QAM) Microwave tower (NVOD) U/C Block Solution By Upconverter U/C WWW IRD/ Set Top Box Sonet Demux & I/F TCP/IP Command and Control NUKO Sonet Demux & I/F Sonet Demux & I/F U/C U/C MMDS MMDS Satellite U/C HPA Satellite Modulator HPA U/C Modulator Microwave tower Modulator Modulator (QAM) (QAM) U/C Radio Tower U/C Block Block Upconverter Upconverter U/C U/C IRD/ IRD/ Set Top Box Set Top Box Copyright © 1996 by NUKO Information Systems, Inc.APPLICATION/SERVICE/NETWORK MANAGEMENTManagement of services will become a key issue. The physical network must be managedwell to provide the highest levels of service and availability. The network operators whohave the advantage will be those who offer these management services to the individualor business user, ensuring the highest levels of customer satisfaction.Complete network management includes the following elements: The physical infrastructure -- SONET facilities, ATM switches, etc. The network devices -- routers, conditional access systems, billing, etc. The central servers -- video servers, web servers, etc. The customer device -- SetTops, personal computers, etc.
    • To ensure reliable service and cost-effective performance, it is essential for the networkoperator to be able to monitor, track, and manage the end-to-end network. This includesthe ability to design, configure, administer, and troubleshoot all components, hardware(such as servers, routers, switches, modems) and software (such as Web servers,messaging, databases, and so on).• Network Management SystemsOperations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning (OAM&P) systems arealready embedded in the network fabric, and will provide scheduling, fault recovery,security and billing functions, among others.Legacy SystemsIn the early days of telecommunications, it was sufficient to operate the equipment (i.e.,the network elements) locally, or in a later phase centralized. Centralized managementwas more or less a question of economics. Today, most new telecommunicationssystems, such as the emerging broadband systems, are inconceivable without aTelecommunications Management Network (TMN).Vendor Proprietary SystemsIn order to capitalize on the full benefits of SONET standards, Network Elements (NEs)have become increasingly intelligent as software-driven devices. SONET NEs nowprovide a wealth of information regarding the state of the equipment as well as theservices carried. In addition, system configurations are becoming more complex toprovide self-healing capabilities and advanced bandwidth management features. Withdramatically enhanced intelligence at the NE level, the traditional network managementarchitecture deployed for older analog or proprietary digital transport networks is nolonger sufficient. Multiple data links to each element are overburdening traditionalsupport systems. Thus, a more distributed processing architecture is required to moveoperations functions into the network for better efficiency in both NE data processing andnetwork management functions.The Video Operations Center is designed to perform with reliability, ruggedness, andsignal quality expected of telephony networks, and deliver these qualities so thatoperations costs are kept as low as possible. It meets these requirements with anoperations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning architecture that: Streamlines the work of managing the network Supports premium levels of system performance Places scheduling control in the hands of end users
    • The VOC system provides remote status and alarm messages pertaining to codec andtransport equipment, advising of abnormal conditions that may require intervention fromthe system operator. Video links are controlled by the cell controller, which coordinatesand routes the actions and messages of all its video sites, including the scheduling oflinks. In “mesh-networked” systems, a Master Controller manages data and controlsynchronization among cells.Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)The new generation of telecommunications systems is built on a common technologybase. Most switching, transmission and radio systems, as well as management systemsare controlled by software of similar design, using similar protocols and have similar userinterfaces. So it makes sense to integrate the administration, operation and maintenanceand model the TMN applications on business cases, which were previously controlledmanually. TMN systems are in fact very sophisticated. They can: Be an economical solution for flexible and competitive service provisioning Serve as a tool to ensure a high level of quality of service Make new technology available to the customer Serve as a centralized and standardized management system Integrate the administration of telecommunications services Migrate existing infrastructure to new technology in an open architectureThe TMN concept arose out of the need to integrate all components (NEs) of a networkso that it’s administration is possible via one common system architecture. Thearchitecture must be an open system, i.e., the information between the systems ofdifferent suppliers must be exchanged via standardized interfaces and protocols.Functionally, the standardized applications are divided into four layers: Business Management Layer -- Support for the management of a company’s business planning, strategic planning for all activities necessary to be successful in the market Service Management Layer -- All activities to manage services, customer contacts, billing, etc. Network Management Layer -- All activities to manage the network, to optimize the use of the existing and future network and to ensure a given level of quality of service Network Element Management Layer -- Centralized management of the network elements
    • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)A network management system contains four components: One or more managed nodes, each containing an agent At least one network management station (NMS), on which one or more network management applications (which are often imprecisely termed managers) reside A network management protocol, which is used by the station and the agents to exchange management information Management informationThe framework used for network management in the Internet Suite of Protocols is theInternet-standard Network Management Framework. The original framework consistedof four documents, has a full Internet-standard ... have “Recommended” status. SimpleNetwork Management Protocol is the application protocol offering networkmanagement service in the Internet Suite of Protocols. RFC 1157 defines the originalInternet-standard Network Management Framework for SNMP.(Note. The Request for Comment (RFC) document series provides for the dissemination of informationabout the Internet Suite of Protocols. Not all RFCs are standards; quite the reverse: relatively few RFCsenjoy any level of standardization. Rather, the majority of RFCs are research notes intended fordiscussion.)FIGURE 4. IVSN System Architecture IVSN System Architecture Server Content Management Network/Security Content Development Management Core Adv Carousel Set Top Box Network Mgmt CSA Athoring/Editing Media Introduction IBA-PPV Fault Mgmt CAA T Media formating Database Update IBA-NVOD Performance Mgmt R Remote Control Applicationdevelopment SW Config Mgmt Configuration Mgmt A STB OS Tools N Channel Mgr. S MPEG Demux P MPEG Decoder O Graphics Processing Media Server R Analog Tuner T Digital Broadcast tune Streamed Video STB NIC Streamed Audio N STB HW E IPG, PPV, NVOD, Video Content Storage T CSA, CAA NVOD, VOD W Internal Network O R K CATV Headend Commerce Mangement Billing/Sub STB Dev. Station Mgmt. Analog Broadcast Digital Encoders Data Mining STB HW & SW Sub Services Analog Ad Insertion Data Archiving Appl Runtime/Env Financial Billing Digital Ad Insertion Decision Support Debugger Taxing STB OS Pricing & Packaging Pricing NIC Marketing Reports Credit Acquisition Dev Station Hardware Evolutionary System Baseline Review 18/19 Apr 96 Copyright © 1996 by NUKO Information Systems, Inc.
    • • Service Management SystemsSoftware Platform for Public NetworksThe network operating system is the platform upon which all services will be delivered.For Internet publishing, the software platform for public networks includes the MicrosoftInternet Information Server (IIS). The Windows NT Server network operating systemprovides the following key characteristics: Extensibility -- Allows the operating system to be easily enhanced by including features such as a modular structure, the use of objects to represent system resources, loadable drivers that can be added to the system as it runs, and facilities that allow applications to call remote services regardless of their location on the network Portability -- Enables the operating system to move to a computer based on a different processor or configuration with little or no rewriting of code Reliability and Robustness -- Provides system protection from both internal malfunction and external tampering Multiprocessing -- Allows the operating system or applications to run on any available processor or on all processors simultaneously, sharing memory among them High Performance -- Fast and responsiveFIGURE 5. Application Software Platform Content & Applications Internet Content Messaging System Publishing Caching Discussion Authentication Management Network Operating System, Database, Host Connectivity, Client Management• Application Management SystemsA series of next generation services offered to Video Information Providers (VIPs) andInternet Service Providers (ISPs) will take advantage of new capabilities includingtransmission of MPEG2 video over intra/inter-nets.
    • NUKO WebSurferA webvideo navigator developed for NUKO by Westport Media Resources providesenduser access and control of video services such as Video-on-Demand over the Internet.Cross platform capability ensures compatibility with any end user computer and webbrowsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Some of the featuresincorporated into the system include: TV InterGuidePreview, Order, Account Review -- Command set provides control of and access toexternal systems and databases including video file servers, network resources, andaccounting/billing systems.TV Listings, Search, Personal Schedule -- Command set provides television programlistings that are playing over a seven-day period, a powerful search function that selectson any field for searches: by station, category, Title, Actor, Rating, Keyword in Title orDescription, and mark any event for future viewing or recording to create a personalschedule for each member of the family. Authoring SystemCompressionist System -- All necessary software to include the operating system(s),encoding process control, server management and control, server library management andcontrol, decoder control and management, local and wide area network management andcontrol. Also included are end-user application software, access call setup and breakdownfor remote connections from the network, and security/encryption capability for bothstored and networked content.PlayList System -- A compatible traffic management system for the scheduling ofprograms, interstitial elements editing sessions or other content based activities. Thissystem must be accessible from a remote location either by modem or IntraNet. ASN Management SystemNetwork Manager -- Provides network alarm monitoring, service quality and networkavailability reports that allow proactive network management by the enduser.Service Manager -- Provides the capability for the enduser to set up a session utilizingnetwork resources, including bandwidth and resource reservation, and billing reports.Application Manager -- Customized graphic user interface specific to requirementsprovided in enduser profile.Roadmap to the Future
    • “The television set has ceased to be a passive receiving device and has become a two-way terminal which, by means of a chain of intelligent new components will allow families to execute a series of convenient transactions, including shopping, banking, taking educational courses, selecting a favorite movie or production from a broad range of titles, and even receiving medical assistance. Subscribers will be able to do this in real time, in the comfort of their home, at whatever time they choose, without being bound by preset programming schedules.”The “wiring” of major cities with the coaxial and fiberoptic cables as well as wirelesstechnologies, the broadband networks that the telephone, cable and satellite companiesare installing throughout the world, will create the physical infrastucture needed totransmit the signals generated by new interactive multimedia services. The newinformation and entertainment age is especially important for banks, insurance companiesand retailers, as well as producers of goods and services, including public agencies andinstitutions, and content producers (movies, theatrical and musical productions and sportsevents). These new services offer a major growth opportunity, by providing a cost-effective means of reaching target markets through an innovative distribution chain. Thechain will support and supplement the channels traditionally used to reach new customersand market goods and services.The current generation of MPEG2 codecs faces increasing competition, and theprobability that codecs will become a commodity item with very slight margins mandatesa shift in business direction. To be successful a vendor must become a provider of valueadded, end-to-end solutions to customer applications. The next generation product linewill need to be based on a “Network Access Module” that enables the producers ofprograms and services (content providers), television and film production companies,banks, insurance companies and retailers, to generate and own entertainment programsand services. This Network Access Module must possess the following attributes:• First, a paradigm shift in production will accompany the introduction of Digital Video Disc (DVD) and Video on Demand (VOD), with the encoding process occurring at the studio or other content origination point, that content stored in centralized servers, and the MPEG masters sent over a network to the headend;• Next, video quality will become the primary decision factor about which MPEG encoding devices will compete, and the decision makers will include the movie’s art director as well as the end user/viewer; and, the audio quality issue will become important as well, with new multichannel formats such as 5.1 and 7.1 included for home theater;• Finally, “the network” will need to include data as well as video, whether the distribution technology is DBS, MMDS, ADSL, HFC or SDV, there must be a multiplex capability that turns the distribution network into a virtual IntraNet.
