2009

   Services Operations Management
   Strategies and Service Design for a “real” Nature Resort
   – “Green Valley Nat...
Services Operations Management

Table of Contents
Acknowledgement ...........................................................
Services Operations Management



Acknowledgement

We acknowledge with gratitude, the guidance and support provided by Pro...
Services Operations Management

Chapter 1: Introduction

Executive Summary
India‟s services sector is growing at a fast pa...
Services Operations Management

   g) Convenient location: Nearest railway station: Aluva about 142 km; Nearest airport:
 ...
Services Operations Management


               Broad
                                Cost                    Differentia ...
Services Operations Management

    both sides of the water stream. Hence, it will result in exclusive access to some port...
Services Operations Management

    o Update to friends and relatives: Provide facility for the tourists (through the reso...
Services Operations Management

    inculcate and augment the inner peace. Once a guest goes through the experience, he/sh...
Services Operations Management

    Even the movement of people up and down the tree houses will be through a manually
   ...
Services Operations Management

Chapter 3: Service Quality
In this case, the service experience lasts for 3 to 4 days. If ...
Services Operations Management

Bivalent Satisfiers: Absence of this cause dissatisfaction and presence cause satisfaction...
Services Operations Management

   5. Recorded conversations with prospective customers. Prospective customers will
      ...
Services Operations Management

       tour etc. in the package and hence increase occupancy without reducing the prices.
...
Services Operations Management

Chapter 5: Service Positioning and Design

Degree of labour intensity, customization and j...
Services Operations Management

The other positioning diagrams comparing GVNP with its competitors on different aspects is...
Services Operations Management

Service Blue Printing
The various activities involved in the entire experience of a touris...
Services Operations Management

As we can see that there will be high focus on keeping activities above the line of intera...
Services Operations Management

References
1. Information on tree top houses: http://www.aadityatours.com/TreeTopHouses.ht...
Services Operations Management

Exhibits

Exhibit-01 : Location of Marayoor in Idukki district & Kerala state




        ...
Services Operations Management

Exhibit-02 : Tree-top stays in Kerala

Green Magic Nature Resort
Thalipuzha, Vythiri, Waya...
Services Operations Management

                                                                Serenity Cottages/        ...
Services Operations Management

Validity : 1st Sept 09- 20th Dec 09 and 1st Jan 2010 till 15th June 2010

                ...
Services Operations Management

Bonfire in the evening (subject to climatic conditions)

ADAM and EVE MASSAGE at VYTHIRI S...
Services Operations Management

Exhibit-03 : Existing hotels and resorts in Marayoor




                                 ...
Services Operations Management




                                 Page 26
Services Operations Management




                                 Page 27
Services Operations Management

Exhibit-04 : Existing tourist destinations (hill stations) as
suggested by Kerala tourism
...
Services Operations Management

Exhibit-05 : Foreign vs Domestic tourists arrivals in Kerala (1987 –
2007)

              ...
Services Operations Management

Exhibit-06 : The expectation and satisfaction levels of foreign
tourists in India




Exhi...
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Service Operations - Strategies and Service Design for a “real” Nature Resort – “Green Valley Nature Park”

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Service Operations - Strategies and Service Design for a “real” Nature Resort – “Green Valley Nature Park”

