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Skills of an Effective ExecutiveRobert L Katz
3 skills to kill for an exec..          characteristics                                                                   ...
Managing ones boss• Know the boss                       • Some errors   –   As a person                         – Info at ...
Effects of Fear – Carl R Rogers• Experiences are…[defense mechanisms]  – Symbolized [in relation to self]  – Ignored – no ...
Giving Feedback – Philip G hanson• Builds impression of              • Issues in feedback    – Trust care & acceptance    ...
Creating a good relationship1.   Be what you are [congruent]     1.   Let other person be what she is2.   Be transparent  ...
Transaction Analysis 1957 – Eric Berne [1910 – 1970]• Types of Transaction analysis   – Structural Analysis   – Game Analy...
Structural Analysis [TA]3 ego states• Parent    – Limits / discipline / traditions / advice / guidance / rules / law    – ...
TA ProperTypes•   Simple    –   Complementary, Crossed•   Complex    –   Angular, Duplex•   Rules to communication    1. C...
TA proper ..continued                                                                        • Life positions             ...
Attitudes >                 evaluative statements or judgments concerning people                                          ...
Perception >       interpretation of situations     Sub steps of perception                        Perceptual Organization...
Perception >       interpretation of situations  What leads to perceptionNeeds             Trained Incapacity             ...
Motivational Theories• Need >> Zimbardo 1979                        • Maslows hierarchy of needs    – Biological psycholog...
Maslows hierarchy of needs• Maslows hierarchy of needs                            Variation in   – Akin to 7 chakra model ...
Achievement Power Affiliation• Proposed by Mc Lelland    – Related to managerial effectives [n]• Achievement [task oriente...
ERG Theory• Propounded by ALDERFER• There are levels of needs   – There is no hierarchy of needs   – More than 1 level of ...
Herzberg’s 2 Factor Theory• Motivators [extrinsic]    • Hygiene factors [intrinsic]   – Neutral to absence        – Neutra...
McGregors – Theory X & Theory Y• Theory X – People are     • Theory Y - People are   – Intrinsically lazy        – Energet...
JS Adams – Equity Theory• Equity of output to input is  critical• Inequity rises when this is in  imbalance• Reactions    ...
Wage determination ProcessWage SurveyEquivalence matrix >> Differentials inhierarchies in companies                       ...
Kurt Lewin Father ofOrganization behavior                                    Change Management• Conflict Management       ...
Decision Making FrameworkHi                            STRUCTUREDUnderstanding / Knowledge                            UNST...
Jo Hari WindowJoseph Luft & Harry Ingham 4 zones                       Others know me                                     ...
Feedback >>                  my feelings about your behavior    Giving Feedback                                  Receiving...
Market Signals >>               action by competition that gives indication of intent or                                  ...
Mergers & Acquisitions• Elbonian investment? [RJR Nabisco]   – The investor company becomes a fully owned subsidiary• MBO ...
Mergers & Acquisitions• Disclosure norms of SEBI• Substantial Acquisition• ICI demerger into ICI and Zeneca• HCL –HP demer...
M & A Definitions• Reverse Acquisition    – Poor perform company becomes the transferee in a merger e.g. HT & BT with CW• ...
Modes of Evaluation• Fee Cash Flows [DCF ] – Standard   – EBIT [1-T]   – WACC [ computed for each year ]• Equity Cash Flow...
DerivativesWhy Derivatives  Asymmetric legal conditions  Avoid transfer of value by internally  generating funds  Value of...
Strategic Intent• An objective goal for the firms future strategy  formulation and implementation• Chandler > strategy thr...
S Tilles Strategy Model              Resource              ConsistencyInternal                                  External  ...
Strategy ExecutionPeter Drucker             H Ansoff   Wait Assumptions                                          Forward  ...
Venture Capital Funds• Ideal VC                          •   Ideal Investee   – 2-3 rounds of funds – belief       1. Indu...
Knowledge Processing Strategy.                  Hi                  Organization                                 Dispersed...
7 Cs of Communication• Completeness > 5 Ws and H• Correctness > right languages, facts, figures• Concise > non repetition,...
Business Communication     78% of time and 67% of effort of a manager are in communication• SMCR Model by Berlo 1966      ...