    • Marketing Bulletin No. 1 MILLENNIUM BNC-2110E MPEG-2 ENCODER TRANSMITS VIDEO OVER T1 AND E1 LINES USING INVERSE MULTIPLEXER1. OVERVIEWThe desire to transmit MPEG-2 video over telephone lines is increasing rapidly.Unfortunately, to send broadcast quality video over telephone data lines requires aminimum of 6Mbps to 8Mbps service. The monthly tariff for these lines can be quiteexpensive. Broadband Networks Corporation has developed a solution that provides thiscapability at a reduced monthly cost. By using off-the-shelf hardware from BBNC andLarscom, BBNC’s solution is to utilize inverse multiplexing of the MPEG-2 encodedaudio and video over multiple T1 data lines. The monthly tariff of multiple T1 lines is lessthat the monthly tariff of the equivalent bandwidth on a DS3 or E3 line.2. APPLICATIONTransmission of MPEG-2 video over T1/E1 lines requires the use of an inversemultiplexer. An inverse multiplexer bridges the gap between T1 (1.544 Mbps) and T3(44.736 Mbps) data rates. By using an inverse multiplexer algorithm, an inverse muxconnects multiple T1 circuits to a high-speed DTE interface connection.To utilize an inverse mux to connect a MPEG-2 video source to its remote decoderrequires some planning to ensure the customer receives a high quality video signal thatmeets their needs. This planning includes: • Identify video bit rate • Calculate the number of T1 lines required to transmit the desired video data rate • Purchase the proper model inverse mux • Obtaining cables to connect the DTE equipment to the inverse multiplexers • Configuring the inverse multiplexers to operate with the MPEG-2 encoder/decoder equipmentRev. 1 1 01/12/99
    • 3.1 Inverse Mux Selection Before you can select the proper inverse mux required, you first have to identify the video encode rate (VER) of the encoder/decoder system. The number of T1 channels will determine the maximum video encode bit rate of the encoder. To determine the video bit rate, use the following formula: VER = ((T1n x 1.544)-IMUX)-MPEG Where: T1n = number of T1 lines available VER = video encode rate in Mbps 1.544 = T1 rate in Mbps- IMUX = 10% (inverse mux overhead) MPEG = 5% (MPEG-2 transport stream overhead) Example: VER = ((4 x 1.544)-10%))-5% VER = 6.176 - 0.6176 - 0.2779 VER = 5.28Mbps In the above example, four (4) T1 lines are available which will allow a VER of 5.28 Mbps video encode rate The MPEG-2 overhead includes two stereo channels, one primary and the other for secondary audio program (SAP). The system also supports closed captioning.3.2 Cable Wiring For proper operation of the encoder/decoder system with an inverse mux, the inverse mux at the encoder end must supply clock to the encoder. NUKO encoders in the field will have to be returned to BBNC to be modified by the factory to accept external clock. Cable wiring for NUKO and BBNC encoders and decoders is shown below: Encoder (Ver. 1) Mux Signal Encoder 12 ⇒ - Clock ⇒ 5 15 ⇒ + Clock ⇒ 4 14 ⇐ - Data ⇐ 6 2 ⇐ + Data ⇐ 1Rev. 1 2 01/12/99
    • Decoder Mux Signal Decoder 9 ⇒ - Clock ⇒ 7 17 ⇒ + Clock ⇒ 8 16 ⇒ - Data ⇒ 5 3 ⇒ + Data ⇒ 6Note: The cable connector types are: Mux DB25P Encoder DB9P Decoder RJ45 Encoder (Ver. 2) Mux Signal Encoder 12 ⇒ - Clock ⇒ 26 15 ⇒ + Clock ⇒ 6 14 ⇐ - Data ⇐ 72 2 ⇐ + Data ⇐ 52Note: 1. The cable connector types are: Mux DB25P Encoder DB78P Decoder RJ45 2. Jumper J18 pin 2 & 3 Encoder Mux Signal Encoder 12 ⇒ SERCLKIN- ⇒ 2 Ext. Clock In 15 ⇒ SERCLKIN+ ⇒ 1 Ext. Clock In 14 ⇐ SERDATOUT- ⇐ 5 Serial Out 1 2 ⇐ SERDATOUT + ⇐ 6 Serial Out 1Rev. 2 3 5/22/97
    • Decoder Mux Signal Decoder 9 ⇒ - Clock ⇒ 7 17 ⇒ + Clock ⇒ 8 16 ⇒ - Data ⇒ 5 3 ⇒ + Data ⇒ 6Note: 1. The cable connector types are: Mux DB25P Encoder RJ45 Decoder RJ453. Jumper JP22 pin 2 & 3 selected4. TEST CONFIGURATIONTesting was performed using a LARSCOM Mega-T Multiple T1 Inverse Multiplexer.This mux has four (4) T1 lines. The DTE connection is capable of operating of up to aDS2 data rate. Video Video In OutNTSC, NTSC,PAL, or PAL, or Encoder Decoder D1 D1 Inverse Mux 4-T1 or E1 Links Inverse MuxLARSCOM also offers the ORION 4000 Inverse multiplexer. The 4000 is offered in two(2) versions, a five (5) slot and eight (8) slot chassis. One can accept up to two (2)channel cards and the other can handle five (5) channel cards. Each ORION 4000 channelcard can handle eight (8) T1 lines. While the ORION 4000 was not available for testingwhen the above tests were performed, tests have been scheduled.5. MULTIPLEXER CONFIGURATIONRev. 2 4 5/22/97
    • The LARSCOM Inverse Multiplexer supports both a user interface and SNMP. Thefollowing is the configuration required that allows the inverse mux to operate with theBBNC and NUKO encoder/decoder system:Encoder End Menu Path OptionsSYSTEM→ →Map→Configuration→DS1-(n) DS1-1, DS1-2, DS1-3, DS1-4Map→Current→DS1-(n) DS1-1, DS1-2, DS1-3, DS1-4Name→Enter node name: Encoder (optional)Set Modem Dial-out See Table 4A of Mega-T manualCommunication See Table 4A of Mega-T manualALARMS→ → See Table 4A of Mega-T manualLINE→ →Clock Source →Config Internal →Current Internal →Switching DisableFraming ESFCoding B8ZSInband Loopbacks→DS1-(n), All DS1s ProcessAuto-Fallback NoAuto-Restore NoCable Length→DS1-(n), All DS1s 0-133ftLine Build Out 0 dBTransmit Yellow→DS1(n), All DS1s EnabledANSI T1.403 NoData Link ID DTEDTE (with HSD DIM)→ →RTS IgnoreLLBK IgnoreRLBK IgnoreDCD Always OnCTS Always OnTM Always OffDSR Always OnRX-CLK NormalTX-CLK Normal/InternalData NormalDTE (with HSSI DIM) Not UsedRev. 2 5 5/22/97
    • TEST→ → See Table 4A of Mega-T manualREPORTS→ → See Table 4A of Mega-T manualCOMMANDS→→ See Table 4A of Mega-T manualRev. 2 6 5/22/97
    • Decoder End Menu Path OptionsSYSTEM→ →Map→Configuration→DS1-(n) DS1-1, DS1-2, DS1-3, DS1-4Map→Current→DS1-(n) DS1-1, DS1-2, DS1-3, DS1-4Name→Enter node name: Decoder (optional)Set Modem Dial-out See Table 4A of Mega-T manualCommunication See Table 4A of Mega-T manualALARMS→ → See Table 4A of Mega-T manualLINE→ →Clock Source →Config Loop →Current Loop →Switching DisableFraming ESFCoding B8ZSInband Loopbacks→DS1-(n), All DS1s ProcessAuto-Fallback NoAuto-Restore NoCable Length→DS1-(n), All DS1s 0-133ftLine Build Out 0 dBTransmit Yellow→DS1(n), All DS1s EnabledANSI T1.403 NoData Link ID DTEDTE (with HSD DIM)→ →RTS IgnoreLLBK IgnoreRLBK IgnoreDCD Always OnCTS Always OnTM Always OffDSR Always OnRX-CLK NormalTX-CLK Normal/SlaveData NormalDTE (with HSSI DIM) Not UsedTEST→→ See Table 4A of Mega-T manualREPORTS→ → See Table 4A of Mega-T manualCOMMANDS→ → See Table 4A of Mega-T manualRev. 2 7 5/22/97
    • T1A1.3 Fact SheetStudy Group(s): T1A1.3 Document No: T1A1.3/97-084Ref: ITU-T I.356ITU-R Draft Rec. Date: August 27, 1997 S.atm andDocument Title: MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite QoS Experiments:Laboratory TestsAuthor(s)/Contact(s): Phone: (216)-433-3494William D. Ivancic Fax: (216)-433-8705NASA Lewis Research Center Internet:wivancic@lerc.nasa.govFact Sheet Preparer: Phone: (216)-433-3494William D. Ivancic Fax: (216)-433-8705NASA Lewis Research Center Internet: wivancic@lerc.nasa.govPurpose/Objective:QoS parameters for Class I, stringent class, requirements for I.356 arecurrently being debated. The experimental results presented will helpto establish these QoS thresholds. This material is also useful forthe development of ITU-R WP-4B’s Draft Preliminary New Recommendationon the Transmission of Asynchronous Transfer Mode Traffic via Satellite(Rec. S.atm).Abstract:ATM QoS experiments were performed using MPEG-2 (AAL5) overAsynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over an emulated satellite link. Thepurpose of these experiments was to determine the free space linkquality necessary to transmit high quality multimedia information usingthe ATM protocol The detailed test plan and test configuration aredescribed as are the test results. MPEG-2 transport streams werebaselined in an errored environment followed by a series of test usingMPEG-2 over ATM. Errors where created both digitally as well as in aIF link using a satellite modem and commercial Gaussian noise test setfor two different MPEG-2 decoder implementations. The results showthat ITU-T Recommendation I.356 Class I, stringent ATM applicationswill require better link quality than currently specified -specifically, Cell Loss Ratios of better than 1.0E-8 and Cell ErrorRatios of better than 1.0E-7. These tests were conducted at the NASALewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperabilityresearch.