  1. 1. 2009 Services Operations Management Strategies and Service Design for a “real” Nature Resort – “Green Valley Nature Park” Submitted By: Gopalakrishnan D - 0910021 Unus Ebrahim - 0910069 Vishal Sharma - 0910072 EPGP – Term 6
  2. 2. Services Operations Management Table of Contents Acknowledgement ................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4 Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... 4 Objective .......................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 2: Service Strategy .................................................................................................. 4 Location Choice ............................................................................................................... 4 Strategic Positioning ........................................................................................................ 5 Generic Strategy............................................................................................................... 5 Target Segment and Unique Strategy .............................................................................. 6 Order Qualifiers ............................................................................................................... 8 Order Winners .................................................................................................................. 8 Cost implications of the strategy...................................................................................... 9 Sustainability of strategy................................................................................................ 10 Service Opportunity Matrix ........................................................................................... 10 Chapter 3: Service Quality ................................................................................................... 11 Satisfiers and Delighters ................................................................................................ 11 5 Gaps Model ................................................................................................................. 12 Integrated Customer Communication ............................................................................ 13 Chapter 4: Service Pricing and Demand & Capacity Mgmt. .......................................... 13 Pricing ............................................................................................................................ 13 Demand & Capacity Management ................................................................................. 14 Chapter 5: Service Positioning and Design ...................................................................... 15 Degree of labour intensity, customization and judgment by frontline staff .................. 15 Service Blue Printing ..................................................................................................... 17 Service Mix (7 Ps of Service) ........................................................................................ 18 References ............................................................................................................................. 19 Exhibits.................................................................................................................................... 20 Exhibit-01 : Location of Marayoor in Idukki district & Kerala state ............................ 20 Exhibit-02 : Tree-top stays in Kerala ............................................................................. 21 Exhibit-03 : Existing hotels and resorts in Marayoor .................................................... 25 Exhibit-04 : Existing tourist destinations (hill stations) as suggested by Kerala tourism28 Exhibit-05 : Foreign vs Domestic tourists arrivals in Kerala (1987 – 2007) ................. 29 Exhibit-06 : The expectation and satisfaction levels of foreign tourists in India .......... 30 Exhibit-07 : Various tourist spots in Marayoor ............................................................. 30 Page 2
  3. 3. Services Operations Management Acknowledgement We acknowledge with gratitude, the guidance and support provided by Prof. B Mahadevan in preparing this project report. Page 3
  4. 4. Services Operations Management Chapter 1: Introduction Executive Summary India‟s services sector is growing at a fast pace, both in GDP share as well as absolute terms. With 60% share in India‟s GDP, the share of service sector in Indian economy takes it closer to the fundamentals of a developed economy. India‟s tourism industry contributes 6% of GDP and provides jobs to more than 40 million people (higher than the much hyped IT). Professional planning, strategizing and management of the various firms operating in the tourism space is essential to expedite the growth and to remain globally competitive in this industry. In this context, this term paper tries to combine the theories, frameworks and other insights gotten from the services operations management course to come up with the strategy for a hill station resort in Kerala. Objective The concept of tourist resort has gone a long way from the age old „Inns‟ which just provided a place to rest by night and some standard food items for tired travelers. A resort is a place for relaxation and enjoyment. It is a destination for travelers rather than an intermediate stopover for resting. It is important to decide on the target customer segment and design the resort to cater to the needs of the identified segment. At one time, people used to decide on the tourist spot first and then search for hotels/resorts. Nowadays, tourists go to a place just so that they can stay in their favorite resort! As part of this term paper, we will present the unique service positioning and sustainable service strategy for a hill station resort. Further we will elaborate on the service design aspect of the resort. During the course of the paper, we will also briefly touch upon the pricing and quality dimensions of the service proposition. Chapter 2: Service Strategy Location Choice The resort will be located in Marayoor, 1 hour drive from Munnar and 2.5 hour drive from Thekkady, which are 2 famous tourist spots in the region. Marayoor is 3 hour drive from Kochi international airport. The location of the place is shown in Exhibit-01. The exhibit shows the district map and also a bigger map showing the location of the town with respect to the nearest airport and railways station. This location is chosen for the following reasons: a) Located in the state of Kerala which is strongly promoted by the government for tourism b) Strategy match with the promotion campaign of the state i.e. “God‟s own country” c) Close to famous tourist spots, yet away from crowds d) Provides the right environment required for the intended positioning of the resort e) No nature resorts in Marayoor, hence no direct competition i.e. unique positioning f) Advantages of lower cost, lesser crowd and pollution, and availability of land near water stream Page 4