Human Brain           Left Side - linear   Right Side - simultaneousSpeech                                EmotionsLogic   ...
Communication – assessing the receiver• How will receiver benefit• What is the receivers status and standing• What is the ...
Communication - Perspectives• What channel?                              • Oral Communication   – Write                   ...
Communication – Listening      45% Listening | 30% Speaking | 16% Reading | 9 % writing•   5 Activities in Listening      ...
Non Verbal Communication                               ProxemicsTypesBody movements – kinesicsSpace – ProxemicsTime – Chro...
Kinesics in detail [NVC]• Arms Folded                           • Eyes    – High tight leans forward >            – Straig...
Interview process                                        Guidelines• Phases                                  • Interviewer...
20 ways to interview success1.   Prepare Qs with purpose    1.   Listen ad observe2.   Scout motto – prepared     2.   Kee...
Meetings & Discussions• 4 Phases                           • Management todos   – Forming – orientation info         – Tra...
Negotiations• Prepare                                 • Discussion   – Goals – priorities | Limitations        – AVOID > i...
Negotiations•   Signals                                              •   Bargain     –   Avoid concessions of hope | Ask t...
Reporting• Preparation                                  • Introduction [11 elements ]   – Define problem purpose          ...
Research Paper• Working plan                             • Documentation Types   – Outline                                ...
Management AccountingPurpose                                                                     Cost ScraperDecisions > M...
Manacc Thoughts• ABC – Thorndyke > > multiple                 • Costing Methods   cost centers                            ...
Variance Analysis                                      Total Variance           Output Variance                           ...
Variance Analysis .. Contd..• Inefficiency of control should not be taken on the  department• Earlier the variance recogni...
POM II - Diagrams                                                                                                         ...
POM II - Diagrams                                                         6   Q/P                                         ...
POM II DiagramsQ*SS                                                              Stores                             Produc...
POM II                60     2                          3              2                            3          100        ...
POM II       Structure                   Operations                                                   Product Proliferatio...
Cost                                                                                                                      ...
Finance        Corporate                                                Low incomes where                      Dividend   ...
C        TA        TA                        Macro EconomicsG                  S     YI        YD                   CNX   ...
Sales                                 Competition                     Consumer                           Environment      ...
Buyer                      characteristics                                                                                ...
Business strategy                       OT ANALYSIS                        Opportunity                       Hi           ...
Iima notes viramdas qqqq
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  1. 1. Skills of an Effective ExecutiveRobert L Katz
  2. 2. 3 skills to kill for an exec.. characteristics Development Technical Interaction Skills Inter groups• Implication Understanding Motivation Communication Creativity – Judge on Action not trait Attitude to self Whole view experiences Recognize feelings Coaching – Select on skills not traits or Multi skilling Enlargement Human Conceptual behavior Involvement in tasks Skills Skills• Leads to 3 roles – Remedial Conceptual Intensity • Conceptual + technical – Maintenance Human • Human Technical – Innovate • Concept + Intergroup Low Level Hi
  3. 3. Managing ones boss• Know the boss • Some errors – As a person – Info at face value – Goals & principles – Assumptions & extrapolations – SWOT – No clarification – Work style • To build a relationship• Know yourself – compatible work styles – Style • Accommodate diffs – Dependence – Mutual expectations • Counter dependence • Maintain realism • Over Dependence • Subordinates problems? – Flow of information – Honesty / transparency – Outcomes • Good use of time / resources Peter Drucker on leadership >> good readers and listeners.
  4. 4. Effects of Fear – Carl R Rogers• Experiences are…[defense mechanisms] – Symbolized [in relation to self] – Ignored – no relation to self – Denied / distorted – inconsistency Gestalt theory >> helps in understanding oneself better ?!