    • Documents Document T1A1.3/97-084T1A1.3 27 October 1997 MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite QoS Experiments: Laboratory Tests William D. Ivancic NASA Lewis Research Center Phone: (216)-433-3494; Fax: (216)-433-8705 Internet:wivancic@lerc.nasa.gov1.- INTRODUCTIONThe current version of ITU-T Draft Recommendation I.356 (B-ISDN ATM Layer CellTransfer Performance) provides in Table 2 the QoS class definitions and theend-to-end network performance objectives. These objectives are given, foreach performance parameter, as "upper bounds" (worst-case values) that need tobe met on a Virtual Channel (VC) or Virtual Path (VP) for the duration of theconnection. Many of these parameters are still being debated - in particular,the Class I, stringent class, QoS parameters. In an attempt to address someof these issues and relate the I.356 objective requirements with satelliteperformance characteristics, this contribution presents empirical data and aproposal for CLR and CER requirements.We performed laboratory experiments using MPEG-2 (AAL5) over ATM over anemulated satellite link. The purpose of these experiments were to determinethe free-space link quality necessary to transmit high-quality multimediainformation using the Asynchronous Transfer Mode protocol. The compressedvideo standard, MPEG-2, was chosen as the baseline application in order tostress the overall link quality. All equipment and protocols are directlytraceable to international specifications for clarity, consistency andrepeatability by other researchers.2.- BACKGROUND2.1 MPEG-2 Audio/Video Compression and TransportationWhen we speak of MPEG-2 in this document, we are referring to the combinationof the compressed video and audio signals, the program element streams (PES)and the associated multiplexing, the transport stream (TS). The MPEG-2detail specifications can found in references 1,2 and 3.MPEG-2 video can be compress up to approximately 90:1 with good qualityresults. This is obtained through a combination of spatial and temporalcompression techniques. The spatial compression techniques are the same asthose used in JPEG including discrete cosine transformation, quantization andentropy coding. The temporal compression utilizes three type of picturesusing different coding methods. Intra-coded (I) pictures are coded usinginformation only from itself. The I-pictures are the reference picture andare intended to assist random access into the video sequence for applicationssuch as fast-forward and fast-reverse playback. The Predictive-Coded (P)picture is coded using motion compensated prediction from the past I or P-picture. The Bidirectionally Predictive-Coded (B) picture is coded usingmotion compensated prediction form a past and/or future I or P-picture. TheNuko Information Systems Highlander encoder used in our tests produced thefollowing I, P, and B picture mixed repeated every 15 frames (IBBPBBPBBPBBPBB)independent of encoding rate. Table 1 show the approximate amount of datacontained in a typical B-picture video access unit size. 1/12
    • 2.2 Transport StreamThe MPEG-2 transport stream is a Video Encoding Video Accesscomplicated multiplexing protocol that Rate Unit Sizeallows multiple programs of video, audio, (MHz) (Bytes)mixed video and audio, and user specific 3 10000data to be transmitted in a single 10 40000stream. The transport stream is composed 15 50000of 188 byte packets containing program Table 1: Approximate B-picturespecific information such as the ProgramAssociation Table (PAT), the Program Map AU SizeTables (PMT), Conditional Access Tables(CAT), the Network Information Table (NIT), the Program Clock Reference (PCR),and Program Element Stream (PES) packets. The PES packets contain the elementstream data as well as the Program Time Stamp (PTS) indicating the time that apresentation unit is presented in the system target decoder, and the DisplayTime Stamp (DTS) indicating the time that an access unit is decoded in thesystem target decoder.Because of the complexity of the MPEG-2 video and audio encoding and thetransport stream multiplexing it is extremely difficult to determine thevideo quality resulting from random errors inserted in the transport stream.In some instances an error could corrupt an unused portion of a transportstream, an insignificant bit of some timing information, or a portion of anaudio or video access unit and produce no noticeable effect on the programquality. In other cases, a significant timing bit or a critical pointer couldbe corrupted resulting in loss of decoder synchronization. In addition, manyof these errors can be masked through innovative decoder implementation.Thus, an intricate knowledge of the decoder implementation and the video andaudio encoding and multiplexing are required to determine exactly why theprogram content degrades or the decoder looses synchronization. A detaildiscussion and evaluation of the effects of error on the failure mechanism ofthe MPEG-2 decoding process is beyond the scope of this study.2.3 MPEG-2 over ATMThe MPEG-2 transport stream can be segmented into and placed into ATM cellsusing either AAL-1 (ATM application layer) or AAL-5. For these experiments,the AAL-5 segmentation was utilized4 [figure 1].Whether or not a corrupt AAL-5 datagram is dropped completely or passed on tothe application is optional5. 188 Bytes 188 Bytes 8 BytesThus, one ATM cell drop can Transport Stream 1 Transport Stream 1 Trailerresult in the loss of twotransport stream packets or a 5 48total of 376 bytes. Droppingthe last cell in a datagram, 5 48 N/A Length CRC-32which contains the end of 2 Bytes 2 Bytes 4 Bytesdatagram flag, could cause 5 48four packets to be dropped. 5 48We utilized two differentdecoders in our tests. Both 5 48passed corrupted AAL-5packets. 5 48 5 483.- Testbed SetupThe testbed setup is shown in 5 48figure 2. Some of the majorequipment is listed below. Figure 1: AAL-5 Common Part Convergence SublayerTektronix MTS100 MPEG-2Generator/Analyzer 2/12
    • Hewlett Packard HP-4210B Broadband Series Test Equipment Hardware OC3 Line Cards E1697A T1/T3 Line Cards E1616A Protocol Processor Module E4212A Network Impairment Module E4219A Software MPEG-2 Protocol Viewer Software E4226A MPEGscope E6271AHewlett Packard HP-3708A Noise GeneratorEF-Data SDM-9000 IDR ModemAdtech AX4000 ATM AnalyzerAdtech SX/14 Data Channel EmulatorFORE systems Forerunner 200 ATM switchNUKO Systems* VF-1000E MPEG-2 Encoder with ATM multiplexerNUKO Systems VF-1000D MPEG-2 DecoderNUKO Systems VF-1000DM ATM-to-MPEG2 demultiplexerStellar 1000 MPEG-2 DecoderPanasonic Laserdisc playerPanasonic VCRThis testbed is extremely flexible and can easily be expanded to run overactualsatellite andterrestrial PC LASERDISKlinks as we MONITORhave a directATM connectionsto NASA’s VIDEOAdvanced SWITCHCommunication Tekronix MST 100Technology RS422 MPEG-2 Analyzer MPEG-2 ENCODER VIDEOSatellite ATM / MUX MPEG-2 DECODER MONITOR(ACTS) High OC3cData Rate (HDR) OR VCI/VPI OC3c RS422terminal and DS3/HCS SCRAMBLED 0/101 1/257 SCRAMBLED ATM-TO-MPEG-2 MPEG-2 DECODER VIDEO VCI/VPI DMUX MONITORthe NASA 0/101Research and FORE ATM DS3 HCS VIDEO SWITCHEducation VCI/VPI MPEG-2 DECODER MONITORNetwork (NREN). VCI/VPI VCI/VPI 1/257Some of the 0/107 0/101 VCI/VPI 70 MHz 70 MHz DS3major features DS3 0/101 QPSK IF HP-3708A NOISE IF QPSK HCS PLCPof this testbed DS3 HCS MODULATOR TEST SET DEMODULATORare embedded in ADTECHthe equipment AX4000 DS3 DS3and its ATM TEST EQ HCS HP-BSTS ATM IMPAIRMENT HCS ADTECH SX/14integration MODULE CHANNEL SIMinto thesystem. The Figure 2: MPEG-2 Over ATM Test Setupvideo switchprovide a mechanism for placing markers in the recorded video so we canidentify which test configurations where set for each test. The Nuko encoderhas three MPEG-2 transport stream channels output through either RS-422 orTAXI ports as well as an OC3 optical ATM connection. This aids in monitoringthe encoded video before it passes through the test network. Errors can begenerated using three different pieces of equipment. Errors can be generatedin the IF link using the HP 3708A noise test set, or digitally using theAdtech SX/14 or HP Impairment module. ATM link statistics can be obtainedusing either the Adtech AX/4000 or the Hewlett Packard Broadband Series Test* NUKO Systems MPEG equipment is now owned by Broadband Networks Corporation, www.bbnc.com 3/12
    • System (BSTS). Generally, we chose to use the AX/4000 because it providesCell Error Ratio (CER) and Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) simultaneously. TheTektronix MST 100 allows us to capture or playback MPEG-2 transport streams aswell as analyze these streams off-line. A laserdisk is used for the videosource in order to repeat specific, short video segments without degrading thevideo as would occur if we used video tape.The video takes the following path through the ATM network. It is firstencoded and passed on to the ATM switch - the Nuko encoder can provide up to 3channels of ATM encapsulated MPEG-2 video. The video then passes through acombination of video impairment equipment included the satellite modem, theAdtech SX/14 and the HP BSTS Impairment Module. The video returns to the ATMswitch and is forwarded to either the Stellar 1000 settop box decoder whichhas a DS3 interface built in or to the Nuko ATM-to-MPEG-2 demultiplexer and onto the Nuko decoder. The Adtech AX/4000 produces ATM test cells which aresimultaneously passed through the impairment path and return for analysis.4.- TEST CONFIGURATIONSA series of test were run to baseline the MPEG-2 video in an error-free anderrored environment for both transmission of MPEG-2 transport streams directlyover an emulated satellite channel, and for MPEG-2 transport streams over ATMAAL-5 over various emulated satellite channels. The variables shown in table2 were introduced into the test in a systematic and controlled manner in orderto determine which parameters are affected by errored channels. Thesystematic reduction of variables was necessary in order to reduce the numberof permutations necessary for complete and accurate results. Parameters/Variables Range Encoding Rate 3, 5.5, 10, 15 Mbps Decoder Type Nuko VF-1000D, Stellar 1000 Channel Characteristics BER 10-5 - 10-9 Error Binomial, Burst (Modem), Payload Only, Header Distribution Cell Loss Only Modulation Format QPSK ¾ Conv. Code, QPSK ¾ Conv. And R/S Code, 8-PSK w/RS Code* ATM AAL Type AAL-5, AAL1* * Not performed during this study period Table 2: Test VariablesThe following tests were performed:1. Encoding Rate Testing2. MPEG-2 Transport Stream With Errors3. MPEG-2 over ATM With Errors4. MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite Channel (Emulated)5. MPEG-2 over ATM Channel CharacteristicsDecoded Video and Decoder TerminologyA series of tables was generated to describe the video quality and MPEG-2decoder operation. In order to efficiently complete these tables, we createdsome terminology and acronyms to describe the results. These acronyms andthere associated terminology is listed below:BE Block Error. Noticeable small squares in a portion of the screen - sometimes with changing colors.CBE Continuous block Error. This occurs only in severely errored conditions. 4/12
    • CDR Continuous Decoder Resynchronization. This occurs only in severely errored conditions.DR Decoder Resynchronization. The decoder freezes the picture and resynchronizes.K Click sound noticeable in some portions of the audio.MBE Minimal Block Errors. Block errors occurring infrequently.MDR Minimal Decoder Resynchronization. Decoder resynchronization occurring infrequently.NNE No Noticeable Errors.NS No Synchronization. Decoder cannot synchronize consistently if at all.S Shaking or Jittering of the entire video picture possibly caused by the decoder is slightly out of lock.VEPS Visible Errors Per Second+ Slightly better QoS (i.e. DR+ indicates a decoder resetting maybe 3 times in 5 minutes versus 5 to 10 times in 5 minutes.)- Slightly worse QoS (i.e. MBE- indicates a noticeable block error occurred 5 times in 5 minutes verses once or twice in 5 minutes.)4.1 Encoding Rate TestingThe purpose of the Encoding Rate test was to baseline the effects of thecompression on the decoded signal. No system degradations were included aspart of this test. Table 3 shows the quantitative results. For these tests, aNuko Information Systems VF1000E decoder was used to decode the video scenefrom the bicycle race segment of the IMAX movie, “Speed.” Rate Video Description Quality (Mbps) Resolution 1.5 352 x 480 microblocks are very noticeable in fair all areas of change 2.0 352 x 480 microblocks are slightly noticeable good in all areas of change 3.0 352 x 480 microblocks are barely noticeable in very good select areas of change 5.5 - 15 352 x 480 No noticeable degradation excellent 1.5 704 x 480 microblocks are very noticeable over bad the entire screen 2.0 704 x 480 microblocks are very noticeable over poor much of the screen during fast changing frames 3.0 704 x 480 microblocks are barely noticeable in very good select areas of change 5.5 - 15 704 x 480 crisp, well defined picture excellent Table 3 Encoding Quality4.2 MPEG-2 Transport Stream With Errors TestThe purpose of the MPEG-2 Transport Stream With Errors test was to determineif the quality of MPEG-2 video that had been transmitted using the MPEG-2Transport Stream and had errors inserted in the physical channel is dependenton the encoding rate as well as the decoder implementation. This provides a 5/12