  5. 5. Services Operations Management g) Convenient location: Nearest railway station: Aluva about 142 km; Nearest airport: Cochin International Airport about 110 km h) Long favourable time for tourist visit: Tourist Season: August to March; Best time to visit: Almost throughout the year except September & October i) Absence of serious competition: Presently there are only 4 “real” nature resorts in Kerala and none are in Marayoor. Further details of the resorts are given in Exhibit- 02. The existing hotels and resorts in Marayoor are the conventional ones and that too on the economy side. The details and the rates of the existing hotels and resorts are given in Exhibit-03. The lack of serious competition is also evident from the fact that Marayoor doesn‟t appear on the website of Kerala tourism as a place to stay (among hill stations – Exhibit-04) for tourists even though it is a tourist destination. This can definitely serve as an opportunity for gaining the first mover advantage. In the entire country, this type of “real” nature resort is present only in the state of Kerala and in some states in the north-east. But, Kerala has an advantage by having a balance between accessibility/ development and virginity of nature as compared to the north-east where accessibility is an issue and the rest of the country where development has had a detrimental effect on the virginity and beauty of nature. This poses a convenient and attractive option for tourists looking out for nature resorts. Strategic Positioning The resort will be positioned as a getaway from the hectic professional life – to live 3 to 4 days in the lap of mother nature. The guests could spend their days living in an easy going way, gentle relaxed and care free, avoiding the hurry burry of modern living. They can listen to the heartbeat of tropical rain forests and music of the gurgling streams. The package includes stay in well secured tree houses and cave houses, and bathing/fishing in fresh natural water streams. Food is prepared from vegetables and fruits grown in organic farms. Electronic equipments such as TV, computer and phone and news paper will not be available. With no TV, music system and other electronic devices to contribute to cacophony, the evenings and nights are quiet and in total contrast to the urban chaos. Living with the birds on treetops, this is the closest one can get to nature. Hurricane lamps with kerosene oil and solar energy are used for lighting. The resort will sell the „experience of staying closest to nature‟ without compromising on safety. The name of the resort will be Green Valley Nature Park (GVNP) which enhances the positioning envisaged. Generic Strategy As Kerala is an eco-tourism destination of the country, there are enough numbers of hotels and resorts in different price ranges. Hence, it will be very difficult to compete on the basis of price alone. So, it will be ideal to compete on some unique aspects and differentiate clearly from the others especially the vast majority of conventional hotels and resorts. GVNP will follow a differentiation focus strategy until the brand is established. The customers will be charged a premium to enjoy the preserved virginity of nature. The selected strategy innately helps reduce cost due to locational advantage, however cost reduction is not an immediate priority of the management. Page 5
  6. 6. Services Operations Management Broad Cost Differentia GVNP Leadership tion positio leadership ned Scope here Cost Focus Differentia Narrow (Niche) tion Focus Low Cost High Differentiation Cost / Uniqueness Figure 1 : Generic Strategy of GVNP However, the management will try to acquire land at various suitable locations across South India for further expansion whenever the management is ready. Since the location is a unique resource, competitors cannot replicate the strategy so easily. Target Segment and Unique Strategy The resort‟s target customers are nature loving tourists mainly from the western society, who are looking for spending a few days close to nature. They are not price sensitive, but will not compromise on safety and comfort. The resort also intends to target the domestic corporate customers mainly during off season. The reasons for choosing foreign tourists as “Target Customers” are: 1. They are less sensitive towards price i.e. their price sensitivity of demand is inelastic as compared to the Indian tourists. 2. As these tourists are in an alien country hence they will value safety and comfort more than the Indian tourists. 3. The CAGR of foreign tourists in Kerala is 17% over the last 5 years as compared to 4% for domestic tourists. Moreover, the CAGR has seen an increase over the last 5 years as compared to the period prior to that (Exhibit-05). Hence, this is the right time to enter the market and tap the increasing potential. GVNP’s strategy to cater to the above segment includes the following aspects:  Unique Geographic Position: Location is 3.5 hrs drive from airport. There should be good road connectivity up to a spot which is atleast 4-5 km away from resort. After that there should be mud (kuchha) road connecting main road and the resort which will add to the nature‟s experience and distance it from the urban chaos. This will result in low cost of the land while adding to the experience factor. Nearby town will have a small office of the resort which will act as the interface with the external world. The office will have facility to send messages over satellite phone to the resort.  Unique Secluded & Scenic Location: Should be near a water stream. Facilities for taking bath in the water stream, for fishing etc. It would be ideal if land is taken over in Page 6
  7. 7. Services Operations Management both sides of the water stream. Hence, it will result in exclusive access to some portions of the water stream which is otherwise public property.  Unique Staying Arrangement: There won‟t be any concrete buildings in the resort. Huts will be made from material available from nature like red bricks, bamboos, thatched roof. Both tree-tops and cave houses will be available. Cave houses will primarily be for children and elderly guests who will find it difficult to manage on tree-top houses. This reduces cost and it is aligned with positioning of the resort.  Unique Food Experience: Only vegetarian food will be cooked in the premises. Food cooking and consumption will not be allowed on the tree-top houses or the cave houses. Most of the food will be cooked from vegetables grown in the premises in a natural way without pesticides or chemicals. Food will be cooked in front of the guests (open air kitchen) by using firewood and earthen pots made and available locally. If interested, guests can try cooking their own dish. The guests could catch the fish from the stream and cook for themselves. The guests can also use the wood stoves arranged in the open air.  Unique Nature Experience: o Pottery classes will be given to interested guests. This will be an interesting activity even for children. o Elephant bathing for guests who are interested in enjoying close proximity to the magnanimous gentle creature. o Wild-life watch can be arranged for wildlife outside the periphery of the resort visible from high perched watch towers at strategic locations all around the compound. o Guided nature walk through the forest will be interesting for the guests and enthusiastic bird watchers. o Ayurvedic massage facility will be provided on additional payment basis so that guests can relax in the serene environment. o Trekking will be arranged early morning on fixed nature tracks with proper guide. o Jungle tour on elephant back will be attractive. It will also include continuous explanation by guide in order to familiarize guests with what they experience during the ride. o Plant a tree program: Customer could plant a tree in the stipulated area of the resort. A fee to be paid by the guest for resort to look after the tree. Customers name will be displayed. They could come back after a few years to see how the tree has grown. o Day activities: Tie up with forest department for forest camping, visit to nearby sandalwood forest, visit to tea/coffee plantations, visit to the tribal colony etc. o Ban on Electronic Equipments: No phone, TV, internet, newspaper, air conditioner, electric heaters etc. will be available in the resort. It should preferably be in a place where there is no mobile phone network. Wireless sets will be used by the employees when they are out in any area of the resort. Any important messages could be passed on to the city office through satellite phone (premium to be paid). Side benefit is low electricity charges.  Other Unique Activities: o Library in the resort: A lot of people would like to spend some time with books when they are not busy with other activities. The resort will provide facilities for those who are interested in hobbies such as painting. There will be a gallery where the art work of guests can be displayed. Page 7