  5. 5. Giving Feedback – Philip G hanson• Builds impression of • Issues in feedback – Trust care & acceptance – Indirect VS Direct• Purpose of feedback – Interpretation VS description – Individual correction • puts person on defensive – Group goals – Evaluation VS Non Evaluation – General VS Specific• Feedback can be – Pressure VS Freedom to change – Bipolar [2 directional] • Send feelings and recipient should – Uni polar [1 directional] own resistance to change – Delayed VS Immediate – External VS Group Shared • Then & there, group observes consistency – Imposed vs Solicited – Unmodifiable vs modifiable behavior • Only on when it can change – Motivation > Hurt VS Help
  6. 6. Creating a good relationship1. Be what you are [congruent] 1. Let other person be what she is2. Be transparent 2. Be individual / independent3. Feeling for the other person 3. Do not be threatening4. Do not be influenced by your 4. Abstain from external evaluation condition when applying to 5. Understanding / empathy others5. Don’t be bound by the past while judging
  7. 7. Transaction Analysis 1957 – Eric Berne [1910 – 1970]• Types of Transaction analysis – Structural Analysis – Game Analysis – Script Analysis – TA proper Kurt Lewin Father of Organization behavior
  8. 8. Structural Analysis [TA]3 ego states• Parent – Limits / discipline / traditions / advice / guidance / rules / law – TYPES >> Nurturing Parent / Critical Parent• Adult – Logic / Rational / Analysis• Child – Creativity / adaptations / compliance / withdrawal / procrastination / rebellion – TYPES >> natural / adapted / Little professor• Some issues in structures – Contamination of ego states leading to • Prejudices [parent] • Hallucinations Delusions [child] – Exclusions • Reliance only on 1 ego state
  9. 9. TA ProperTypes• Simple – Complementary, Crossed• Complex – Angular, Duplex• Rules to communication 1. Complementary transaction leads to open communication 2. Crossed transaction leads to closure of communication 3. Transactions can only be predicted in psychological level not social 4. Value of communication depends on receiver [ summerton – 1988] Script Analysis is about games people play
  10. 10. TA proper ..continued • Life positions • Strokes [ social recognition – I’m OK you’re OK unit] • Only conscious position [best] – External / Internal [self] – I’m OK you’re not OK – Positive / Negative • Misplaced power / superior – Conditional / Un conditional – I’m Not OK you’re OK – No strokes [ worst case] • Inferiority Summerton – I’m Not OK you’re Not OKUnConditional Stroke 4 stroke combo +ve • Worst case / psycho -ve -ve +ve Conditional Stroke
  11. 11. Attitudes > evaluative statements or judgments concerning people events or objects Some principles• 3 parts to an attitude • Consistency – Cognitive [beliefs] – Seek bw attitude & behavior – Affective [attitudes] • Cognitive dissonance – Behavioral [behavior] – Inconsistency bw A & B• Common Attitudes in management – Elements of dissonance – Job satisfaction – Degree of influence– elements – Job involvement – Reward with dissonance – Organization commitment • Self perception Theory• Acquiring Attitude – Attitudes can be used to make sense out – Modeling of action – Reward and punishment – B-> A is stronger than A -> B – Early exposure • Attitude surveys – Personality – Help understand stance of people towards objects. Lyndon Johnson – Vietnam War [Escalation of commitment]
  12. 12. Perception > interpretation of situations Sub steps of perception Perceptual OrganizationStimulusRegistration Overt Behavior Figure Ground >> perceived Leads toInterpretation Covert Behavior objects stand out from backgroundFeedback Perceptual Group •Closure [gestalt] > perceiving as a Perceptual Selectivity whole Subliminal perception – below the threshold •Continuity – things in continuum Factors that effect selectivity are •Proximity – imparting closeness External Size Perceptual constancy >> stability Internal Contrast results from a pattern of cues Intensity Repetition Novelty Motion Perceptual context >> The Familiarity situation Perceptual set Motivation Learning > expectancy to perceive Personality > Age & time frame