    • baseline to which MPEG-2 over ATM can be compared. A simplified test setup isshown in figure 3. RS422 RS422 ADTECH SX/14 VIDEO MPEG-2 ENCODER MPEG-2 DECODER CHANNEL SIM MONITOR Figure 3 MPEG-2 Transport Stream With Errors TestTests where run using both a Nuko Information Systems VF1000D and a Stellar1000 MPEG-2 decoder. The data encoder rates were varied from 3 to 5.5 Mbps.Higher encoder rates were not possible because the RS422 interface cards inthe Adtech SX14 channel simulator cannot operate above 10 Mbps and the Stellar1000 cannot operate above 6.144 Mbps. The channel simulator was configured toproduce a binomial error distribution which best represents random Gaussiannoise in an analog channel. These test runs were relatively short, (lessthan 5 minutes) and were used to get an understanding of where the decoders’acceptable operation threshold resided. The results are shown in Table 4 andindicate that a BER of at least 1.0E-8 or higher in the MPEG-2 transportstream is definitely unacceptable. Also, the Stellar and Nuko decoders haveapproximately the same QoS threshold of acceptability. Finally, there is aslightly better quality for higher compressed video. We hypothesize that thismay be because the video access unit sizes are smaller for video with highercompression and the I-frames repeat more quickly. Further investigation isnecessary to fully understand this phenomena. Stellar 1000 Nuko VF1000D Encode Rate 3.0 4.0 5.5 3.0 4.0 5.5 BER 10-5 CDR, CBE CDR, CBE CDR, CBE, CDR-, CDR-, CDR-, K CBE CBE CBE 10-6 DR, BE DE, CBE, DR, CBE, DR, CBE DR, CDE, DR-, CBE K K S 10-7 NNE MDR, MBE DR, BE BE MDR, BE, MDR, BE S 10-8 MBE NNE MBE MBE MBE MDR, BE+ 10-9 NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE Table 4: MPEG-2 Transport Stream with Binomial Error Distribution Tests (Short Test, Less Than 5 Minute Record Times)4.3 MPEG-2 over ATM With Errors TestThe purpose of the MPEG-2 over ATM With Errors test was to determine if thequality of MPEG-2 video that had been transmitted using ATM AAL5 and has haderrors inserted in the physical channel is dependent on the encoding rate aswell as the decoder implementation. Both the Stellar 1000 Decoder with DS3ATM interface and the NUKO VF-1000DM ATM-to-MPEG2 demultiplexer pass AAL5 CRCerrors. Figure 4 shows the simplified test setup. DS3 DS3 MPEG-2 ENCODER ADTECH SX/14 ATM / DMUX VIDEO ATM / MUX CHANNEL SIM MPEG-2 DECODER MONITOR ATM Figure 4: MPEG-2 over ATM With Errors Test 6/12
    • As in the previous tests, both a Nuko Information Systems VF1000D and aStellar 1000 MPEG-2 decoder where utilized to acquire data. The channelsimulator was configure to produce a binomial error distribution and the testruns where relatively short, less than 5 minutes. ATM QoS parameters weresimultaneously measured while video was recorded. This was accomplished bypassing ATM test patterns through the same link over a different VC/VP. CellError Ratio and Cell Loss Ratio measurements were taken using the AdtechAX/4000*. The results are shown in Table 5 and are nearly identical to theresults for the MPEG-2 Transport Stream with Binomial Error DistributionTests. This is to be expected since both the Stellar and Nuko ATM-to-MPEG2demultiplexer portions of the decoding process pass errored ATM AAL5 cells andATM cells with single header errors are corrected. Therefore, the probabilityof a dropped ATM cell is insignificant relative to the effects of errors inthe MPEG-2 transport stream. Stellar 1000 Nuko VF1000D Encode Rate 1.5 3.0 4.0 5.5 3.0 5.5 10.0 12.0 15.0 BER 10-5 CDR- CDR- CDR- CDR- CDR- CDR- CDR- CDR- CDR- 10-6 K, CDR+, CDR, CDR, DR-, CDR+, CDR+, CDR, CDR, DR, CBE CBE CBE CBE K, CBE CBE CBE BE- CBE 10-7 DR+, BE BE DR+, DR DR-, DR-, DR-, DR-, MBE BE MBE- MBE- CBE+ CBE+ 10-8 NNE NNE NNE MBE+ MBE+, MDR+, MBE, MDR, MDR, S MBE S MBE MBE 10-9 NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE NNE Table 5: MPEG-2 over ATM with Binomial Error Distribution (Short Test, Less Than 5 Minute Record Times)4.4 MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite Channel (Emulated) TestsThe purpose of the MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite an Emulated Channel test wasto evaluate the quality of MPEG-2 video that had been received and had haderrors inserted in the physical channel RF link. This test was performedusing an EFData IDR6 modem model SDM 9000 with ¾ rate convolutional forwarderror correction (FEC) coding. The tests where also performed using combined¾ rate convolutional coding concatenated with a Reed-Solomon code. Both FECtechniques produce bursts of errors when the correction capabilities of thecode is exceeded. The simplified test setup is shown in figure 5 and thecharacteristics of this modem relative to ATM QoS parameters are shown infigure 6. ATM DS3 DS3 MPEG-2 ENCODER EFData SDM 9000 ATM/DMUX VIDEO ATM / MUX QPSK MODEM MPEG-2/DECODER MONITOR 70 MHz IF HP-3708A NOISE TEST SET Figure 5: MPEG-2 over ATM over an Emulated Satellite Channel Tests* Note, the version of DS3 line cards used on the FORE switch operated inheader error detection mode only. Therefore, cells with single header errorswould normally be dropped, not corrected. However, since the ATM cells passthrough the Hewlett Packard E4219A Impairment Module (the Hewlett PackardE1616A T3 line card is in pass through mode not monitor mode), single headererror are corrected at this point (see figure 2). 7/12
    • 1.E-01 1.E-02 QoS Parameters CLR (3/4 Conv) 1.E-03 CER (3/4 Conv) 1.E-04 BER (3/4 Conv) 1.E-05 CLR (3/4 Conv w/RS) 1.E-06 CER (3/4 Conv w/RS) 1.E-07 BER (3/4 Conv w/RS) 1.E-08 1.E-09 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Eb/No Figure 6: EF-DATA Modem Model SDM 9000 ATM CharacteristicsThe qualitative results shown in table 6 indicate that an Eb/No of less than8.0 dB for convolutional encoding and an Eb/No of less than 4.8 dB forcombined RS and convolutional encoding provides an unacceptable link quality.These values roughly correspond to BERs of 1.0E-8, CLRs of 1.0E-7, and CERsof 1.0E-6. Stellar 1000 Nuko VF1000E Encoder Rate 3.0 5.5 3.0 5.5 14.0 Eb/No 4.4 --- --- DR, BE DR CDR- 4.6 --- --- --- MBE MDR 4.8 --- --- --- NNE NNE 6.5 CDR+, BE CDR, CBE- S, CDR- CDR-, CBE NS 7.0 DR, MBE CDR+, BE DR-, S, DR-, BE CDR, BE- MBE 7.5 MDR, MBE MDR, MBE --- MDR, MBE DR, MBE- 8.0 NNE NNE --- NNE MDR+ Table 6: MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite ChannelLong Duration Dual Decoder TestsThe purpose of the long duration dual decoder tests was two-fold. First, wewanted to determine if decoders from various manufacturers react to the sameerrored transport stream similarly. Do these decoder have approximately thesame the same failure threshold? Second, we wanted to quantify the videodegradations in relatively low-errored environments. Thus, the tests had tobe run for a long duration. Also, since the video degradation had to bedetermined by human observers with a reasonable degree of confidence, theerrors had to occur often enough to provide some reasonable statisticalinformation. Thus, one visible error a day or week would not be practical tomeasure. Instead, the link was setup such that visible errors occurredapproximately every 30 seconds to a few minutes.The simplified test setup is shown in figure 7. The video encode rate was 5.5Mbps with the video resolution set for main level, main profile (704x480). Inorder to compare the decoders, the recorded video was synchronized and 8/12
    • NUKO VF1000D VIDEO DECODER MONITOR ATM OC3 DS3 DS3 MPEG-2 ENCODER EFData SDM 9000 FORE SYSTEMS ATM / MUX QPSK MODEM ATM SWITCH 70 MHz DS3 IF HP-3708A STELLAR 1000 VIDEO NOISE DECODER MONITOR TEST SET Figure 7: Long Duration Dual Decoder Tests displayed in a split screen. The audio source used was from the Stellar decoder as was the left half of the video. The right half of the video was from the Nuko decoder. This setup allowed the viewer to simultaneously compare the decoders*. The results of these tests showed that both decoders degraded at the same point [Table 7]. For the same impaired MPEG-2 transport stream, both decoders would loose synchronization simultaneously. Often, both decoders would display block errors simultaneously. However, sometimes the block error would only occur in a small portion of the video and it would be difficult to determine if both decoders reacted to that particular errored stream. In Decoder Block Total RunEb/No BER CLR CER Resynch Errors Visible Time VEPS Errors (Sec)7.5 dB 4.23E-7 1.40E-6 9.95E-6 18 8 26 420 6.19E-28.0 dB 7.05E-8 2.93E-7 1.76E-6 12 17 29 2315 1.25E-2 * The BER, CLR, and CER measurements are of test patterns run through the link simultaneously with the video. They are indicative of the link but are NOT measurements of the video stream itself. Table 7: Video Degradation (Long Duration MPEG-2 over ATM over Satellite) general, however, the link-error-threshold for which the video signal out of the decoders is unacceptable is identical for both decoders. Also, the human tolerance indicates block errors are far more tolerable than decoder resynchronization. The results of this test is shown in table 5. At this time we have insufficient data to determine an exact relationship between the QoS parameters and the video quality. However, from these results we can conclude that CLRs of 3E-7 and CERs of 4E-6 are unacceptable for MPEG-2 compressed video and that a least an order of magnitude improvement is required if not more. * Copies of this video are available from NASA Lewis Research Center and can be obtained by contacting the Technology Utilization Office. Technology Utilization Office NASA Lewis Research Center 21000 Brookpark Road, Mailstop 7-3 Cleveland, Ohio 44135 USA Phone 1 216 433 5565 9/12
    • 4.5 MPEG-2 overATM Channel NUKO VF1000D VIDEO DECODER MONITORCharacteristicsTest ATM OC3The purpose of theMPEG-2 over ATM DS3 HP-BSTS ATM DS3 FORE SYSTEMS MPEG-2 ENCODERChannel ATM / MUX IMPAIRMENT ATM SWITCHCharacteristics test MODULEwas to determine the DS3effect of ATMpayload errors only STELLAR 1000 VIDEOand ATM header DECODER MONITORerrors only on thequality of MPEG-2video that has been Figure 8: CLR Only and CER Only Testtransmitted usingATM AAL5*. The setup was identical to that in the dual decoder tests exceptthat the signal was not degraded through the modem, instead, the HewlettPackard Impairment module was used. The test setup is shown in figure 8. Asin the long duration dual decoder tests, the video was recorded simultaneouslyby both decoders and post processed to synchronize the video in a split screendisplay.Table 8 shows the impairment module settings for the both the CER Only testsand the CLR Only tests. A normal distribution was used for these tests as abest approximation to a wireless channel with normal white Gaussian noise. Settings CLR Only CER Only Distribution Normal Normal Mean 1.0E+6 1.0E+6 Standard Deviation 10,040 10,040 Cell or Byte Byte Byte Consecutive Error Probability Single Errors 0.7 0.7 Double Errors 0.2 0.3 Triple Errors 0.1 0.1 Quadruple Errors 0.0 0.0 Table 8: Network Impairment Module SettingsThe results of these tests indicate that CLR has far more effect on the videoquality than CER [Table 9]. This is to be expected as cell losses result inat least two MPEG-2 transport streams being dropped.* The HP Network Impairment Module can be programmed to either create errorsonly in the payload section (CER), only drop cells (CLR) or both. 10/12