  8. 8. Services Operations Management o Update to friends and relatives: Provide facility for the tourists (through the resort staff) for uploading their pictures, videos and a small day diary in the resort web site. Once uploaded, a notification can be sent to all their friends. This will be a sort of promotional activity for the resort. Also staff can capture different interesting moments from guests‟ outdoor activities using digital camera and display the pictures on the wall at the reception area. o Celebrity list for each hut: There shall be a board in front of each hut on which the names of celebrities who stayed in that hut will be displayed. Internationally renowned Indian celebrities or movie stars could be given free trip to the resort so that their photos can appear in the website and names can be displayed in the board. These days a lot of Bollywood movies are shot in hill stations of Kerala. Such opportunities could be used for this. o Cultural programs: There will be a 30 minute gathering on every night (camp fire) where interested people can perform art forms of their countries. The local tribes will also perform their traditional art forms for the guests. Order Qualifiers  Security in the resort campus will be of prime importance. There would be enough security staff and they would be deployed in such a way that they are always visible at pre-decided locations in the resort area which are also known to guests. This is very important for the guests to get the feeling that they are safe there. Security will be available for people using the water stream, tree house/cave house, people going for nature walk etc.  Cleanliness of the rooms, kitchen, premises etc. will be of prime importance. Hence, the areas where humans venture will be maintained properly by having a significant team of housekeeping staff hired locally.  Emergency healthcare facility will be available in the resort. Staff will be trained to handle emergency health care. A doctor will visit the campus on a daily basis. Even a doctor-on-call will be available in case a need arises to handle any on-the-spot emergency.  Basic comfort of the guests will be taken due care. Comfortable beds will be available for sleeping, vehicles will be available for travelling longer distances, other facilities like laundry facility, restaurant etc. will also be provided. Remaining comforts like phone, TV etc. will not be available as it will not be in line with the strategy of offering the “closest to nature” experience to guests.  Ease of access will be ensured. The customer will be in a position to book his stay and get best possible information about the resort through phone as well as through internet. Order Winners  “Closest to nature” experience will be the most important order winner as it will be the differentiating factor compared to the nearby resorts and hotels. This will be delivered through the unique location, staying arrangements, food consumption & cooking, nature experience and other unique activities, and also lack of the usual comforts & luxuries of the chaotic city life. GVNP will provide an environment which is absolutely close to nature devoid of all those electronic gadgets which has become inseparable part of modern lives. By design, this environment will compel the guests to spend more time observing and appreciating the tranquility and intimacy of the pristine nature, which Page 8
  9. 9. Services Operations Management inculcate and augment the inner peace. Once a guest goes through the experience, he/she is sure to recommend the place to his friends.  24-hour in-house Ambulance will be available by keeping a dedicated ambulance van in the resort. This will be required to make the guest reach the nearest hospital in the shortest possible time (after receiving first aid) in the event of any untoward emergency.  Far higher number of activities as compared to the other four nature resorts to indulge the guests in the true nature‟s experience. This will enable to have a clear edge over its competitors.  Stickiness of customer will be ensured through loyalty or membership programmes. This will help in inclining a customer‟s preference towards the resort thus reducing the buyers‟ power.  Pickup and drop facility from the nearest airport or railway station will be provided on chargeable basis to the customer in order to make the entire trip convenient and hassle- free. As per the paper on foreign tourists in India by Prof.Manjula Chaudhary, the areas which matter to foreign tourists are as follows (Exhibit-06): 1. Unsafe from petty crimes 2. Nuisance by beggars 3. Rich cultural heritage 4. Less exploited (close to nature) 5. Country of cheaters As the resort will be in a reasonable inaccessible, secluded, serene location hence the problems of beggars and petty crimes gets eliminated. As the guests will primarily be interacting with the resort‟s employees hence there won‟t be a chance of petty crimes and getting cheated. As far as the important issues of rich cultural heritage and closeness to nature are concerned, this resort will fare much higher than any other hotel and resort in the entire state. Thus we see that the resort in Marayoor takes care of the top 5 important aspects which are critical for the target guests/ foreign customers. All the order winners should be clearly listed on the resort website. Even the order qualifiers must be communicated through pictures/photos though it may not be explicitly mentioned as it will be of high importance to the foreigners for whom it may be very critical when making a holidaying decision. Cost implications of the strategy One of the implications of such a strategy will be lower cost as compared to a similar priced luxurious hotel:  Low cost of land: due to the remote unexplored location. The location town does not have any significant commercial activity hence the real estate prices are significantly lower than comparable hill stations.  Low cost of construction per square feet of area: due to the concept of staying on tree houses or cave houses unlike plush luxurious hotel rooms.  Low cost of manpower: as locals will be employed and trained in order to retain them for a longer time, and the town is not much developed. This will also help in gaining the goodwill of locals by generating employment opportunity for them.  Low cost of power: as even the minimal power available in rooms will be generated through solar energy. Backup generator will be available only for emergency purpose. Page 9
  10. 10. Services Operations Management Even the movement of people up and down the tree houses will be through a manually operated rope and pulley system. Sustainability of strategy The chosen service strategy is sustainable due to the following reasons:  Inimitability & Durability: Location of the resort is unique which is inimitable. The resort will do better if it takes over suitable land in ideal locations in South India. Once GVNP gets established, new resorts can be opened in the land already taken over. Competitors will be at a disadvantage.  Inappropriability: As the tourists will be staying for most of the time inside the resort, hence most of the value generated by the tourism in the town will be captured by the resort itself.  Insubstitutability: The “closest” to nature experience is offered alongwith the order winners which are unique features of the resort. The innovative new features of the resort will enhance the „closest to nature‟ experience for the guests. Moreover, programs like „plant a tree program‟, „guests club‟, „yearly mail program‟, „displaying guests‟ photos on website‟ etc. will keep the guests engaged with the resort and will be an encouragement for revisiting it.  Cost advantage: over its competitors which will enable us to pass on the cost benefits in terms of more and better services to customers at the same price. Thus the entire experience will be more enriching than the other 4 nature resorts.  Competitive superiority: We are positioning the resort as a get away from hectic modern life, a place to immerse in the nature, which is a destination in itself. It is not positioned as a lodging facility for visitors who visit the nearby tourist spot. In fact, it is the other way round - people who come and stay in GVNP may also visit the nearby tourist spots, but this will be the main purpose of their visit. The experience offered will be unmatched. Service Opportunity Matrix Following table is indicative of the different business development opportunities which are available for GVNP. Temporal Expansion Spatial Expansion - Arrange entire tour package right - Arrange package tours for foreigners from air travel till road travel to the to other places also in India resort and back to their home country - Impart soft skill training for - Facilitate in sharing the experience corporates during lean months to through websites, photo albums increase occupancy - Can also provide travel insurance Temporal Reconfiguration Spatial Reconfiguration - This will be more relevant after the - This will be more relevant after the resort is established resort is established Page 10