  13. 13. Perception > interpretation of situations What leads to perceptionNeeds Trained Incapacity Perceptual DefenseInterests BeliefsTendencies Mental set [expectations] Happens againt threats,[self concepts] unacceptable explanation , inconsistencies Emotionally disturbing information >> Has high threshold of Biases in perception recognitionHALO >> one characteristicDoppel Ganger >> similar characteristics Disturbing information / stimuli >>Stereotypes > grouping substitute perceptionProjections >> Ourselves onto othersDefense >> when there is Inconsistency & Emotionally arousing informationthreat >> Leads to directed behavior
  14. 14. Motivational Theories• Need >> Zimbardo 1979 • Maslows hierarchy of needs – Biological psychological motive • Re inforcement Theory [ condition serves to direct individual thorndike - How effect] towards a goal• Definition >> • Ahievement / affiliation Power – – Social or psychological condition that Mc Lelland – Willingness to exert effort towards • ERG Theory some goals objectives • Mc Gregors - Theory X & Theory• Unsatisfied needs arte motivators Y and vice versa • Victor Vrooms Theory >• Increase thresholds of needs to expectancy retain motivation • Adams equity theory • Goal Setting theory
  15. 15. Maslows hierarchy of needs• Maslows hierarchy of needs Variation in – Akin to 7 chakra model of hinduism Maslows theory• There are 6 levels of needs Self actualization – Physiological / safety / social / esteem / self may not arise actualization Higher needs• Some rules activated without – Lowers need satisfaction leads to higher level lower level needs needs – Fixity of hierarchy of needs – Relative satisfaction – Importance of gratification > seed need is not a motivator
  16. 16. Achievement Power Affiliation• Proposed by Mc Lelland – Related to managerial effectives [n]• Achievement [task oriented] Need for knowledge •Search for meaning – Excel; succeed; challenges; evaluation; personal •Cognitive >> desire to credit know• Power •Conative >> desire to – Dominate; influence command ones way; in- understand charge status prestige influence delegation 3 levels of learning• Affiliation •Sharavana [effort / – Grouping inter-relatedness cooperation memorising] acceptance •Manana [mind /• High N-ach reflective ] •Dhyana [meditative / • Set high but carefully planned goals concepts] • Think of alternatives • Knowledge of Self
  17. 17. ERG Theory• Propounded by ALDERFER• There are levels of needs – There is no hierarchy of needs – More than 1 level of need at a given time• Frustration Regression – Unfulfilling of certain needs leads to regression into lower levels
  18. 18. Herzberg’s 2 Factor Theory• Motivators [extrinsic] • Hygiene factors [intrinsic] – Neutral to absence – Neutral to presence – Positive to presence – Negative to absence• Responsibility • Work conditions• Achievement • Inter personal relations• Advancement / Growth • Super vision• Challenges • Salary• Work • Job security• Recognition • Admin & policies
  19. 19. McGregors – Theory X & Theory Y• Theory X – People are • Theory Y - People are – Intrinsically lazy – Energetic – Dislike Work – Positive to work – No creativity – Love doing new things – Little Ambition – Self motivated• Need • Need – Coaxing – Facilitation – Control – Accountability – Little Authority – Delegation – Direction – Freedom
  20. 20. JS Adams – Equity Theory• Equity of output to input is critical• Inequity rises when this is in imbalance• Reactions Here – Change input – Change output There – Change references – Quit? Me Other
  21. 21. Wage determination ProcessWage SurveyEquivalence matrix >> Differentials inhierarchies in companies MarketAccuracy of Data [ bias ] ConditionsValuation of Perquisites Local Wages Job Analysis Wage Survey Job Description Job Evaluation Job Wage level Job Specification Gradation of jobs Performance Performance Payment to Pay Standards Appraisal Employee System