    • Decoder Block Total Run Test BER CLR CER Resynch Errors Visible Time VEPS Errors (Sec) CER 1.77E-7 0 4.82E-5 4 16 20 460 4.35E-2 Only CLR 0* 1.36E-6 0 14 0 14 660 2.12E-2 Only * 92 cell drops and 71 pseudo-random pattern resynchronizations* The BER, CLR, and CER measurements are of test patterns run through the link simultaneously with the video. They are indicative of the link but are NOT measurements of the video stream itself. Table 9: Video Degradation (CER Only and CLR Only Tests) 5- OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSION Throughout months of testing and viewing MPEG-2 video in various degraded stages , the following observations were made: Human tolerance for block errors is far greater than for decoder resynchronization where the picture freezes or the screen blanks. This is readily apparent in all tests. The Stellar and Nuko decoders have approximately the same QoS threshold of acceptability. Generally, the Stellar decoder recovered almost instantaneously whereas the Nuko decoder would freeze and resynchronize after a second or two. The Stellar decoder requires a continuous bit rate (CBR) whereas the Nuko decoder does not. We suspect that the Stellar implementation my be taking advantage of the CBR and that the Nuko decoder is reading all the presentation and synchronization information in the MPEG-2 transport stream before resynchronizing. During the dual decoder testing we observed that when the Nuko resynchronizes, it is in perfect synchronization with the Stellar decoder. CLR has a far greater affect on the decoder video quality than CER. This was shown in the CLR Only and CER Only tests. This is to be expected as cell losses cause a minimum of two transport streams to be lost. The results of this study were based on the Stellar and Nuko systems that had ATM-to-MPEG-2 demultiplexer portions that passed corrupted AAL-5 datagrams to the video decoder portions. Further work is required to evaluate the impact on QoS of other, more robust, MPEG-2 systems. The link-error-threshold for which the video signal out of the decoders is unacceptable is identical for both the Nuko and Stellar decoders. This was observed during the dual decoder testing. Higher encoding rates require slightly higher quality links. This was observed for both the “MPEG-2 Transport Stream with Errors” and the “MPEG-2 over ATM with Errors” testing. We hypothesize that this is because the video access unit sizes are smaller for video with higher compression and the I-frames repeat more quickly. However, further study is necessary to understand exactly why higher encoding rates require slightly higher quality links. Further study is necessary in order to determine the relationship between the video quality and the ATM QoS parameters - in particular between the visible errors per second and the CLR and CER as well as the affect different CER and CLR distributions have on the video. After completion of these test and during the data analysis phase we realized that there was insufficient data to determine this relationship. 11/12
    • 6- CONCLUSIONITU-T Rec. I.356 Class I, stringent class, objectives for CLR, CER should beat least 1.0E-8 and 1.0E-7 respectively in order to acceptably carry suchservices as MPEG-2 compressed video and may require even better performance.These requirements are readily met with today’s technology using various linkenhancement techniques such as concatenated convolutional and Reed-Solomon FECcoding. Further work is required to evaluate the impact on QoS of other, morerobust, MPEG-2 systems.7- PROPOSALITU-T Rec. I.356 Class I, stringent class, objectives for CLR, CER should beat least 1.0E-8 and 1.0E-7 respectively and may require even betterperformance in order to acceptably carry such services as MPEG-2 compressvideo.1 ISO/IEC 13818-1: Information Technology - Generic Coding of Moving Picturesand Associated Audio Information - Part: 1 Systems, 19942 ISO/IEC 13818-2: Information Technology - Generic Coding of Moving Picturesand Associated Audio Information - Part: 2 Video, 19943 ISO/IEC 13818-3: Information Technology - Generic Coding of Moving Picturesand Associated Audio Information - Part: 3 Audio, 19944 ITU-T Draft H.222.15 ITU-T Draft H.3106 Intesat Earth Station Standard IESS-308 Revision 7A 12/12
    • Characterization, modeling and multiplexing of real-time MPEG-II video Sanjay K Agrawal, Charles F. Barry, Vinay Bannai, and Leonid Kazovsky BroadBand Networks Corporation1 990 Richard Avenue, Suite 112 Santa Clara, California 95050 Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering Durand Bldg, Rm. 202, MC9515 Stanford, CA 94305ABSTRACTWe propose a network traffic model for real-time MPEG-II video by analyzing video stream samples fromreal-time encoders from BroadBand Networks Corporation1. Our samples include a resolution intensivemovie, City of Joy, an action intensive movie, Aliens, a luminance intensive (black and white) movie,Road To Utopia, and a chrominance intensive (color) movie, Dick Tracy.We obtain a heuristic model for the encoded video traffic which uses a 15-stage Markov process to modelthe I, B, P frame sequences within a Group of Pictures (GOP). A jointly correlated Gaussian process isused to model the individual frame sizes. Scene change arrivals are modeled according to a Gammaprocess. Simulations show that our MPEG-II traffic model generates I, B, P frame sequences and framesizes that closely match the sample MPEG-II stream traffic characteristics as they relate to latency andbuffer occupancy in network queues.We propose a traffic shaping scheme to achieve high multiplexing efficiency which sets preferred I-framegeneration times among a group of encoders so as to minimize the overall variation in total offered trafficwhile still allowing the individual encoders to react to scene changes. Simulations show that our schemeresults in multiplexing gains of up to 11% enabling us to multiplex twenty 6Mbps MPEG-II video streamsinstead of 18 streams over an ATM/SONET OC3 link without latency or cell loss penalty. This scheme isdue for a patent.1. INTRODUCTIONIn the near future the demand for MPEG-II will likely explode in desktop domains for interactiveapplications. In these domains, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has gained much attention becauseof its effectiveness at multiplexing voice, video and data together. Yet to efficiently transmit andmultiplex variable bit rate (VBR) MPEG-II traffic in packet-switched ATM networks while stillproviding Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees is not a trivial task. Real-time MPEG-II sources offer aunique challenge to network transport because of the combined requirements of low-latency, low-lossover widely varying data rates.1 The products used in the tests described and all intellectual property including all patents and patents pending are the sole property of BroadBand Networks Corporation. 1
    • In this paper, we at NUKO systems are chiefly concerned with our ability to predict the required sourceand network resources that allow us to meet the QoS targets while maximizing the number ofsimultaneous connections on the network. Ultimately, we would like not only the network to react to thevarying bandwidth demands of the encoding process, but for the encoding process to react to theavailability of network bandwidth. By “closing the loop” between the network and encoder, we canexpect to have some gains in terms of the number of simultaneous MPEG-II processes while maintainingQoS requirements such as low-latency and low packet loss.2. DESCRIPTION OF THE REAL-TIME MPEG-II PROCESS 2We now turn to the description of the real-time MPEG-II process as it relates to transport in networks .First, real-time MPEG-II encoders generate 30 frames of encoded video per second. Depending upon thespatial and temporal redundancy in a frame and between consecutive frames the encoder selects one ofthree basic types of encoding schemes (frame types). Interpolative I-frames are based on only the currentvideo frame and rely only on spatial redundancy to achieve compression. Bi-directional B-frames takeadvantage of both spatial and temporal redundancy between past, current and subsequent video frames toachieve higher compression (small frame size) and much less variability in size than I-frames. PredictiveP-frames also compress spatial and temporal redundancy between current and subsequent frames. P-frames are intermediate in size and variability. A typical MPEG-II process yields frame sizes that mayvary from 100KB (large I-frame) to 8KB (small B-frame). This variability places extreme demands onthe network. If we can predict the sequence and size distribution of I, B, and P frames, then we can moreefficiently allocate network resources.To this end, we note that MPEG-II defines the allowable sequences of I, B, and P frames within a largerframework called the Group of Pictures (GOP). Specifically, the NUKO encoders, which use the C-Cubechipset, typically generate a 15-frame GOP with the sequence IBBPBBPBBPBBPBB. Shorter, truncatedGOPs are allowed in certain situations such as scene changes, e.g., IBBPBB, IBB, etc. The selection ofthe encoding sequence is a tradeoff between latency, compression and error propagation. Conceptually itis clear that B- and P-frames are preferred to I-frames in terms of reducing the overall data rate forcompressed video. However, At least two things conspire to make I-frames necessary. The first is theneed to limit error-propagation. That is to say there are certain classes of errors (missing or errored datapackets) that cause propagation of errored pixels from frame to frame by the MPEG-II decoder. In thesecases, the only way to terminate the propagation is with an I-frame because I-frames can be decodedwithout reference to any other frames. Thus, typical real-time encoding systems limit the maximumlength of the GOP. Specifically, the NUKO encoders limit the maximum GOP to 15 frames (1/2 second).The second need for I-frames occurs when the video source abruptly changes its content, i.e., a "scene-change". I-frames are more suited to scene changes because they set the context for subsequent B-frames. This is analogous to flushing and re-filling of a cache in computer systems. When a scenechange occurs, the encoder reacts by terminating the current GOP and starting a new GOP with a new I-frame. Thus a GOP can be less than 15 frames when reacting to scene changes.An additional key feature of real-time MPEG-II encoders is their capability to regulate the averagebandwidth over the entire GOP. In other words, although the individual frame size and bandwidth of anyframe type can vary over a wide range, the total bandwidth over a GOP can be maintained very closely toa preset long-term average. This represents a tradeoff between constant bit rate (CBR) and constantquality video. In the case of the NUKO encoders, the long-term average can be selected anywhere from3Mbps to 25Mbps. For all the samples and analysis in this paper, 6Mbps was used as the long-termaverage bit rate.2 We assume NTSC, CCIR601 quality video sources. 2
    • Although the mechanisms that actual real-time encoders use to generate the I, B, P sequences, to detectscene changes and to maintain average bit rate are beyond the scope of this paper, we have presentedenough to make a significant observation. If the scene change inter-arrival time is greater than 15 frames,then it should be possible to predict the encoded frame type quite accurately for not only several frames inadvance but perhaps over an entire GOP (up to 500ms). In addition, if the distribution of the expectedframe sizes for each frame type is known then it is then possible to negotiate and allocate ATM networkresources based on these predictions.From the standpoint of multiplexing many concurrent real-time streams we make the followingobservations. First, each real-time MPEG-II encoder generates frames in a quasi-static fashion, i.e., thframes are generated every 30 of a second. Moreover, the variation in arrival time from frame to frameis minimal (20-40 ppm for typical video systems). Therefore, based on tracking each encoder’s GOPsequence, it is possible to accurately predict which encoders will generate which types of frames andtherefore predict the sum total required network bandwidth. The trick is to allocate enough bandwidth toeach process such that each source sees a minimal packet loss QoS while not impacting the packet lossQoS of the other encoders.These QoS guarantees can be achieved deterministically or statistically. Deterministic guarantees requireample network resources, while statistical guarantees achieve high network utilization at the cost ofoccasional packet loss and network delay [1,2]. In the simplest deterministic case, each encoder isgranted a guaranteed bandwidth in excess of the average long-term rate. This guaranteed bandwidth is 12chosen such that the likelihood of packet loss is less than 1 packet in 10 . For example, 18 such 6Mbpssources can be multiplexed onto an ATM OC-3 link, each source being allocated 7.5 Mbps. In this case,the ATM multiplexer is 80% utilized.On the other hand, statistical guarantees use statistical multiplexing which necessitate statisticalcharacterization and modeling. If we can accurately predict the requirements of each encoder in advanceand even more so, to modify the encoder behavior to better suit the network, we can expect to achieve ahigher multiplexer utilization. Following our characterization of MPEG-II traffic, we present one suchscheme that improves multiplexer efficiency by up to 10%.3. TRAFFIC CHARACTERIZATIONTo characterize the real-time MPEG-II processes, we sampled and analyzed several different types ofvideo. Our analysis is based on several large and complete video samples obtained using NUKOInformation Systems encoders that use C-CubeTM’s MPEG-II algorithm. Each sample comprises 2.2Gigabytes of data from 44-minute long video sequences from several different types of video broadcasts:(a) the resolution intensive movie Blade Runner; (b) the action intensive movie Alien; (c) the luminanceintensive (black and white) movie Road To Utopia; and (d) the chrominance intensive (color) movie DickTracy.In modeling the MPEG-II process we focused on those aspects that are most appropriate from thestandpoint of multiplexing several simultaneous sources over and ATM network. In particular, the fastestreaction time in ATM networks, from request to allocation, is tens of milliseconds and more commonly,hundreds of milliseconds. For this reason, we limited the granularity of our approach to frames (33ms)and GOPs (up to 500ms) rather than smaller increments such as slices or macroblocks. In addition tofocusing on network related aspects, we chose to develop a heuristic model based on observations of theempirical data. The strength of a heuristic approach is that we can relate our parameters to the intuitivebehavior of video (i.e., content and scene changes) and that we can also relate it to the underlying MPEG-II algorithm software unlike few frame based approaches [7]. Many other approaches to MPEG modelinghave been reported in the literature based on schemes such as linear adaptive prediction [2], TESmodeling [4,6] which we view as highly non-intuitive. Other schemes are based on time frames too smallto be of interest in ATM wide area networks [5]. A disadvantage of our heuristic approach is that we 3