  11. 11. Services Operations Management Chapter 3: Service Quality In this case, the service experience lasts for 3 to 4 days. If there are any inconveniences for the customer, the staff can resolve them immediately. This reduces the problem of simultaneity to a certain extent. Through well defined, standardized processes and rules as well as well-trained staff, the problem of heterogeneity can be overcome. Materialization of the service: This is an important aspect in influencing the customer perception of the service provided. Special care should be taken to ensure the services provided are „visible‟ to the customer (wherever applicable). Some examples are given below:  Materializing cleanliness: Once the toilets are cleaned, use a paper tape to tie around the closet. The housekeeping staff must be given separate uniform and must have proper kit & caution signs so that it gives confidence to customers who see them.  Materializing nature experience: If the guests are willing, resort staff can video tape the various outdoor activities and photographs of guests. The photos can be copied to a CD and handed over to customer at the time of check out. When they are completing the checkout formalities, the TVs kept at the reception can be used for playing those videos in front of the guests. The feedback form will be handed over to the guests after the videos/photo albums have been played. Facilities like watch towers will give an opportunity for the guests to verify for themselves how close are they to the nature and wild life.  Materializing security: Detailed information on the number and positioning of the security personnel can be printed in a brochure (present it as a familiarization guide) and handed over to guests at the time of check in. The brochure can also include a map of the campus along with location of all the facilities / services etc. Include phone numbers and location of service personnel quarters etc.  Materializing orderliness: There will be a half an hour induction program for the incoming guests wherein the staff will explain the services, facilities available, rules and regulations, safety measures to be taken etc. It will include a campus walk through etc. There should be sign boards everywhere in the campus. Display photos/ names of all the staff in the check in area / in front of the office. Satisfiers and Delighters Monovalent Dissatisfiers: Absence of these aspects causes dissatisfaction. Hence the resort management needs to be very careful in ensuring these things are taken care of.  Security in campus as well as during various activities such as trekking, bathing in water stream, jungle tour etc.  Clean water, premises, bathrooms will be ensured by having dedicated housekeeping teams.  Basic facilities like laundry facility, restaurant etc.  Courteous staff through proper training.  Availability of power throughout the day through solar energy and backup generators for emergency use.  Good quality food ensured through naturally grown food and spices and cooked in traditional way.  Sign boards within the campus as well as outside campus. Sign boards should be placed every 500 meters starting from the main highway. Page 11
  12. 12. Services Operations Management Bivalent Satisfiers: Absence of this cause dissatisfaction and presence cause satisfaction.  Immediate medical help if the need arises i.e. doctor-on-call.  The employees who are hired locally must be trained in English so that they can communicate properly with the foreign tourists.  Respect the guests, respect their privacy etc.  Half an hour induction at the beginning of the stay, which gives more details on available services, location of different facilities etc.  Engage with the guest to understand if they have any special needs on any day etc. Monovalent Satisfiers: Absence of these aspects does not cause dissatisfaction. Hence these will serve as delighters.  Permanently positioned ambulance with basic emergency care facility to transport any guest in the event of an emergency.  Welcoming all guests with a grand traditional Indian local tribal ceremony.  Gifts (mementoes – exclusively available in the locality etc.) can be given at the time of leaving. Name of the resort will be printed on the gift and/or cover.  A photograph (group photo or photo from one of the day activities) can be presented to the guest at the time of checkout.  One staff can be attached to each „guest group‟ (say a family) for any immediate needs or enquiry etc.  Staff will try to understand the customer preference regarding food, other special needs etc. on the 1st day and try to provide the same on other days without getting reminded.  Staff will provide special attention for kids and elderly.  Prize(s)/gift(s) can be sent to people who had given practical suggestions for improvement.  Arrange/ sponsor celebration for guests if their birthday, anniversary etc. coincides with their stay at the resort.  Ayurvedic massage facility on payment basis to experience Kerala‟s specialty in nature‟s lap 5 Gaps Model Gap 5 – Most important one. It is the gap between expected service and perceived service by the customer. Closing gap 5 has 2 parts: 1. Setting the right expectations with the customer through integrated customer communication, before their visit. The customer communication plan explained under section „Integrated customer communication‟ explains how this can be done. Customer communication plan mentioned in this section is also intended to close the Gap 4 which the gap between service delivery and external communication. 2. Second part is materialization of the service which will improve the customers perception of the service received during their visit. Since Gap 5 is a function of Gaps 1, 2, 3 and 4, efforts will be taken to close other gaps individually as well. Gap 1 – This is the gap between the management‟s perception of customer expectations and the actual customer expectations. The data required to close this gap will be collected through 2 means mainly: 3. Regular feedback through informal methods will be captured by the manager while interacting with customers during their stay. 4. The feedback will be gathered from the customers during checkout checkout. Page 12