  22. 22. Kurt Lewin Father ofOrganization behavior Change Management• Conflict Management • Force field analysis – Monitoring / Facilitating / – Kurt Lewin Autonomy – Systems are in eqilibrium of – Expert Approach opposing forces – Facilitator Approach – Increase “FOR” forces• GE Change acceleration – Decrease “ANTI” forces – Unfreezing – Moving – Re- • Mutual Identification freezing – Open Trusting Communication Hi – Commonality of objectives Learning – Indifferent / Common / Oppose Hi Level of differences / conflict
  23. 23. Decision Making FrameworkHi STRUCTUREDUnderstanding / Knowledge UNSTRUCTURED RATIONAL POLITICAL Goal Consensus Hi
  24. 24. Jo Hari WindowJoseph Luft & Harry Ingham 4 zones Others know me Yes BLINDS PUBLIC ARENA No UNKNOWN DARK PRIVATE FACADEBig Façade >> InterviewerBig Blinds >> Over confidence / No I know Myself YesUn responsiveBig Public >> OpenBig Dark >> Closed
  25. 25. Feedback >> my feelings about your behavior Giving Feedback Receiving Feedback• Persons behavior VS himself • Elicit and wait – Focus on behavior – Don’t evaluate or judge • Listen carefully• Controllable vs uncontrollable • Self analyze• Specific vs general• Based on Data vs Impressionistic – Don’t be defensive• Timely vs Late – Don’t rationalize – Receptiveness / respond rather than react / • Clarify• Suggestive vs Prescriptive – Don’t make assumptions• Positive Intent vs Negative Intent – People can get defensive
  26. 26. Market Signals >> action by competition that gives indication of intent or internal situation• Prior Announcements • Divergence from goals – Pre-empting | threats | • Announcing results communication | internal support | test competitors sentiments • Cross Parry – Competitor responds to firm in a• Public discussion on industry different area – Make competition work on same – Caterpillar entering farm equipment assumptions & prevent warfare | vs John Deere explaining action – Fighting Brand | Mr Pibb from Coke• Divergence from industry for Dr peppers precedent – Private anti trust suits
  27. 27. Mergers & Acquisitions• Elbonian investment? [RJR Nabisco] – The investor company becomes a fully owned subsidiary• MBO – Ethical issue of why management did not run the outfit as well? – MBO opportunities arise when there is a spin off thereby leading to chance for increased control by management• What are the value drivers?• Need to understand regulations
  28. 28. Mergers & Acquisitions• Disclosure norms of SEBI• Substantial Acquisition• ICI demerger into ICI and Zeneca• HCL –HP demerger – Avoidance of capital gains• Poison Pill – In case of hostile take over, large amount of shares are given at low prices to share holders• Crown Jewels lockup – In case of hostile bid / take over, core business are sold to a white knight
  29. 29. M & A Definitions• Reverse Acquisition – Poor perform company becomes the transferee in a merger e.g. HT & BT with CW• Divestiture – Selling and opting out of a business e.g. TOMCO• De Merger Spin Off – Recognize internal value by split & free shares for holders ICI >> ICI Zeneca ….• Asset Swap – Exchange of non core for core and delta is dealt in cash. E.g. HLL & Stepan chemicals• Joint Ventures – Make subsidiary with another competent organization HCL – HP etc..
  30. 30. Modes of Evaluation• Fee Cash Flows [DCF ] – Standard – EBIT [1-T] – WACC [ computed for each year ]• Equity Cash Flows KeL – ECF = EAT – Principle repayment == EBIT[1-T] – I[1-T] – Principle payment == EBT[1-T] – principle payment – Discounted at leveraged KeL using net CF of interest & principal payments – from a pure equity perspective• Capital cash flows KeU – CCF == EBIT [1-T] – I – FCF + IT and discounted at Ke un-levered using assets. – Interest added back to FCF , cost of un-levered equity
  31. 31. DerivativesWhy Derivatives Asymmetric legal conditions Avoid transfer of value by internally generating funds Value of delta Debt capacityForward Contract Cost of fund should equal the value of stock So, F = S e^(rT) if dividends are there then F = S e^(rT) –D e^r(T-t)
  32. 32. Strategic Intent• An objective goal for the firms future strategy formulation and implementation• Chandler > strategy through structure• Scott >> looked at stages [OB]• Utter back >> Process innovations• Hammer >> BPR• Lawrence and lorsch >> differentiate and you will integrate.
