Unit 3 object analysis-classification
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  • 1. Object Analysis classification
  • 2. Classification theory• Process of checking to see if an object belongs to a category or a class
  • 3. Approaches for identifying classes1. Noun phrase approach2. Common class patterns approach3. Use case driven ,sequence/collaboration approach4. Classes, responsibilities and Collaborators (CRC) approach
  • 4. Noun phrase approach• Identify Noun phrases from requirements or use cases• Nouns - classes• Verbs - methods• All plurals singular• Create a List of nouns – Divided into 3 categories • Relevant classes Candidate classes • Fuzzy classes • Irrelevant classes Removed safely
  • 5. cont…• Identifying tentative classes• Guidelines – Look for nouns and noun phrases in the use case – Some classes are implicit and taken from knowledge – Avoid computer implementation classes (defer them to design phase). application domain related classes makes sense – Carefully choose and define class name
  • 6. Guidelines :Selecting classes fromrelevant and fuzzy category• Redundant classes – Avoid – Choose more meaningful name and name used by user• Adjective classes – Adjective can suggest • Different kind of object • Different use of same object • Utterly irrelevant eg: adult member and youth member• Attribute classes – Objects used only as value can be treated as attribute instead of classes• Irrelevant classes – Relevant class have statement of purpose. – Irrelevant classes - have no statement of purpose
  • 7. Initial list of noun classes : in vianet bank• Account • Client • Record• Account balance • Client’s • Savings• Amount account • Savings• Approval process • Currency account• Atm card • Dollar • Step• Atm machine • Envelope • System• Bank • Four digits • Transaction• Bank client • Fund • transaction• Card • Invalid pin history• Cash • Message• Check • Money• Checking • Password• Checking • PIN account • Pin code
  • 8. Removing irrelevant classes• Account • Client • Record• Account balance • Client’s • Savings• Amount account • Savings• Approval process • Currency account• Atm card • Dollar • Step• Atm machine • Envelope • System• Bank • Four digits • Transaction• Bank client • Fund • transaction• Card • Invalid pin history• Cash • Message• Check • Money• Checking • Password• Checking • PIN account • Pin code
  • 9. Removing redundant classe andbuilding common vocabulary• Account • Client • Record• Account balance • Client’s • Savings• Amount account • Savings• Approval process • Currency account• Atm card • Dollar • Step• Atm machine • Envelope • System• Bank • Four digits • Transaction• Bank client • Fund • transaction• Card • Invalid pin history• Cash • Message• Check • Money• Checking • Password• Checking • PIN account • Pin code
  • 10. Reviewing the classes containing adjectives• When class represented by noun behaves differently when adjective is applied to it, then separate class has to be created• In this ex no such classes
  • 11. Reviewing the possible attributes• Noun phrases used only as values should be treated as attributes
  • 12. Reviewing possible attributes• Account • Client • Record• Account balance • Client’s • Savings• Amount account • Savings• Approval process • Currency account• Atm card • Dollar • Step• Atm machine • Envelope • System• Bank • Four digits • Transaction• Bank client • Fund • transaction• Card • Invalid pin history• Cash • Message• Check • Money• Checking • Password• Checking • PIN account • Pin code
  • 13. Reviewing the class purpose• Include classes with – Purpose – Clear definition – Necessary in achieving system goal• Eliminate classes with no purpose• Ex: Candidate class with purpose are – ATM machine class – ATM card class – Bankclient class – Bank class – Account class – Checking account class – Saving account class – Transaction class
  • 14. Common class pattern approach• Based on knowledge base of the common classes ,• proposed by researchers like shlaer and mellor• Patterns for finding class and object – Concept class • Particular idea or understanding – Ex: performance – Event class • Are points in time tat must be recorded • Ex : account, request, order – Organization class • Collection of people, resources, facilities or groups to which the user belongs • Ex : account dept,bank – People class • Represents different roles user plays in interacting with the system. • Ex : bank client – Places class • Physical location that the system must keep inform about • Ex : – Tangible things and devices • Includes physical objects or group of objects • Ex : atmmachine
  • 15. Use case driven approach• Identifying classes and their usage through sequence collaboration modelling
  • 16. • Recommended approach• Problem driven approach – Prob is considered 1st. Not the relationship bw objects (like in data driven approach)• Atleast one senario be prepared for each significantly different use case instance• Use case diag – high level view of the system• Sequence diag – interaction among objects – By walking through the steps, we can determine what objects necessary for those steps to take place
  • 17. client atmmachine Bank client Insert atm card Request pin Enter pin number Verify pin number Bad pin number Bad pin number
  • 18. Classes , Responsibilities, and Collaborators• Classes ,responsibilities, collaborators – Leads to identifying its attributes and methods• CRC index card – 4” * 6” card – Cheap, portable, readily available, familiar – Contains all information Class name Collaborators Responsibiliti es in bullet format
  • 19. CRC process• 3 steps Identify classes responsibility( and identify classes) iterate Assign Identify responsibiliti collaborators es
  • 20. Atm systemAccount Checking accountBalance (sub class)Number Saving accountWithdraw (sub class)Depositgetbalance
  • 21. Guidelines: Naming class• Singular• Use standard vocabulary• Reflect its intrinsic feature• Readable names