  13. 13. Services Operations Management 5. Recorded conversations with prospective customers. Prospective customers will definitely ask about the things which they expect from such a resort. That will be a good input. Gap 2 and 3 – Gap 2 and 3 need to be closed by way of excellence in implementation of the processes. Two means which can be employed to close these 2 gaps are listed below: 1. External trained professionals‟ service can be sought to observe the operation of the resort and make recommendations as to how it is performing with respect to gap 2 & 3. 2. Careful selection of the staff and periodic training for them will help excellence in execution. Integrated Customer Communication Well developed professional looking website will provide the tariff details, facilities, photos of resort, photos of guests who stayed there in the past, their feedback etc. A video on the resort facilities, customer activities and customers‟ feedback can be prepared and uploaded in the website. Once the customer books the resort, he/she will be given access to other exclusive sites in the web page which give details and videos about the activities and daily routine in the resort. It will also include the weather forecast, menu for the week, explanation of each item in the menu etc. This will set the right expectations with the customers. After going through this, if the customer wants to cancel the reservation in 24 hours, 90% refund can be made. Chapter 4: Service Pricing and Demand & Capacity Mgmt. Pricing The prices of the competitors in the “real” nature resort business are as shown in Exhibit-02. The daily rates for a double room are as follows: 1. Green Magic Nature Resort, Wayanad - Rs 9,500 2. Carmelia Havens Resort, Vandanmedu - Rs 4,000 3. Jungle Park Resort and Tree Houses, Wayanad - Rs.6,500 4. B-Six Holiday Resort - Tree House, Munnar - Rs.2,000 In order to compete effectively in the initial phase, the resort will be priced at Rs.9,000 for a double-bed room per night. As for foreigners, price will also be a cue for quality, hence premium pricing is essential. The same will also hold true for premium domestic customers and top corporates. A set of auxiliary services provides room for both differential pricing and bundling of services. Pricing will be done based on the following:  Differential targeting: Special discounted rates will be not be promoted during the off-season period to improve the capacity utilization. Rather during the off-peak season for foreign tourists (Apr-Jul), the Indian tourists will be targeted as then it will be peak summer season and holidaying season in India and hence Indian tourists will be looking out for such escapades. This will help in managing demand and promoting off-peak consumption.  Bundling of services: Different set of auxiliary services in different package priced differently. Customer gets choice. Package will be made for 2 nights-3 days and 3 nights-4 days in order to bundle the different services like massage, trekking, jungle Page 13
  14. 14. Services Operations Management tour etc. in the package and hence increase occupancy without reducing the prices. The package will include visit to various tourist spots in Marayoor as mentioned in Exhibit-07.  Bundling across time: If guests only want to enjoy the stay then longer stay will be encouraged by ensuring that the price for 4-day trip is lesser than twice that of 2-day price.  Bundling across geography: Tie up with resorts in other nearby tourist spots like Kumarakom, Alappuzha. Customer gets discounted price if they choose more than one resort.  Temporal expansion: In 4-day or 5-day package, visit to nearby tourist spots can be arranged by the resort itself. This helps the resort to generate revenue from the additional stay and other related services. Without this arrangement, tourists might opt to stay in the resort for 2 days before shifting base to another resort in the other tourist spot. Demand & Capacity Management Demand will be managed by:  Segmenting demand: The promotion to tourists will be done during their winter season (September to March) and the promotion during remaining times will be done to the domestic travelers (April to July). The domestic traveler will prefer these months due to school holidays and peak summer season. This will also help in maintaining relatively fixed number of resources like manpower.  Reservation systems: this will be emphasized in order to avoid walk-in customers and have pre-planned demand so that the manpower and facility can be better prepared for receiving customers. Capacity will be managed by:  Increasing customer participation: This will be done by activities such as encouraging customers for cooking food so that it adds to the experience while reducing strain on capacity even in peak times.  Makeshift facility: Tent facility can be provided if a big group comes in for training. Pricing will be adjusted if tent is used. However, „staying in tent‟ will be projected as a part of training and a part of the wholesome experience, rather than an adjustment due to lack of space.  Cross-training of employees: The employees can perform multiple roles like room attendants, trekking guides etc so that their utilization is high. Attaching one employee per family will also require such an arrangement. This will help in creating an adjustable capacity. Page 14
  15. 15. Services Operations Management Chapter 5: Service Positioning and Design Degree of labour intensity, customization and judgment by frontline staff Labour intensity: The resort will be less intensive in labour as the ratio of the manpower involved to the infrastructure will be lower. The bookings will be handled online alongwith telephonic facility. During the stay, for the guests, the experience of ambience will be much more important. Hence, the labour intensity will be between medium to low. Customization: The customization done for the guests will be lower as it will be critical to make them experience a fixed set of activities. Most of the activities in which the guests will be involved will not be something which they come across in the daily urban lives. Hence, it will be necessary that each guest undergoes the special experience. Only the peripheral services like pickup and drop, booking will be customized. Judgment by frontline staff (Interaction): The degree of interaction will have to be higher as the staff will form an important link in ensuring that the guests are exposed to each and every unique aspect of the resort. Only then will the guests be able to appreciate the entire experience and value it much more than staying in a conventional premium hotel or resort. Thus the training and communication of staff will be a crucial aspect for the success of the model. Figure 2: Comparison of GVNP with competitors - Customization vs Interaction High Conventional Luxury Hotels Customization GVNP Nature camps by Kerala Pvt. Nature Low forest deptt. Resorts Hotels & Resorts in Conventional Marayoor Resorts Low High Interaction The positioning diagram has been made comparing customization vs interaction as labour intensity will be low across all the hotels and hence, only this diagram is the most relevant. The above 3 aspects are such because the execution and design has to match the service strategy. Thus eventually it will be a high touch service factory as per the article in Reference-08. Page 15
  16. 16. Services Operations Management The other positioning diagrams comparing GVNP with its competitors on different aspects is given below. Figure 3: Comparison of GVNP with competitors - Price vs Features Conventional Luxury Hotels GVNP High Pvt. Nature Resorts Price Conventional Resorts Nature camps by Kerala Low forest deptt. Hotels & Resorts in Marayoor Low High Features Figure 4: Comparison of GVNP with competitors - Price vs Closeness to Nature Conventional Luxury Hotels GVNP High Pvt. Nature Conventional Resorts Resorts Price Nature camps by Kerala Low forest deptt. Hotels & Resorts in Marayoor Low High Closeness to nature As we can see from the above diagrams that the positioning of the GVNP will be quite unique which will help it differentiate itself clearly from the competitors and especially when it comes to nature, GVNP will clearly stand apart from its competitors. Such positioning will be in line with the laid out service strategy and hence have a coherent goal. This will enable the resort to have a clear competitive advantage which will also be sustainable. Page 16