  33. 33. S Tilles Strategy Model Resource ConsistencyInternal External Goals / MeansConsistency Consistency Risk
  34. 34. Strategy ExecutionPeter Drucker H Ansoff Wait Assumptions Forward Integration Expand Trade offs Develop Develop Feedback Markets Business Products Review Backward Diversify Integration BPR
  35. 35. Venture Capital Funds• Ideal VC • Ideal Investee – 2-3 rounds of funds – belief 1. Industry space and position – Network capability 2. Management Team – Active Board participation 1. Experience of the team • Corporate governance 3. Family wealth of products – Knowledge of the industry 4. Organization structure 1. Clean simple transparent• Tag along rights 5. Valuation methods – Founder cant exit until VC 1. Not more than 1 year• Mexico syndrome 6. Co investees? – Angels? – VC has rights to change 7. Exit Opportunity management if
  36. 36. Knowledge Processing Strategy. Hi Organization Dispersed - Clusters SpecialistKnowledge Level Individual Dispersed - Points Guided Decentralized Centralized Hi Implementation Responsibility
  37. 37. 7 Cs of Communication• Completeness > 5 Ws and H• Correctness > right languages, facts, figures• Concise > non repetition, wordy• Consideration >positive, pleasant, focus on U• Concreteness > vivid, right facts• Clarity > quirks , visual, illustration• Courtesy > sincere, thoughtful appreciative
  38. 38. Business Communication 78% of time and 67% of effort of a manager are in communication• SMCR Model by Berlo 1966 • Shannon Weaver Model – Source • Elements – Message > Content Encoding – Source Decoding – Transmitter – Channel – Signal – Receiver – Receiver – Effect > in attitude knowledge – Destination behavior – Feedback • Communication Misconceptions• 2 types of situations – Is a fringe benefit – Homophily > source and receiver are similar – Is message sending – Heterophily > source and receiver are – Managers control communication! dissimilar
  39. 39. Human Brain Left Side - linear Right Side - simultaneousSpeech EmotionsLogic RelationsLanguage
  40. 40. Communication – assessing the receiver• How will receiver benefit• What is the receivers status and standing• What is the receivers level of knowledge – language / context / facts• Receivers interests and concerns• Receivers context and environment• Secondary receivers ?
  41. 41. Communication - Perspectives• What channel? • Oral Communication – Write – Intra personal > Listening • For records, user is busy, facts / observing info, complicated info with – Interpersonal > Interviewing details / costs – Small group > Meeting – Speak – Multi group > Presentation • Interactive, groups, personal, relationship building, sensitive – Public > oration matter
  42. 42. Communication – Listening 45% Listening | 30% Speaking | 16% Reading | 9 % writing• 5 Activities in Listening • When is listening poor? – Sensing Interpreting Evaluating – Faking attention Remembering Responding – Avoiding difficult situation• Listening Key concepts – Tolerating distraction – Hearing Perception Discrimination – Majoring in minors Attention sound isolation language – Criticizing speaking style Meaning Evaluation Retention Response – Wasting time differential• 4 Types of listening • How to improve listening? – Content | Critical | Empathetic | Active – Having Focus• 4 types of listeners – Digging > asking more questions – Content | Action Oriented | People – Tracking > following & relating Oriented | Time oriented – Reflecting | Dampening – Redirecting if there are distractions – Jotting down ideas – Not interrupting – Summarize and evaluate
  43. 43. Non Verbal Communication ProxemicsTypesBody movements – kinesicsSpace – ProxemicsTime – ChronemicsParalanguage < 1.5’Touch color objects graphics intimate <4’Kinesics Personal <12’ Business /Facial Eye Contact Gestures Social <12’Postures Public Para Language Expressions / Quirks like ohs ahs Speed intensity rate pitch
  44. 44. Kinesics in detail [NVC]• Arms Folded • Eyes – High tight leans forward > – Straight look > interest consideration resentment / rejection – Shifty drops eyes > don’t rely – Loose low easy + smile ? Jovial – Looking upwards / rapid blink > receptive serious but working details• Shoulders – Raising 1 eye brow > disbelief – Slouched / bent down > weak – Raising 2 eye brow > surprise – Winking one eye > flirtation• Hands over eyes > ashamed – Winking with nod and smile >• Slapping forehead > forgotten agreement• Fingers together in front > • Drumming fingers > confidence • Foot signals• Position changes
  45. 45. Interview process Guidelines• Phases • Interviewer – Warming | Main | Wrap up – Plan for | Put interviewee at ease | Make purpose clear |• Types several Guide | Let talk | Listen | Record – Exchange [info, feelings, exit ] | End – Evaluation [job, performance] • Interviewee – Persuasion [counsel, persuade] – Prepare | Proper appearance | – Control [discipline, conflict show interest | Answer resolution] completely correctly | Courtesy