    • cannot know how well it can be applied to other types of real-time MPEG-II algorithms from vendors suchas CLI and IBM. In the following, we develop our model in the context of the NUKO encoders.Figure 1 shows a 1000-frame (33.37 second) sequence of I, B, P frames from the movie Dick Tracy. Fromthe figure we immediately see that the overall process maintains an average bandwidth (25KB/frame; 6Mbps), and each of the I, B, and P processes have their own average bandwidths and variations about thataverage. I-frames, for instance, average about twice the overall average size, or some 51 KB(12.24Mbps). In addition, I-frames are widely varying-from 27KB to over 84 KB (6.48 to 19.92 Mbps).P-frames average little less varying than I-frames, averaging 34KB (8.16 Mbps). P-frames vary from 18KB to 38KB (4.32Mbps to 9.12Mbps). B-frames are the best behaved, averaging just 18KB (4.32Mbps)and varying from 8KB to 24KB (1.92Mbps to 5.76Mbps). From these observations, it is obvious thatnearly all I-frames and most P-frames will result in filling of source buffers in a flow-controlled ATMenvironment (e.g., if the leaky-bucket is used). On the other hand, B-frames generally result in emptyingof the source buffers. From this first-order analysis, we see that network utilization can be improved bynegotiating in advance for the proper bandwidth for each frame type, i.e., during B-frames the encodermay relinquish bandwidth to the network; during I-frames the encoder can request more bandwidth fromthe network. F ra m e S iz e , B y te sFigure 1: Separated I, B, P frame sequences from the movie, Dick Tracy. The next observation from the empirical data is that occasional events occur which cause significant buttemporary fluctuations in the frame sizes for all the frame types and that the fluctuations in frame sizesare highly correlated among the frame types. We have dubbed these wide fluctuations as “SceneChanges”, and they are presumably due to real scene changes in the video. In the figure, there are clearly8 such events. The behavior of the encoders before, during and after a scene change is as follows. First,prior to a scene change, we see a reduction in the preceding I-frame size. We term this reduction a “dip”.The I-frame following the dip is typically much larger, i.e., there is a “peak”. Typically, the scene changestarts with the I-frame dip and ends with the I-frame peak. P-frames show similar behavior. During thescene change, the B-frames show higher variability and peaking. After the scene change each of the frametypes settle down to a new average frame size. Although each frame type has a new short-term average,the encoder attempts to maintain the overall long-term average of 6Mbps. It is the encoder’s attempt tomaintain a long-term average that introduces the high degree of correlation among the frame sizes.Simply put, when the I-frame dips below the long-term average, the excess bandwidth is available to theP- and B-frames. The opposite effect occurs during the I-frame peak. From the network standpoint, we 4
    • expect that the encoder should request additional resources during scene changes due to the highervariability in frame sizes.From Figure 1 we see that MPEG 2 traffic is highly bursty and correlated, especially during scenechanges, which leads to wide variation in the Variable Bit Rate (VBR). Correlated variable bit rate trafficdramatically increases the queue length statistics at the multiplexer [1, 3]. For this reason in ourcharacterization and modeling we distinguish between intra-scene-change and inter-scene-changearrivals. 5
    • Figure 2: (a) Scene change interval time probability distribution; (b) Bandwidth within the GOPFigure 2 (a) shows the inter-arrival time probability distribution function for all five movies. All the plots showsimilar distribution with peak at around 3 seconds. Scene change inter-arrival times appear to be distributedaccording to a Gamma process. Figure 2 (b) shows the traffic bandwidth distribution during a GOP. The narrownessof GOP bandwidth distribution over all the movies shows that encoder manages its average offered bandwidth over aGOP. Note that although any particular I frame may be as many as 4 times the nominal frame size (see Figure 3), theaverage bandwidth generated over the GOP or the sliding window of 15 frames is 6Mbps. The average GOPbandwidth of 6Mbps is bounded within +/- .8% with greater than 99% probability.Figure 3: Frame size distribution of MPEG-II movie samples during no scene changesFigure 3 exhibits frame size inter-scene-change distribution for the five movies. We see that the distributions of allfive movies are similar and exhibit three peaks marking the distributions of B frames, P frames, and the I frames.The B frame distribution is very narrow and centered around 18 Kilobytes; The P frame distribution is wider withmean at about 33 Kilobytes. The distribution of I frames is extremely wide with mean equal to 45 Kilobytes. This isconsistent with the fact that I frames encode the spatial information of the picture which varies significantly fromframe to frame as well as from movie to movie. 6
    • We have measured frame level statistics on all the movies to obtain distinguishing statistics between steady stateinter-scene-change sequences and intra-scene-change sequences. Table 1 shows the in inter-scene-change statistics ofI, B and P frames, where we see that mean and standard deviation (SD) are quite similar for all the movies. I frameshave the biggest mean and the most varying SD as expected.Table 2 shows the intra-scene-change statistics for I, B, and P frames. I and P frames are separated into intra-scene -change “dip” and “peak” types to accurately model frame size fluctuations. We notice that SD of these frames issignificantly larger than SD of inter-scene-change frames.In Figure 1, we notice that the lower the I frame dips, the fluctuations in IBP frames are larger indicating a strongcorrelation between Idip vs. Ipeak, Pdip, and Ppeak. Table 3 shows that the calculated correlations between intra-scene-change frames are quite similar all the movies. We notice that Idip vs. Pdip, Idip vs. Ppeak, and Idip vs. Bcorrelations are negative, while Idip Ipeak is positive for most movies. This indicates that smaller the frame size of Iframe dip, the larger will be Pdip, Ppeak, and B frame sizes. While I peak frame sizes will be smaller with smaller Idip sizes. This is consistent with the fact that the fewer number of the bytes I frame carries in its dip, more bytes Pand B frames carry in their dips and peaks. Consequently, the more bytes P and B frames carry, the smaller the Ipeaksize is because of the average bandwidth constraint. I frame P frame B frame Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Aliens (Kbytes) 46.602 6.848 34.254 2.207 18.231 1.469 Blade Runner (Kbytes) 40.850 4.125 31.913 1.413 19.773 1.147 Dick Tracy (Kbytes) 49.869 8.262 34.391 2.178 17.856 1.511 City of Joy (Kbytes) 48.154 7.645 33.524 2.206 18.392 1.637Road to Utopia (Kbytes) 57.080 7.974 35.585 2.141 16.703 1.723Table 1: Frame statistics in between scene changes Mean Mean Mean Mean SD SD SD SD SD I dip I peak P dip P peak I dip I peak P peak P dip B Aliens 31.804 62.237 18.785 32.932 7.526 10.045 3.856 4.687 3.615 (Kbytes) Blade Runner 26.873 45.908 22.695 29.804 6.766 8.797 3.470 2.914 2.878 (Kbytes) Dick Tracy 33.258 62.503 18.370 32.114 9.179 11.335 3.609 4.123 3.494 (Kbytes) City of Joy 30.867 58.778 20.628 30.775 9.239 8.217 3.515 4.657 3.627 (Kbytes) Road to Utopia 38.181 70.258 18.267 18.267 9.523 12.191 3.550 3.550 4.513 (Kbytes)Table 2: Frame statistics during scene change 7
    • Cor Idip Ipeak Cor Idip Pdip Cor Idip Ppeak Cor Idip B Aliens 0.377 -.0257 -0.161 -0.186Blade Runner 0.243 -0.717 0.040 -0.276 Dick Tracy 0.272 -0.348 -0.102 -0.259 City of Joy 0.247 -0.517 -0.029 -0.236Road to Utopia 0.044 0.029 0.108 -0.229Table 3: Cross correlation parameters during scene change4. TRAFFIC MODELING4.1 ModelingFigure 4: 15 stage Markov model for the frame sequence in the Group of Pictures in MPEG-II streamAt the Group of Pictures level, we have discovered that the generation process of the frame type can be modeled verywell by a 15-stage Markov model. A Markov state transition diagram can be made by obtaining the relativefrequencies of I, B, and P frames over a GOP. Figure 4 shows our 15-stage Markov model and its associatedtransitional probabilities. Video samples stabilized at these transitional probabilities after a few iterations.In order to generate a traffic simulation model for MPEG 2 process we need an empirical characterization statistics.Thus we seek to obtain the average distributions for the ensemble of all five movies samples. Figure 6(a) shows theinter-scene-change interval time distribution for the five-movie ensemble. Gamma distribution matches very well asdescribed by equation 1 with parameters: =0.26, n= 1.25 x x x efx ( x ) x 0, 0, 0 (1)where z x z 1e x dx z>0 0 8
    • Figure 6 (b) exhibits the inter-scene-change frame size distribution for the five-movie ensemble, and the matchingGaussian distribution described by equation 2. Here we see that the Gaussian distribution matches very well withdistributions of all three-frame types. x 2 e 2 2fx x Fmin x Fmax , 0 Fmin: Minimum frame size, Fmax: Maximum frame size 2 2(2)Figure 7 shows that five-movie ensemble intra-scene-change frame size distributions can also be approximated by thetruncated Gaussian distributions. Figure 7(b) and © shows that peaks for I frame and P frame match the Gaussiandistribution well. In Figure 7 (a), we see that I frame dip has an elongated tail which could not be modeled by theGaussian distribution. We believe that this is due to the Ipeak values leaking into Idip statistics during our statisticsextraction. Figure 7© shows the ensemble Ppeak distribution truncated at the average bandwidth frame size(25000bytes for 6Mbps), suggesting that encoder can never generate B frames below the average bandwidth rate. Wemodel this behavior by the truncated Gaussian distributions.4.2 MPEG2 Traffic Generation ProcessNow we seek to develop an algorithm to generate the STARTsimulation traffic that matches the ensemblecharacteristics and the distributions of the MPEG 2 trafficfrom five movie samples. We propose that 15-stageMarkov process can be used to accurately model the I, B, Scene Change = 0?P frame sequences within a Group of Picture (GOP),while a truncated jointly Gaussian process correlated to No Yesthe I, B, P frame sequence can accurately generate the Obtain next scene change time using gamma dist,individual frame sizes and the instantaneous bandwidth Scene Change time--distribution due to scene changes. We show the flow chartof simulation algorithm in Error! Reference source not Sum last 15 frames to calculate bw over/under subcription factorfound.. The traffic generation algorithm is described asfollowing: Using Markov model determine frame type 1. Decide scene change arrival time according to the gamma distribution with parameters: =0.26, n= State = scene change? 1.25. Now start counting down every frame time till a scene change arrives. When the counter value reaches Yes zero, set the state to scene change and decide the next Determine if frame is Idip, Ipeak, Pdip, Ppeak, scene arrival time and start counting down. or B based on the frame order No 2. As shown in Figure 2 (b), encoder manages the bandwidth on the GOP and 15-frame sliding window If frame == Ipeak State = noscene change basis. In the simulation model, we manage the bandwidth both on the 15-frame sliding window and the GOP basis. We essentially adjust the mean of the Calculate marginal dist: mean and SD from given frame to compensate for the over-subscription or Idip and correlation factor under-subscription of bandwidth within the last 15 frames. Equation 3 shows the formula for achieving Calculate marginal dist: mean and SD from given Idip this where is an empirical mean of the frame, Xi is and correlation factor frame size of the ith frame in the window, and is a Apply frame size bounds according to the observed distributions 9