  17. 17. Services Operations Management Service Blue Printing The various activities involved in the entire experience of a tourist to the resort will comprise mainly of the following 3 broad categories: 1. Booking 2. Pickup from airport 3. Stay at resort 4. Drop to airport 5. Post-holiday period A small portion of the various activities are mapped in the Service Blueprint depicted below. Other activities will also be conceived and mapped on similar lines. Customer calls for Guest is received Guest welcomed at Elephant bathing Guest taken for Other morning booking or books by driver for the resort done by guest in other tourist place activities thru internet pickup & driven presence of visit & then involving guests to resort mahout brought back Guest checked in, briefed for 30 minutes about campus & Customer Guest arrives at allotted the prepares for Guest taken on Some part of the airport chosen stay house checkout after 4-5 early morning trek lunch prepared by days of stay guest like barbeque items Guest settles the Customer goes to bill the restaurant and Guest experiences orders food the tribal dance in the evening & also participates Guest is thanked & dropped back to Guest pays the Other evening the airport restaurant bill activities involving guests Line of interaction Guests taken for campus tour to familiarize them with campus & security measures Guest is sent a Vegetables grown Food prepared in feedback form naturally within visibility of the thru email to the premises customer allow him the time to reflect Customer also experiences cleanliness & hygiene levels of premises Line of visibility Bill prepared by cashier for Customer record settlement checked if he has Bill is prepared by stayed earlier with the cashier the resort Feedback is Booking center or analyzed & shared server allots with departments booking Line of internal interaction Page 17
  18. 18. Services Operations Management As we can see that there will be high focus on keeping activities above the line of interaction in order to make the customer experience enriching. Line of Interaction  Customer calls to enquire about the facilities  Check In and Check Out  Welcoming guests in traditional manner  Ordering for food  Guided tours, trekking, dance with tribals, elephant bathing etc.  Activities such as plant a tree program, fishing, cooking etc.  Self cooking in the open kitchen  Local sight-seeing at tourist spots  Pickup and drop facility from airport  Familiarizing guests thru orientation program on 1st day and campus tour Line of Visibility  Open Kitchen (very important) to convey hygienic food preparation  Security / safety measures adopted within campus  The resort campus itself in terms of cleanliness and natural beauty  Taking feedback after few days thru internet to demonstrate commitment towards customer care Line of Internal Interaction  Booking over telephone or internet depending on availability & customer preference  Ensuring 24 hr power supply/ water supply  Ordering/supplying grocery  Cleaning of house when the guests are out  Bill preparation and processing  Analysis of customer feedback & thanking customer for feedback Service Mix (7 Ps of Service)  Product/Service: Real experience of being “closest” to nature  Price: Premium pricing due to uniqueness and to serve as cue for quality  Place: Made accessible thru internet and telephone only to avoid brand dilution  Promotion: The resort will be promoted as “Experience what Adam would have”. The resort will have a professionally designed website with photos/videos/ feedback. A video with noises/sounds from the forests, the water stream etc. will be uploaded on the website. It will be promoted through Kerala tourism website and also through advertisements in print media (airline & holidaying magazines) and TV only. Cheap modes of advertising will be avoided to prevent brand degradation and reach the target customers.  Process: Divergence will be minimal. The whole service will be through standardized processes so that the problem of heterogeneity is avoided.  People: Careful selection of people and periodic training will be imparted for the customer facing staff. Locals will be preferred to have higher retention which is necessary for building relationships with customers.  Physical Evidence: This aspect is covered earlier under “materialization” section. Page 18
  19. 19. Services Operations Management References 1. Information on tree top houses: http://www.aadityatours.com/TreeTopHouses.htm and http://www.gatewayforindia.com/articles/treetop.htm 2. Information on one of the best genuine nature resorts in Kerala which has tree-tops: http://www.vythiriresort.com/kerala-resorts-packages.htm 3. About Kerala tourism: http://www.keralatourism.org/ 4. Information about Marayoor town: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marayoor, http://www.marayoor.com/ and http://www.marayoortourism.com/pages/3district.htm 5. Statistics of the foreign and domestic tourists in India: http://www.indiastat.com/ tourism/29/stats.aspx 6. Map of Marayoor with respect to other in Kerala: http://maps.google.co.in/maps?q= marayoor%20map&hl=en&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wl 7. India's image as a tourist destination – a perspective of foreign tourists, Manjula Chaudhary, Department of Tourism Management, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (Haryana), India - Tourism Management 21 (2000) 293-297, Elsevier Science Ltd. 8. A 3-Dimensional Model for Strategic Positioning and Benchmarking of Services, Vaikalathur S Mahesh Course Director (Service Management), The School of Business, The University of Buckingham, UK - Service Management: New Perspectives, New Initiatives, Ed.: C. Armistead and R. Teare, Cassell, 1995 Page 19
  20. 20. Services Operations Management Exhibits Exhibit-01 : Location of Marayoor in Idukki district & Kerala state Page 20
  21. 21. Services Operations Management Exhibit-02 : Tree-top stays in Kerala Green Magic Nature Resort Thalipuzha, Vythiri, Wayanad, Kerala Tree House: Rs 9,500 (per double room per day) Carmelia Havens Resort Vandanmedu, Idukki district, Kerala Tree house: Rs 4000/- Apart from the tree houses, this resort has a multi-cuisine restaurant, swimming pool, watch tower, Ayurvedic body massage center, open-air barbeque and facilities for various games. It also has cave houses and attractions like boating, trekking, fishing, visit to tea factory and cardamom curing center. Jungle Park Resort and Tree Houses Vythiri, Wayanad, Kerala Tree house: Rs.6,500 B-Six Holiday Resort - Tree House Near Lechmi Estate, Mankulam Road, Munnar, Kerala. Tree house (Double): Rs.2000 Tree house (Single): Rs.1,600 ENCHANTING VYTHIRI (2 Nights) Serenity Cottages/ Vythiri Vythiri Haven PARTICULARS Habitat/ Planters Retreat (Available from Nov 09) Rate for a couple for 2 nights and 3 days 13000 20000 Package include Welcome drink on arrival All meals: Bed tea/coffee, 2 Breakfast, 2 Lunch & 2 Dinner. Two children below 5 years sharing with parents - complementary. Yoga and Meditation in the morning Guided trekking inside the resort: - to the natural waterfalls, streams, natural pools etc. Relaxation Head Massage for two pax in Vythiri Spa- 15 Minutes each. Bonfire in the evening – Subject to the climatic conditions. Usage of indoor & outdoor games facilities at the resort. All taxes are included in the above rates. Check in 12noon & Check out 11am. Validity: 1st Sept 09- 20th Dec 09 and 1st Jan 2010 till 15th June 2010. ENCHANTING VYTHIRI (3 Nights) Page 21
  22. 22. Services Operations Management Serenity Cottages/ Vythiri Haven PARTICULARS Vythiri Habitat (Available from Nov /Planters Retreat 09) Rate for a couple for 3 nights and 4 days 19500 30000 Package include Welcome drink on arrival All meals: Bed tea/coffee, 3 Breakfast, 3 Lunch &3 Dinner. Two children below 5 years sharing with parents – complementary. Yoga and Meditation in the morning Guided trekking inside the resort: - to the natural waterfalls, streams, natural pools etc. Relaxation Head Neck and Shoulder Massage for a couple in Vythiri Spa- 15 Minutes each (For Serenity Cottages/ Vythiri Habitat/ Planters Retreat guests) Relaxation Full Body Aroma Massage (for a couple in the Spa 1 Hr each (for guests staying in Vythiri Haven) Usage of indoor & outdoor games facilities at the resort. All taxes are included in the above rates. Check in 12noon & Check out 11am. Validity: 1st Sept 09- 20th Dec 09 and 1st Jan 2010 till 15th June 2010. HONEYMOON PACKAGE - SILVER (2 nights and 3 days) Serenity Cottages/ Vythiri Vythiri Haven PARTICULARS Habitat/ (Available from Nov 09) Planters Retreat Rate for a couple for 2 nights and 3 days 16000 23000 Package include Welcome drink on arrival Accommodation for a couple at Vythiri Resort Simple decoration and fruit basket in the room on arrival day. All meals: Bed tea/coffee, 2 Breakfast, 2 Lunch & 2 Dinner . Half Day sightseeing to Pookot Lake and View Point (by Non AC Jeep. Entry and boating charges extra). One session of candle light dinner with chef’s special dish, Honeymoon cake and a glass of Wine Guided trekking inside the resort to the natural waterfalls, streams, natural pools.etc. Bonfire in the evening (subject to climatic conditions) ADAM and EVE MASSAGE at VYTHIRI SPA for a couple (One session only) Complementary usage of Steam Room & plunge pool (15 minutes) on Day 2 at Vythiri Spa There are no additional rates and taxes. Check in 12noon & Check out 11am. Page 22