  46. 46. 20 ways to interview success1. Prepare Qs with purpose 1. Listen ad observe2. Scout motto – prepared 2. Keep eye contact3. Jot down main Qs 3. Don’t fear silences4. Ensure no distraction 4. Have easy right pace5. Ease the interviewee 5. Ask searching questions > be6. Take control calm and fact driven7. Give meeting plan 6. Don’t psychiatrize8. Ask easy simple Qs 7. Avoid irrelevant references9. Speak Clearly 8. Take notes10. Achieve goof rapport 9. Don’t be open ended – TIME 10. End interview with esteem and dignity intact
  47. 47. Meetings & Discussions• 4 Phases • Management todos – Forming – orientation info – Track purpose – Storming – conflict argue – Time Resources – Norming – rules emergence – Motivation cohesion participation – Performing –decision majority • Types• Advantages – Training > orate case simulate – Personal Involvement Share – Panel > expertise listen – Cohesion Coordinate – Sales > experience sharing – Use resources experience – Committee > temp varied – Exposure to PIE – Task > problems issues – Command > communication up down
  48. 48. Negotiations• Prepare • Discussion – Goals – priorities | Limitations – AVOID > interrupting arguing – Gather info > Issues personalities point scoring attacks Blames power facts interests inhibitions being clever Talking Sarcasms – Concessions list – trade offs threats Shouting – Strategy > simple flexible – PRACTICE > Listen | Question | Ask justification | Non Commital – List down tasks | Test commitment | Seek & give info
  49. 49. Negotiations• Signals • Bargain – Avoid concessions of hope | Ask to – DO’s > Firm conditional [state] | decide elaborate | Respond positive | Test cause exchange and list them up front | bring and evaluate stone walling back settled issues | keep unsettled issues linked• Propose – DONTS > separate offer from conditions | – Dos > Strong language like we need to … | No “If I …Will u “ | separate issues be specific | try and gain response | be firm in generals | be flexible in specifics | • Close and Agree Remedy | – Formal | Write | List agreement | list – Don’ts > grievance | inconsistence | weak explanations and interpretations language | complain | interrupting – DON’T’s > not summarizing | not recording• Package | Giving concessions in closing moments | Not ending – List down draggers – concessions inhibition objections | is there room for negotiating concessions | list down conditions
  50. 50. Reporting• Preparation • Introduction [11 elements ] – Define problem purpose – Authorization Problem Purpose – List audience Methodology Sourecs Background • Experience knowledge prejudice Limitation Brief Results Plan of Responsibility Type presentation Scope Definitions – List ideas to include • Text • Hypothesis conditions top headings – WAC – Collect material information • Terminal section • Secondary > magazines news libraries government docs – Summary Conclusions • Primary > files minutes interviews Recommendations surveys – Appendices References – Sort Analyze interpret Results – Organize data – Prepare Outline
  51. 51. Research Paper• Working plan • Documentation Types – Outline – Source Footnotes | Cross reference footnotes |• Prefatory parts Explanatory footnotes – Title | Cover Design | Title page | Letter of authority | Letter of • Supplements transmittal | TOC | Table of – Bibliographies. tables | Abstract Synopsis Exec – Appendices > support info Summary – Glossary > list of special terms – Index > list key words
  52. 52. Management AccountingPurpose Cost ScraperDecisions > Make or Buy Accept or ProfitReject | Resource allocation |Product Mix Other OH Non Mfturing Over heads Sales OHPlanning & Control > Costs |Budgets | Performance evaluation Admin OH Mfting OH Full Cost ManufacturingWhether Direct /Indirect >> Over heads InD Labour Conversion Costsignificance | Effort of tracing |ideally more direct costs ! Manufacturing Cost Ind Material D Labour Prime Cost D Material
  53. 53. Manacc Thoughts• ABC – Thorndyke > > multiple • Costing Methods cost centers – Cost + Models – When to aggregate costing [when • Fixed fee | Fixed + bonus | Ficed + incentive ….. products spend relatively same times • Job Shops | Govt Orders | in each center] • Full costing > Var + Allocation of fixed – Cost center level determines decision assets making model – Market / Value Based – Cost centers should be homogenous • Price - within • Assembly –batch shops |• Joint products & By Products Competition – Open • Marginal Costing > Sales price | Vars – Even materials and labour are | Volumes [imp to cover fixed costs ] indirect costs [do you see chicken in the bone?]