    • weight parameter to amplify or to attenuate the bandwidth compensation. Figure 5: Flow Diagram of the MPEG II process model t 1 Xi 15 * (3) i t 15I, B, P I , B, P * 1 15 3. Using the 15-stage Markov model in Figure 4 we determine the next frame type. 4. If current state is not a scene change state skip to step 6. Else, determine the type according to the sequence arrival order during the scene change state: I dip: first I frame. Ipeak: second and last I frame. Pdip: first P frame. Ppeak: Pframe before the I peak. P: P frame in between Pdip and Ppeak. B: B frame during the scene change. As displayed in Table 3, intra-scene-change frames sizes are correlated with the first I frame during the scene change. In our simulation process, we model all the inter-scene-change frames as correlated truncated Gaussian distributions. Equation 4 shows how to obtain the marginal distribution given the value of one random variable, where 1 , 2 specify the standard deviations, m1, m2 specify the mean values, and x , y the correlation value. Use the inter-scene-change statistics from Table 1 and Table 3 to obtain the ensemble mean, SD, and cross correlation parameters for the model. Using these parameters and the Idip frame size in the equation 4 determine the marginal distribution statistics: mean and SD for the normal distribution. Scene-change state ends in our state machine once the Ipeak is generated. 1. Generate the current frame size with the calculated mean and SD parameters. 2. Apply the maximum and minimum frame size bounds based on the frame types. 3. Proceed to step 1 to generate the next frame. 2 1 x xy y m2 m1 , , 0 (4) 2 1 2 x, yfx x y exp 2 2 2 1 1 x, y 10
    • 4.3 Distribution ComparisonsSimulations show that our model generates I, B, P frame sequences and frame sizes that closely match the sampleMPEG-II stream traffic characteristics. Gamma Parameters: lamda = 0.26 n = 1.25 (a) (b)Figure 6: (a) Scene inter-arrival time probability distribution; (b) Inter-scene-change I, B, P frame size distributionIn Figure 6 (a), we show that the five movie ensemble scene inter-arrival time distribution conforms to gammadistribution with parameters: =0.26, n= 1.25. The simulation model utilizing gamma distribution to generate thescene change interval is in close agreement with the experimental and empirical distributions. Gamma distributionsuggests the existence of strong inter-scene change arrival time correlation at low interval value, while independenceof inter-scene change arrival times at high interval values.Figure 6 (b) shows the 5 movie ensemble inter-scene-change frames size distributions with matching Gaussiandistribution. We show that our simulation results from correlated Gaussian distribution correspond well with theensemble. Sliding window averaging effect tends to shift Gaussian curves towards the center as we can see in case ofsimulated B frame and I frame size distributions. Sample (a) (b) 11
    • (d) (Figure 7: Intra-scene change frame size distributions for the five movie ensemble, empirical, and simulation model: (a) I framedip; (b) I frame peak, P frame dip, (d) P frame peak.Figure 7 shows the 5 movie ensemble frame size distributions for Idip, Ipeak, Pdip and Ppeak, which we try toapproximate with Gaussian distributions. As suggested earlier that strong correlation exists between Idip and rest ofthe inter-scene-change frames. We use empirical statistics: mean and SD from Table 2, and cross-correlationstatistics from Table 3 to generate simulated inter-scene change frames. We show that simulated peak distributions,Ipeak and Ppeak, are in close agreement with Gaussian curve, while simulated dip distributions, Idip and Ppeak,show some differences. Simulated Idip shows wider spread than the ensemble. Simulated Pdip has distributed theexpected truncation probability peak (at the 25000bytes) in between 20,000 and 25,000 bytes to indicate the existenceof frame averaging effect adjusting the Pdip distribution to compensate for the bandwidth over-subscription. Ourmodel works better for peaks than dips; this is acceptable because it is the peak frames that cause the bandwidth over-subscription.Figure 7 shows the GOP and the 15-frame sliding window bandwidth distribution for the five-movie ensemble andthe simulation. We show that the simulation seems to have a wider spread than the ensemble distribution, yet morethan 99% of the bandwidth is still bounded in the +/- 0.8% window around average frame size (25000bytes @6Mbps). Sliding window distribution for the ensemble and the simulation correspond well to indicate theappropriateness of the parameter 0.2 in Equation 3.For the network flow control and traffic shaping, realistic and accurate measures of traffic are the buffer occupancydistribution and the frame latency distribution. Figure 9 shows the buffer occupancy distribution, and Figure 10shows the latency distribution in the buffer and for the five-movie ensemble with the simulated traffic. Thesestatistics were obtained when the generated traffic was fed into a queue that is being served at the link rate of6.18Mbps. The buffer occupancy and latency statistics were collected on frame-by-frame basis. These figures showthe traffic from our model is an excellent fit for all the movies except Blade Runner, which shows similar, yet shifteddistribution. Figure 9 exhibits different peaks indicating (sequentially from left to right) buffered B, P and I frames,while the right most peak indicates multiple queued frames. In Figure 10, left most peaks indicates the latency withmean of around 57 microseconds that equals the transmission time for the average P frame. P frames come in theGOP sequence according to sequence IBBPBBP. Thus P frames are always surrounded by small B frames thatusually under-subscribe the link rate. Therefore, P frames are most likely to have small queuing delay.Consequently, P frame latency in the buffer is the transmission time of the P frame. Rest of the frames are likely to bequeued thus their latencies are not distinguishable from each other as seen in Figure 9. The most noticeableobservation is that there is an excellent correspondence of the distributions between all the movies and the simulationmodel. The simulation model exhibits a similar little but slightly wider distribution than the individual movies. Thisis desirable since it gives us a conservative estimate of latency, latency jitter, and the buffering requirements for theMPEG 2 traffic. 12
    • Figure 8: Bandwidth distribution during the GOP and the sliding window of 15 frames for the five-movie ensemble and thesimulation model.Figure 9: Buffer occupancy distribution for five movies and the simulation model.Figure 10: Latency distribution for five movies and the simulation model.5. MULTIPLEXING AND TRAFFIC SHAPINGSince MPEG-II streams from different sources are independent in terms of arrival times, multiplexing at the sourcescould result in large multiplexing gains, while multiplexing improperly could result in significant bandwidth under-utilization, and a large packet drop rate due to finite buffers in the network. 13
    • Figure 11: Traffic distribution of the Multiplexer with Preferred Slot Allocation schemeWe proposed new MPEG-II stream multiplexing methods at the source that result in large multiplexing gains. Thesemethods will multiplex streams at the source node in a way such that relatively smoother Constant Bit Rate Streamsare achieved from highly variable bit rate sources. This is achieved by staggering the I frames from making sure thatlarge frames I or P do not overlap with the I or P frames of the other streams. We have developed a scheme calledPreferred Slot Allocation scheme where the source-multiplexer inspects each stream and determines a preferredsequence of frames the encoders can generate to achieve proper staggering of I frames. The slots are “preferred” andnot statistically allocated to allow flexibility of the encoder algorithm to react to a scene changed or excess action.Based on the combined traffic conditions of the MPEG-II streams, this information is dynamically fed back to theencoders to perform combination of following actions Update preferred time slot for the generation of I frames; Holdback on generation of large (I or P) frames; Reduce the quality of picture temporarily to produce smaller frames.Most current encoders, especially the ones based on C-Cube or CLI, are quite capable of doing that. Figure 4.17shows our results when Preferred Slot Allocation Scheme is applied to 15 streams multiplexer when encoders cancomply (synchronized) 100% to the preferred slot allocations by the MPEG-II stream multiplexer for the generationof I frames. Earlier we showed I frame distribution to fit Gaussian. 15-stream multiplexed distribution is skewed tothe left with long tale on the right, similar to wide Gamma distribution. With preferred slot allocation I framedistribution becomes much more narrow and Gaussian-like. This reduces the maximum and average amount ofbandwidth required to transmit these streams. Based on this plot, we can calculate that our scheme results inmultiplexing gains of up to 10% enabling us to multiplex 20 MPEG-II (6Mbps) video streams instead of 18 streamsover ATM/SONET OC3 link without latency or packet loss penalty.6. CONCLUSIONWe characterized wide variety of video sequences and developed a heuristic model using a 15-stage Markov model togenerate the frame sequences. Frame sizes were modeled by jointly correlated Gaussian process. Our analysis wasseparated between inter-scene-change statistics and intra-scene-change statistics to model steady state as well asinstantaneous bandwidth generation process.Further, we compared the traffic generated from our model with the 5 movie ensemble and individual movie trafficstatistics in terms of generated frame size distributions, instantaneous and average bandwidth distributions, scene 14
    • change arrival time distributions, and buffer occupancy and latency distribution. Strength of our approach is that wecan relate parameters to the intuitive behavior of the video as well as the underlying MPEG 2 algorithm.For efficient bandwidth and resource allocations in the ATM networks, we propose a novel statistical multiplexingscheme of preferred synchronization of I frames among the group of encoders. Our simulations results showsignificant multiplexing gains in terms of increasing channel utilization, while logically reducing latency and latencyjitter over the ATM network.Our MPEG 2 model and novel multiplexing scheme brings us towards our goal of proactive and reactive rate controlwhere not only the network reacts to the varying bandwidth demands of the encoding process, but also encodingprocess reacts to the availability of network bandwidth.7. REFERENCES1. A. Adas, and A. Mukherjee, “On Resource Management and QoS Guarantees For Long Range Dependent Traffic,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Boston, April 1995.2. A. Adas, “Supporting Real Time VBR Video Using Dynamic Reservation Based on Linear Prediction,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Boston, March 1996.3. Beran, R. Sherman, M. S. Taqqu and W. Willinger, “Variable-bit rate video traffic and long range dependence,” IEEE Trans. Networking, 1993.4. M. R. Ismail, I. E. Lambadaris, M. Devetsikiotis, “ Modeling Prioritized MPEG Video Using TES and Frame Spreading Strategy for Transmission in ATM Networks, ” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Boston, April 1995.5. R. Izquierdo and D. R. Reeves, “Statistical characterization of MPEG VBR video at the SLICE layer,” Proc. SPIE Multimedia Computing and Networking Vol. 2417, San Jose, CA, September 1995.6. M. R. Ismail, “Modeling Prioritized MPEG Video Using TES and a Frame Spreading Strategy for Transmission in ATM Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Boston, April 1995.7. M. Krunz, R. Sass, H. Hughes, “Statistical Characteristics and Multiplexing of MPEG Streams,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Boston, April 1995. 15
    • Tech Info CONTACT INFO Telephone: (408) 988.2060 Fax: (408) 988.2188 Email: support@bbnc.comhttp://www.bbnc.com/html/techsupport.htm [3/20/2000 9:49:21 AM]