  23. 23. Services Operations Management Validity : 1st Sept 09- 20th Dec 09 and 1st Jan 2010 till 15th June 2010 TOP HONEYMOON PACKAGE - PLATINUM( 3 nights and 4 days) Serenity Cottages/ Vythiri Haven PARTICULARS Vythiri Habitat/ (Available from Nov Planters Retreat 09) Rate for a couple for 3 nights and 4 days 22500 33000 Package include Welcome drink on arrival. Accommodation for a couple at Vythiri Resort Simple decoration and fruit basket in the room on arrival day. All meals: Bed tea/coffee, 3 Breakfast, 3 Lunch & 3 Dinner Half day sightseeing to Soochippara Waterfalls / Edakkal Caves / Padinjarathara Earth Dam (one location) by Non AC Jeep (Entry charges + Boating charges if any to be paid extra). One session of candle light dinner with chef’s special dish, Honeymoon cake and a glass of Wine Guided trekking inside the resort to the natural waterfalls, streams, natural pools.etc. Bonfire in the evening (subject to climatic conditions) ADAM and EVE MASSAGE at VYTHIRI SPA for a couple (One session only) Complementary usage of Steam Room & plunge pool (15 minutes) on Day 2 at Vythiri Spa. There are no additional rates and taxes. Check in 12noon and Check out 11am. Validity: 1st Sept 09- 20th Dec 09 and 1st Jan 2010 till 15th June 2010 TOP VYTHIRI EXCLUSIVE HONEYMOON PACKAGE - (2 Nights and 3 Days) Serenity Cottages/ Vythiri Habitat/ PARTICULARS Planters Retreat + 1 Night Tree House Rate for a couple for 2 nights and 3 days 21500 Package include Welcome drink on arrival. Accommodation for a couple at Vythiri Resort as mentioned above Simple decoration and fruit basket in the room on arrival day. All meals: Bed tea/coffee, 2 Breakfast, 2 Lunch & 2 Dinner. Half Day sightseeing to Pookot Lake and View Point (by Non AC Jeep. Entry and boating charges extra). One session of candle light dinner with chef’s special dish, Honeymoon cake and a glass of Wine. Guided trekking inside the resort to the natural waterfalls, streams, natural pool etc. Page 23
  24. 24. Services Operations Management Bonfire in the evening (subject to climatic conditions) ADAM and EVE MASSAGE at VYTHIRI SPA for a couple (One session only) Complementary usage of Steam Room & plunge pool (15 minutes) on Day 2 at Vythiri Spa. There are no additional rates and taxes. Check in 12noon & Check out 11am. Validity: 1st Sept 09- 20th Dec 09 and 1st Jan 2010 till 15th June 2010 Page 24
  25. 25. Services Operations Management Exhibit-03 : Existing hotels and resorts in Marayoor Page 25
  26. 26. Services Operations Management Page 26
  27. 27. Services Operations Management Page 27
  28. 28. Services Operations Management Exhibit-04 : Existing tourist destinations (hill stations) as suggested by Kerala tourism Page 28
  29. 29. Services Operations Management Exhibit-05 : Foreign vs Domestic tourists arrivals in Kerala (1987 – 2007) Month-wise Foreign Tourists Arrivals in Kerala (1987 to 2007) Year Jan. Feb. M arch April M ay June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total 1987 7881 5797 4365 3325 1583 1091 1343 31 1 1 4391 5409 6602 6918 51816 1988 7781 5745 3970 2157 1 94 1 857 1734 3244 2132 6542 8072 8655 52083 1% 1989 9696 7713 5905 3257 1798 1401 2683 3849 3200 6320 8209 8921 62952 21% 1990 9139 7625 61 1 1 3719 3232 2502 3244 4476 4286 6384 6814 8607 66139 5% 1991 9341 7287 5904 4243 3124 2532 3729 4338 4906 6220 7701 9984 69309 5% 1992 1 037 1 9472 6975 6097 4911 4873 4304 7062 6829 8582 9948 10545 90635 31% 1993 1 9 081 9667 8199 6696 5229 4814 5760 7627 7189 8326 9443 1 440 1 95209 5% 1994 13544 10941 8232 5847 4341 4875 4383 5030 16598 16346 5662 8769 104568 10% 1995 20313 17942 15938 9019 6183 3894 7331 1 662 1 1 524 1 1 061 1 13431 14674 142972 37% 1996 21859 20294 20149 1 467 1 6758 5490 8019 12751 13767 1 85 21 20422 23694 176855 24% 1997 24773 20354 1 34 91 1 852 1 8751 7643 1 47 01 1 896 1 10003 1 91 1 7 19542 2641 182427 5 3% 1998 27709 23075 19877 16493 1 355 1 5755 5535 10024 12385 12531 19208 25994 189941 4% 1999 31541 25624 20816 14277 10398 8040 10656 14487 1 806 1 13367 19007 22154 202173 6% 2000 24388 23268 17499 13964 12923 8306 8514 17764 18222 17344 22592 25149 209933 4% 2001 31625 30862 21957 17868 10653 6571 7747 1 1 361 12391 1 91 1 3 1 0 931 24322 208830 -1% 2002 29440 29105 19246 18028 10794 6610 8581 14226 17808 20744 26190 31792 232564 11% 2003 41845 36163 25261 20106 12675 10820 14824 19240 20253 24702 32165 36567 294621 27% 2004 45630 43418 35006 23546 14870 12734 17228 27341 21 03 1 22160 381 8 1 44392 345546 17% 2005 43345 41 4 31 33479 20191 1 9 491 13239 17593 24398 20064 28068 42324 47565 346499 0% 2006 58858 56530 39584 32377 20470 16209 23578 28821 21888 28681 44421 571 7 428534 1 24% 2007 72814 66131 56151 34487 21098 18262 25199 35563 24708 33534 55647 7221 515808 4 20% 17% 11% 12% Source : Department of Tourism, Govt. of Kerala. CAGR for 5 yrs 10 yrs 20 yrs Month-wise Domestic Tourists Arrivals in Kerala (1987 to 2007) Year Jan. Feb. M arch April M ay June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total 1987 61837 52158 53228 41786 37860 35536 36922 37658 31568 40517 40925 40624 510619 1988 54627 48751 51825 40758 44632 44536 45643 43317 46514 47551 53140 60756 58205014% 1989 56948 59252 55777 42410 48560 43322 51 5 71 49890 52931 55294 55899 62250 634248 9% 1990 66255 55930 72108 66794 77815 71600 72862 69754 73794 77264 79320 83029 866525 37% 1991 77962 69944 78039 75666 77336 73706 74121 74214 78500 85620 90974 92909 948991 10% 1992 93010 81487 76611 79973 92422 78701 76787 79617 81809 83000 85265 85458 994140 5% 1993 99472 83201 81297 80422 93458 80001 77469 85268 84524 85561 88176 88387 1027236 3% 1994 1 338 21 104687 1 95 061 102916 104075 106673 96783 86554 99724 105405 85978 106394 1226722 19% 1995 329248 283452 300534 321449 355890 235655 370480 362669 364752 368217 324953 298357 3915656 219% 1996 334179 307909 306910 350525 484802 250424 400327 402125 448715 435763 359192 3221 4403002 31 12% 1997 484975 408933 341863 398367 524497 31 6 451 412655 387696 461 66 1 479543 377800 361390 4953401 13% 1998 354406 312576 308514 330395 347725 296525 287957 367812 441951 421477 429204 583172 4481714 -10% 1999 453729 402718 41 1 456629 991 441644 351733 356893 367486 382841 403944 41 233 1 439526 4888287 9% 2000 454330 382657 369231 453194 486006 356260 361034 373599 386123 435426 476877 478484 5013221 3% 2001 472377 399215 396320 498856 479515 383196 396805 428291 432608 427181 442386 482942 5239692 5% 2002 471608 387550 382452 499217 537429 406500 406622 488050 466928 472056 494481 555363 5568256 6% 2003 51 396 1 4271 6 1 400503 51 3 421 566603 450537 421346 469920 496977 513082 526578 572957 5871228 5% 2004 523145 451420 422727 503583 561503 440469 508893 489182 457398 516386 544746 552730 5972182 2% 2005 499698 432673 428235 500005 562616 445652 467532 483490 485205 519239 552523 569555 5946423 0% 2006 532748 469363 457435 522408 610241 467879 478701 51 1 1 98 517659 543876 556297 60391 6271724 9 5% 2007 588620 501204 485722 557785 639712 502224 478781 525309 529847 555721 618908 659108 6642941 6% 4% 3% 14% Source: Department of Tourism, Govt. of Kerala. CAGR for 5 yrs 10 yrs 20 yrs Page 29
  30. 30. Services Operations Management Exhibit-06 : The expectation and satisfaction levels of foreign tourists in India Exhibit-07 : Various tourist spots in Marayoor Page 30

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