  54. 54. Variance Analysis Total Variance Output Variance Input Variance Sales Side Budget SidePrice Volume Price Qtty Qtty Mix Purchase Qtty mix Mkt Gr Mkt Share
  55. 55. Variance Analysis .. Contd..• Inefficiency of control should not be taken on the department• Earlier the variance recognition the better• Process of control ends with remedials• Variance bw origin and trace of variance can be used as learnings for future
  56. 56. POM II - Diagrams Capacity A1 Generate Alternatives Desired A2 IS it Good Yes Build Model Test Design A3 A4 Gap . Factors in . No capacity Current . planning Design An PHASES IN NPD Variability Inventory tp tu Value` tc HP Return Map , Performance Measures for NPD Q tc Break Even Time Q Time to Market BE post release tuInvestigation Mkt Release Time
  57. 57. POM II - Diagrams 6 Q/P LTL UTL UCL ACT PLAN Strategic planning Tactical PlanningCHECK DO Operations Plan & Control LCL
  58. 58. POM II DiagramsQ*SS Stores Production Normal Inventory CycleS q2 q3 P&G Case study q1 r1 r2 r3 Cross Docking enabled through Inventory Cycle with period CRP Eliminate NVA Review Activities in the material flow to retail Factory Load Warehouse Unload Store Load Transport Retail
  59. 59. POM II 60 2 3 2 3 100 10060 60 100 100 I+1 I+2 70 4 5 4 5 Where merger Takes Place 60 60 60 60 1 1 Retail DC / WH Services Raw Mttl Plant Pune Spares Jamshedpur Telco Lucknow End Users Oils H.Q. Warehouse Offices
  60. 60. POM II Structure Operations Product ProliferationInfrastructure Activities Relations Tasks Game Plan Short – Product lifecycle Service & Delivery Csutomer Uncertainty in demand Feedback Distribution Channels Inventory & Stockouts
  61. 61. Cost Quality Failure Prevention & Achievement Profits # of defects Cost Reduction Revenue Inventory Optimal CAPACITY PLANNING Resource Deployment Scheduling Operations JIT Strategy & Quality Design Policy Quality Flexible Resources AGGR PRODN PLAN Circles KANBAN Workers Respect MASTER PRODN for Man Lead Time Standard Ops SCHEDULE Single piece Procedures JIDOKA Flow BOM MRP Parts Master Multi- Visual Control Small Layout function Lots Inventory Morale workers Improvement in small quantums Gemba Kaizen
  62. 62. Finance Corporate Low incomes where Dividend High rateTaxes dividend is not taxed Personal Capital Gains Low Rate high income class
  63. 63. C TA TA Macro EconomicsG S YI YD CNX TR
  64. 64. Sales Competition Consumer Environment Channel Supply Market Company Opportunity Segment Analysis Position Salesmanship Presales Preparation Introduction Canned Handling Presentation Prospecting DATA Approach Objections Potential Place routine Customer Presentation Time Information Queries Mode of Meeting Market Descr Explore Causal New Existing Management In-depth a a Division – new New Marketing Product Entry BU Product Research Surveys a a Problems Existing Market Market Entry Info Needs PenetrationExperiments a Sources
  65. 65. Buyer characteristics Buyer behavior Mkt share – presence w.r.t largest competitor 10X 1X 1/10X Buyer decisionarket Stimuli Other Stimuli 20% process Shooting stars ?? Market Mkt GRowth Decision New Existing 10% New Diversification Prod dev Cash cows Dogs Product 0% Existing Market Mkt Dev Penetration Involvement High Low Complex Variety High Car, seeking Differentiation Repeat Client Electronics Soap First Time Advocate Suspect Dissonance reducing Habitual Low Prospect Carpet, Salt, rice Inactive or Partner lampshade Ex-customer Disqualified
  66. 66. Business strategy OT ANALYSIS Opportunity Hi Lo Lo Ideal BIz Mature BizThreat Speculative Biz Troubled Biz Hi

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