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    • BBNC Worldwide BBNC North American Offices West Coast East Coast BroadBand Networks Corporation BroadBand Networks Corporation 990 Richard Avenue Suite 112 2331 Rose Way Santa Clara, California 95050 Lancaster, Ohio 43130 Ph.: 408.988.2060 Ph.: 740.654.3724 FAX: 408.988.2188 FAX: 740.654.4382 Email: sales@bbnc.com Email: dsturms@bbnc.com Directions to BBNC Corporate BBNC International Offices Argentina Email: marcelo@bbnc.com China Email: faraday@bbnc.com Hong Kong Email: faraday@bbnc.com New Zealand Email: paul@bbnc.com Singapore Email: faraday@bbnc.com Email: lee@bbnc.com Taiwan Email: chiyuan@bbnc.com The Team at BBNC: Ralph P. Manfredo, President, CEO rmanfredo@bbnc.com Jeffrey O. Kraft, VP, COO jkraft@bbnc.com Doyle Sturms, Director, Sales dsturms@bbnc.com Lynn Wubbels, VP, CFO lwubbels@bbnc.comhttp://www.bbnc.com/html/worldwide.htm (1 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:49:26 AM]
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    • New Page 1 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Jeffrey O. Kraft / Ralph P. Manfredo BroadBand Networks Corporation BroadBand Networks Corporation (408) 988-2060 FAX (408) 988-2188 jkraft@bbnc.com / rmanfredo@bbnc.com BroadBand Networks Corporation Appoints Jeffrey O. Kraft Vice President of Operations to be an Officer of the Corporation SAN JOSE, CA, February 4, 1999 ⎯ BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC), announces the appointment of Jeffrey O. Kraft, Vice President of Operations, as a corporate officer. Mr. Kraft joined BBNC in January of 1999. "Jeff’s appointment is important because he will represent the company to both vendors and customers" said Ralph P. Manfredo, President & CEO and founder of BBNC. "As Vice President of Operations, he has the responsibility to deal with both vendors and customers and as such needs to be an officer so that he can make the appropriate commitments", Manfredo stated. BroadBand Networks Corporation, is a leading provider of end-to-end solutions, which enable the networking of digital video signals. Designed using open-systems and standards-based MPEG-2 compression technology, BBNC products enable users to digitally encode, compress, transmit, decode and store video signals for a complete range of applications including, distance learning, broadcast television, conferencing, entertainment, and authoring. In addition to the MPEG-2 products, BBNC also has a line of ATM multiplexers and ATM demultiplexers that meet the ATM Forum standard UNI-3.0/3.1. Through its Intelligent Broadband Service Network (IBSN) solution, BBNC is advancing the state-of-the-art video communications for the 21st century. More information is available on thehttp://www.bbnc.com/html/Press010499.htm (1 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:49:32 AM]
    • New Page 1 World Wide Web at http://www.bbnc.com. ⎯ ### ⎯http://www.bbnc.com/html/Press010499.htm (2 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:49:32 AM]
    • New Page 1 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Jeffrey O. Kraft Ralph P. Manfredo BroadBand Networks Corporation BroadBand Networks Corporation (408) 232-0100 (408) 232-0100 jkraft@bbnc.com rmanfredo@bbnc.com BroadBand Networks Corporation Appoints Jeffrey O. Kraft Vice President of Operations SAN JOSE, CA, January 5, 1999 ⎯ BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC) announces the appointment of Jeffrey O. Kraft to the position of Vice President of Operations. Prior to joining BBNC, Mr. Kraft held various executive positions for high tech companies and most recently was President of Artificial, Inc., Marco Island, FL a web site developer; DiagSoft, Inc., Scotts Valley, CA (Sykes Enterprises, Inc.) Vice President, Channel Markets Group and MAST, Inc., Kehei, Hawaii (subsidiary of DiagSoft, Inc.), President. "Jeff brings a broad spectrum of knowledge to BBNC" said Ralph P. Manfredo, President & CEO and founder of BBNC. "I look for forward to working with Jeff because he can contribute greatly to the next phase of our plan, which is to create the manufacturing process needed to build quality products with a strong team", Manfredo stated. BroadBand Networks Corporation, is a leading provider of end-to-end solutions, which enable the networking of digital video signals. Designed using open-systems and standards-based MPEG-2 compression technology, BBNC products enable users to digitally encode, compress, transmit, decode and store video signals for a complete range of applications including, distance learning, broadcast television, conferencing, entertainment, and authoring. In addition to the MPEG-2 products, BBNC also has a line of ATM multiplexers and ATM demultiplexers that meet the ATM Forum standard UNI-3.0/3.1. Through its Intelligent Broadband Service Network (IBSN) solution, BBNC is advancing the state-of-the-art video communications for the 21st century. More information is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.bbnc.com. ⎯ ### ⎯http://www.bbnc.com/html/Press010599.htm [3/20/2000 9:49:32 AM]
    • New Page 1 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Jeffrey O. Kraft Ralph P. Manfredo BroadBand Networks Corporation BroadBand Networks Corporation (408) 232-0100 (408) 232-0100 jkraft@bbnc.com rmanfredo@bbnc.com BroadBand Networks Corporation Elects Gordon H. Kraft to its Board SAN JOSE, CA, February 2, 1999 ⎯ BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC) announces the election of Gordon H. Kraft, of Marco Island, Florida to its board of directors. Mr. Kraft was the founder, Chairman and CEO of DiagSoft, Inc., Scotts Valley, CA. Prior to this Kraft has held numerous executive positions in the high technology industry in Silicon Valley. In addition to joining the board of BBNC, Kraft sits on several Boards of other high technology companies. "Gordon and I have been friends since 1972 and I have a great deal of respect of him and his vast experience in making a start-up successful" said Ralph P. Manfredo, President & CEO and founder of BBNC. "Gordon single handedly created the market for diagnostic software used in the PC industry", Manfredo stated. Manfredo also stated "Gordon’s technical knowledge and ability to easily grasp both technology and high tech markets is a key advantage I will have with his guidance as a member of the board. I look forward to working with Gordon in developing business strategies and his help in making BBNC a world class video networking company." BroadBand Networks Corporation, is a leading provider of end-to-end solutions, which enable the networking of digital video signals. Designed using open-systems and standards-based MPEG-2 compression technology, BBNC products enable users to digitally encode, compress, transmit, decode and store video signals for a complete range of applications including, distance learning, broadcast television, conferencing, entertainment, and authoring. In addition to the MPEG-2 products, BBNC also has a line of ATM multiplexers and ATM demultiplexers that meet the ATM Forum standard UNI-3.0/3.1. Through its Intelligent Broadband Service Network (IBSN) solution, BBNC is advancing the state-of-the-art video communications for the 21st century. More information is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.bbnc.com. ⎯ ### ⎯http://www.bbnc.com/html/Press212.htm [3/20/2000 9:49:33 AM]
    • New Page 1 Press Release: April 15, 1999 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC) announces that Digital Broadcasting Open Video System (DBOVS) has specified BBNC’s ATM MPEG 2 encoder as the official encoder for the 150 channel Education On-Demand Deployment in California Santa Clara, CA, April 15, 1999 – Digital Broadcasting Open Video System (DBOVS) of Santa Ana, Ca. and BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC), of Santa Clara, Ca., have successfully completed tests that determined that BBNC’s ATM MPEG 2 encoder is compliant with the ATSC ML@MP encoding standard. With ATSC compliance, DBOVS has specified the BBNC ATM MPEG 2 as the official encoder for the 150 channel Education-On-Demand deployment in Northern and Southern California. The licenses held by DBOVS, covers a population of 28 million in California. The BBNC system specified by DBOVS will include the BNC-2200E multi-channel system of broadcast quality encoders with the capability of transmitting up to eight encoder channels over ATM networks using a single OC-3c connection. The system was selected because of this capability along with it being available in a high reliability option which is a fault tolerant system with N+1 redundancy with hot swap capable boards. The Millennium Network Management System allows unattended remote operation and is required for fault tolerant operation. Automatic fail over occurs without operator intervention anywhere in the network. DBOVS is an all digital, all fiber optic ATSC broadcast facility certified by FCC for (500) 6 Mhz DTV channels for Northern and Southern California. DBOVS is poised to provide convergence of full motion ATSC MPEG 2 signals over plain old telephone (POTs) lines or internet, directly to your PC or TV. BBNC is a leading provider of end-to-end digital video solutions over broadband networks, thereby enabling the networking of broadcast quality digital video signals. BBNC designed products provide digital networking with complete open architecture, which protects the customer’s investment. BBNC encoders, ATM multiplexers, demultiplexers and decoders are designed for high reliability operations in environments that require 24 hours/day, 7 days/week and 365 days per year operation without interruption. System reliability has been proven to be in excess of 15,000 hours. Sales Inquires: Please contact BBNC sales@bbnc.com Others contact: Kit Sakamoto, BBNC ksakamoto@bbnc.com Ralph Manfredo, BBNC rmanfredo@bbnc.com Roy Jimenez, DBOVS DBOVS@aol.com BroadBand Networks Corporationhttp://www.bbnc.com/html/Press041599.htm (1 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:49:33 AM]
    • New Page 1 990 Richard Avenue, Suite 112 Santa Clara, CA. 95050 U.S.A. TEL: (408) 988-2060 FAX: (408)988-2188http://www.bbnc.com/html/Press041599.htm (2 of 2) [3/20/2000 9:49:33 AM]
    • New Page 1 Press Release: April 19, 1999 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE BroadBand Networks Corporation Demonstrates Fully Integrated Video Network Service At NAB 99 Santa Clara, CA, April 19, 1999 – BroadBand Networks Corporation (BBNC), of Santa Clara, Ca., a leading provider of digital video networking technology, is conducting the demonstration of a fully integrated broadcast television and video service network for cost effective delivery for home and business. The demonstration is taking place during the National Association of Broadcasters Show, NAB 99, at the Sands Convention Center, booth S6859, from April 19-22. The demonstration incorporates technologies and services from leading service providers and vendors, including Digital Broadcasting OVS (DBVOS) of Santa Ana, who is a licensed ATSC broadcast facility certified by the FCC for Northern and Southern California. DBVOS can provide (500) 6 Mhz DTV channels for California in SDTV or HDTV directly to your PC or TV via Broadband Internet 2 landlines. ViaGate Technologies Inc., of Bridgewater, New Jersey, will be demonstrating the ViaGate 4000 their latest VDSL solution. The ViaGate provides a robust platform for companies looking to deliver new, subscription-based multimedia. These products offer advanced solutions for the transport of multimedia through existing copper wire to end-users. The BBNC system will include the only broadcast quality multi-channel encoder/ATM mux system which is fault tolerant in an N+1 environment with hot swappable boards. The Network Management System demonstrated allows unattended remote operation and is required for fault tolerant operation. If a failure happens to occur the system will go to fail over and the system automatically corrects itself, and this occurs without operator intervention anywhere in the network. BBNC is a leading provider of end-to-end solutions, which enable the networking of broadcast quality digital video signals. BBNC designed products provide digital networking with complete open architecture, which protects the customer’s investment. BBNC encoders, ATM muxes, demuxes and decoders are designed for reliability in environments that require 24 hours/day, 7 days/week and 365 days per year operation without interruption. Sales Inquires: Please contact BBNC sales@bbnc.com Others contact: Kit Sakamoto BBNC ksakamoto@bbnc.com Ralph Manfredo BBNC rmanfredo@bbnc.com Roy Jimenez DBVOS DBOVS@aol.com BroadBand Networks Corporation 990 Richard Avenue, Suite 112 Santa Clara, CA. 95050 U.S.A. TEL: (408) 988-2060 FAX: (408)988-2188http://www.bbnc.com/html/Press041999.htm [3/20/2000 9:49:34 AM]